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Full text of "The Times documentary history of the war"

DOCUMENTARY HISTORY 
OF THE WAR 



VOL. VI 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY 
OF THE WAR 



VOLUME VI 



OVERSEAS PART 1 





4 



LONDON 
PRINTING HOUSE SQUARE 

1918 



S* 






INTRODUCTION 

TIMES' DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF THE 

WAR is a collection of documents concerning the 
War in all its aspects, so arranged" as to record the events 
of the great struggle in which the Nations are now involved, 
and the circumstances which led up to them. 

It consists of documents issued officially or recognised 
by the various belligerents, such as diplomatic correspond- 
ence, proclamations, ultimatums, military orders, reports, 
despatches, messages from monarchs to their people, etc., 
together with public statements by responsible Ministers and 
Correspondence in the Press of an authoritative character ; 
the whole collated, classified, indexed, and where necessary 
cross-referenced and annotated, 

The documents are left to speak for themselves, except 
where brief unbiased notes are needed to elucidate them. 
These are placed within square brackets, to distinguish them 
from the notes in the originals. 

The Times, with its network of Correspondents in all 
parts of the world, is in a particularly favourable position 
to obtain information, and, having at its service an ex- 
perienced staff, is able to reach sources not generally acces- 
sible to others. 

As the large mass of documents involved in the collection 
has been systematically classified and arranged from the 
commencement of the War, it has been found possible to 
issue to the public simultaneously a representative series 
of volumes. 

OVERSEAS I. a 2 * 



INTRODUCTION 

A survey of the constantly accumulating material would 
appear to indicate that The Times DOCUMENTARY HISTORY 
OF THE WAR will be grouped into at least five main 
divisions : 

I. DIPLOMATIC. 
II. NAVAL. 

III. MILITARY. 

IV. OVERSEAS, comprising documents dealing with events 

in the Dominions and Possessions Overseas and 
in enemy territories not included in the first three 
divisions. 

V. INTERNATIONAL LAW, including documents relating 
to the Laws of War, the Proceedings of Prize 
Courts, etc. 

Each division will appear in its own distinct set of 
volumes. 



PREFACE 

THIS, the first of the volumes in the Overseas Division of 
' THE TIMES ' DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF THE WAR, contains 
documents which, with the exception of two included in the 
Appendix, relate exclusively to the Dominion of Canada. 
Apart from those in the Appendix, these documents cover 
the period between the outbreak of the Great War and the 
departure of the First Canadian Contingent for England. 

The material is arranged as follows. First, the Corre- 
spondence between the Home and Canadian Governments 
during August and September 1914, and the cablegrams which 
passed between Sir Robert Borden and Mr. (now Sir G. H.) 
Perley, who was acting as Canadian High Commissioner in 
London. Next come Orders in Council and Proclamations 
of the Canadian Government in August and September 1914, 
a selection from the Debates of the Dominion Parliament in 
its Extraordinary Session of August 1914, some of the War 
Statutes enacted, non-Parliamentary Speeches and Messages 
of Canadian statesmen, and other documents showing the 
state of public opinion in the Dominion from the end of 
July to the end of September 1914. In the last section will 
be found material relating to the Canadian Expeditionary 
Force. In addition to documents relating to its composition, 
particulars are given of contracts which had to be made for 
its equipment. This document has been included because it 
is one of the few so far printed which illustrate in a detailed 
way the enormous amount of labour expended in preparations 
for twentieth-century warfare. 

In an Appendix will be found the reports of Sir John 
French and Sir Ian Hamilton on the Canadian Military Forces, 

vii 



PREFACE 

dated respectively July 5, 1910, and July 30, 1913 ; also the 
report of Major-General Sir P. H. N. Lake, dated September 
14, 1910, upon the best method of giving effect to the recom- 
mendations of Sir John French ; the ' Correspondence relating 
to the proposed formation of an Imperial General Staff/ and 
the ' Papers laid before the Imperial Conference, 1911 : Naval 
and Military Defence/ The two last-mentioned documents 
relate not only to Canada but to other of the self-governing 
Dominions. To understand the problems before the Canadian 
Government at the outbreak of War, it is necessary to study 
these important State Papers. It must, however, be re- 
membered that equally or still more important ones, e.g., the 
Memoranda in 1913 of the Oversea Defence Committee, 
referred to by Sir Robert Borden in his speech of the I9th 
of August 1914 (see p. 172), have not yet been published. 






AUTHORITIES QUOTED 



A. . . ' Copies of Proclamations, Orders in Council, and 

Documents relating to the European War, 
compiled by the Department of the Secretary of 
State of Canada ' with Appendices and three 
Supplements. The documents in this collection 
are numbered. (Ottawa, Government Printing 
Bureau, 1915-17.) 

B. . . ' Documents relative to the European War, com- 

prising Orders in Council, Cablegrams, Corre- 
spondence, and Speeches delivered in Imperial 
House of Commons/ (Ottawa, J. de L. Tactic", 
Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty, 
1914.) 

C. . . . ' Memoranda respecting Work of the Department of 

Militia and Defence, European War, 1914-15.' 
(Ottawa, Government Printing Bureau, 1915.) 

D. . . ' Correspondence regarding the Naval and Military 

Assistance afforded to His Majesty's Govern- 
ment by His Majesty's Oversea Dominions/ 
. 1914. [Cd. 7607.] 

E. i . . . ' Correspondence relating to Gifts of Foodstuffs and 

other Supplies to His Majesty's Government 
from the Oversea Dominions and Colonies/ 
1914. [Cd. 7608.] 

E. 2 . . . ' Correspondence regarding Gifts from the Oversea 

Dominions and Colonies/ 1914. [Cd. 7646.] 

Canadian Hansard ' Official Report of the Debates of the House of 

Commons of the Dominion of Canada/ and 
' Debates of the Senate of the Dominion of 
Canada/ (Ottawa, Printed by J. de L. Tache*, 
Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.) 



I 



CO-NTENTS 

PAGE 

MEMBERS OF SIR ROBERT BORDEN'S GOVERNMENT . i 
INTRODUCTION : CANADIAN SUPPORT FOR THE EMPIRE 2 
CORRESPONDENCE WITH HIS MAJESTY'S GOVERNMENT . 6 

CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN SIR ROBERT BORDEN AND 
HON. G. H. PERLEY 41 

CANADIAN ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS . 54 

PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT . . . 126 

ACTS OF CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 214 

OTHER SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, AND PUBLIC NOTICES . 230 
DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT . . .282 

COMPOSITION OF THE FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT . 318 

APPENDIX 348 

INDEX . .... 497 



I 



MEMBERS OF THE GOVERNMENT of the RIGHT 
HONOURABLE SIR ROBERT LAIRD BORDEN, G.C.M.G., 
P.C., K.C., LL.D., at the opening of the WAR 

THE CABINET 

FORMED OCTOBER IO, 

President of the Privy Council and 
Acting Secretary of State for Ex- 
ternal Affairs (Prime Minister) 

Minister of Trade and Commerce 

Without Portfolio .... 

Minister of the Interior and Super- 
intendent - General of Indian 
Affairs 

Minister of Public Works 
Minister of Railways and Canals 
Minister of Finance 
Postmaster-General . . . 

Minister of Marine and Fisheries and 
Minister of the Naval Service 

Minister of Justice .... 

Minister of Militia and Defence 

Secretary of State and Minister of 
Mines 

Minister of Labour 
Minister of Inland Revenue 

Minister of Customs 

Without Portfolio .... 

Without Portfolio . 



Minister of Agriculture . 
Solicitor-General . 

OVERSEAS I. 



Rt. Hon. SIR ROBERT LAIRD BORDEN, 
G.C.M.G., P.C., K.C., LL.D. 

Hon. SIR GEORGE EULAS FOSTER, 
K.C.M.G., B.A., D.C.L., LL.D. 

Hon. GEORGE HALSEY PERLEY, B.A. 

Hon. WILLIAM JAMES ROCHE, M.D., 
LL.D. 

Hon. ROBERT ROGERS. 

Hon. FRANCIS COCHRANE. 

Hon. WILLIAM THOMAS WHITE, B.A. 

Hon. Louis PHILIPPE PELLETIER, 
B.A., K.C., LL.D. 

Hon. JOHN DOUGLAS HAZEN, B.A., 
B.C.L., K.C. 

Hon. CHARLES JOSEPH DOHERTY, 
K.C., D.C.L., LL.D. 

Hon. SAM. HUGHES. 

Hon. Louis CODERRE, LL.B., K.C. 

Hon. THOMAS WILSON CROTHERS, 
B.A., K.C. 

Hon. WILFRID BRUNO NANTEL, K.C., 
LL.D. 

Hon. JOHN DOWSLEY REID, M.D. 
Hon. ALBERT EDWARD KEMP. 

Hon. JAMES ALEXANDER LOUGHEED, 
K.C., Senator. 

Hon. MARTIN BURRELL. 



NOT OF THE CABINET 

. Hon. ARTHUR MEIGHEN, B.A., K.C. 

A I 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



INTRODUCTION 

CANADIAN SUPPORT FOR THE EMPIRE 

His Royal Highness, the Duke of Connaught, Governor-General 
of Canada, to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Ottawa, August i, 1914. 

B. My Advisers, while expressing their most earnest hope that 
peaceful solution of existing international difficulties may be 
achieved and their strong desire to co-operate in every possible 
way for that purpose, wish me to convey to His Majesty's 
Government the firm assurance that if unhappily war should 
ensue the Canadian people will be united in a common resolve 
to put forth every effort and to make every sacrifice necessary 
to insure the integrity and maintain the honour of our Empire. 

ARTHUR. 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

B. (Cablegram.) London, August 2, 1914. 

With reference to your telegram ist August, His Majesty's 
Government gratefully welcome the assurance of your Govern- 
ment that in the present crisis they may rely on whole-hearted 
co-operation of the people of Canada. 

HARCOURT. 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

B. (Cablegram.) London, August 4, 1914. 

Please communicate to your Ministers following message 
from His Majesty the King, and publish : 

' I desire to express to my people of the Overseas Dominions 
with what appreciation and pride I have received the messages 
from their respective Governments during the last few days. 
These spontaneous assurances of their fullest support recalled 



CANADIAN SUPPORT FOR THE EMPIRE 

to me the generous self-sacrificing help given by them in the 
past to the Mother Country. I shall be strengthened in the 
discharge of the great responsibilities which rest upon me by 
the confident belief that in this time of trial my Empire will 
stand united, calm, resolute, trusting in God. GEORGE R.I.' 

HARCOURT. 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Ottawa, August 4, 1914. 

Following for the King : 

' In the name of the Dominion of Canada I humbly thank B - 
Your Majesty for your gracious message of approval. Canada 
stands united from the Pacific to the Atlantic in her deter- 
mination to uphold the honour and tradition of our Empire/ 

ARTHUR. 

THE OVERSEAS FORCES 

LORD ROBERTS COLONEL-IN-CHIEF 

The King has been graciously pleased to approve the Times, 
appointment of Field-Marshal the Right Hon. Earl Roberts, Aug.i 4 ,'i 4 . 
V.C., K.G., K.P., G.C.V.O., O.M., G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E., to be 
Colonel-in-Chief of such forces from the Oversea Dominions 
and India as may come to this country. 

THE KING'S MESSAGE TO THE DOMINIONS 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, September 8, 1914. 

The King has been graciously pleased to send the follow- A. No. 55. 
ing message to the Governments and Peoples of his self- 
governing Dominions : 

' To the Governments and Peoples of my Self -Governing 

Dominions 

' During the past few weeks the Peoples of my whole Empire 
at home and overseas have moved with one mind and purpose 

3 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

to confront and overthrow an unparalleled assault upon the 
continuity of civilisation and the peace of mankind. The 
calamitous conflict is not of my seeking. My voice has been 
cast throughout on the side of peace. My Ministers earnestly 
strove to allay the causes of strife and to appease differences 
with which my Empire was not concerned. Had I stood 
aside when in defiance of pledges to which my Kingdom was 
a party, when the soil of Belgium was violated and her cities 
laid desolate, when the very life of the French Nation was 
threatened with extinction, I should have sacrificed my 
honour and given to destruction the liberties of my Empire 
and of mankind. I rejoice that every part of the Empire is 
with me in this decision. 

' Paramount regard for treaty faith and the pledged word 
of rulers and peoples is the common heritage of Great Britain 
and of the Empire. 

' My Peoples in the Self-Governing Dominions have shown 
beyond all doubt that they whole-heartedly endorse the grave 
decision which it was necessary to take. 

'My personal knowledge of the loyalty and devotion of 
my overseas Dominions has led me to expect that they would 
cheerfully make the great efforts and bear the great sacrifices 
which the present conflict entails. The full measure in which 
they have placed their services and resources at my disposal 
fills me with gratitude, and I am proud to be able to show 
to the world that my peoples overseas are as determined as 
the people of the United Kingdom to prosecute a just cause 
to a successful end. 

' The Dominion of Canada, the Commonwealth of Australia, 
and the Dominion of New Zealand have placed at my dis- 
posal their naval forces, which have already rendered good 
service for the Empire. Strong expeditionary forces are 
being prepared in Canada, in Australia, and in New Zealand 
for service at the front, and the Union of South Africa has 
released all British troops, and has undertaken important 
military responsibilities, the discharge of which will be of 
the utmost value to the Empire. Newfoundland has doubled 
the numbers of its branch of the Royal Naval Reserve and 
is sending a body of men to take part in the operations at 
the front. From the Dominion and Provincial Governments 
of Canada large and welcome gifts of supplies are on their 
4 



CANADIAN SUPPORT FOR THE EMPIRE 

way for the use of both of my naval and military forces and 
for the relief of the distress in the United Kingdom, which 
must inevitably follow in the wake of war. All parts of my 
overseas Dominions have thus demonstrated in the most 
unmistakable manner the fundamental unity of the Empire 
amidst all its diversity of situation and circumstance. 
GEORGE R.I. 1 

HARCOURT. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH HIS MAJESTY'S 
GOVERNMENT 

NAVAL AND MILITARY ASSISTANCE OF CANADA 1 

No. i 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Ottawa, August i, 1914. 

In view of the impending danger of war involving the 
Empire, my advisers are anxiously considering the most effec- 
tive means of rendering every possible aid, and they will 
welcome any suggestions and advice which Imperial Naval 
and Military authorities may deem it expedient to offer. 
They are confident that a considerable force would be avail- 
able for service abroad. A question has been mooted respect- 
ing the status of any Canadian force serving abroad, as under 
section sixty-nine of Canadian Militia Act the active Militia 
can only be placed on active service beyond Canada for the 
defence thereof. It has been suggested that regiments might 
enlist as Imperial troops for stated period, Canadian Govern- 
ment undertaking to make all necessary financial provision 
for their equipment, pay, and maintenance. This proposal 
has not yet been maturely considered here, and my advisers 
would be glad to have views of Imperial Government thereon. 

ARTHUR. 

[This cablegram was received by the Colonial Office at 9 
A.M., August 2.] 

1 [Wherever possible, the Canadian version of those of the cypher 
cablegrams below sent from Ottawa, and the British version of those 
sent from London, have been adopted. For convenience of reference, the 
cablegrams have been numbered.] 
6 






CORRESPONDENCE WITH H.M. GOVERNMENT 

No. 2 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 7.35 P.M., August 3, 1914. 

In reply to your telegram received 2nd August, 1 please D. 
inform your Ministers that His Majesty's Government deeply 
appreciate their patriotic readiness to render every possible 
aid, but would prefer to postpone offering detailed observa- 
tions on suggestion put forward in your telegram pending 
further developments. I will telegraph to you again as soon 
as situation appears to call for further measures. 

HARCOURT. 

No/3 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 1.45 P.M., August 4, 1914. 

I think your Ministers would be wise, in view of their D. 
generous offer, although there seems to be no immediate 
necessity for any request on our part for an expeditionary 
force from Canada, to take all legislative and other steps by 
which they would be enabled without delay, in case it should 
hereafter be required, to provide such a force. 

HARCOURT. 

No. 4 

The Governor -General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 11.30 P.M., August 5, 1914. 

Government of Canada have by Order in Council, 2 4th D. 
August, placed His Majesty's C.S. Niobe, Rainbow, together 2 [ See 
with officers and men serving in them, at the disposal of His p. 65.] 
Majesty for general service in Royal Navy. 

ARTHUR. 
1 No. i. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [AUG 

No. 5 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) [Answered by No. 16.] 

Ottawa, August 5, 1914. 

My Government being desirous of putting beyond doubt 
status of Canadian Volunteers, request that His Majesty 
may be pleased to issue an order bringing these Volunteers 
under Sections 175 and 176 of the Army Act. 

ARTHUR. 

No. 6 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, August 5, 1914. 

Presume your Government have no objection to Army 
Council approaching Canadian Officers on duty in this country 
with a view to utilising services if occasion arises. 1 

(Sd.) HARCOURT. 



DEPARTMENT OF MILITIA AND DEFENCE, 

Ottawa, August 7, 1914. 

SIR, Adverting to my letter of this day's date acknow- 
ledging receipt of despatch of the 5th instant, enclosing a 
copy of a telegram from the Secretary of State for the Colonies 
respecting Canadian officers at present in England, I have 
the honour to inform you that an inquiry on this subject 
was received from the High Commissioner on the 5th instant, 
and a reply was sent as follows : 

' All Canadian officers and men whose training is 
finished or interrupted should return to Canada at once 
unless services desired by Imperial Government/ 

(Sd.) EUG. FISET, Colonel, 
Deputy-Minister. 

The Under-Secretary of State for External Affairs, 
Ottawa. 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH H.M. GOVERNMENT 



No. 7 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 7.45 P.M., August 6, 1914. 

With reference to my telegram of 4th August, 1 His Majesty's D. 
Government gratefully accept the offer of your Ministers to 
send to this country an expeditionary force, and would be 
glad if it could be despatched as soon as possible. The 
suggested composition of the force will follow. 

HARCOURT. 



No. 8 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 3.30 P.M., August 7, 1914. 

With reference to my telegram of yesterday, 2 the Army D. 
Council consider that suitable composition of expeditionary 
force would be one Division. HARCOURT. 



No. 9 

The Governor -General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 11.30 P.M., August 7, 1914. 

[Answered by No. 17.] 

Following for War Office : 

' Would it be acceptable if one regular cavalry regi- D. 
ment and two regular horse artillery batteries were 
despatched, in addition to suggested division all arms ? 
If so, they could be sent at short notice/ 

ARTHUR. 

1 No. 3. 2 NO. 7. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



No. 10 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 6.30 A.M., August 8, 1914. 

[Answered by No. 17.] 

D. Would His Majesty's Government accept services of 

following Canadian units in addition to full division of 22,000 ? 
Each unit 1000 men. 

One infantry battalion of ex-regulars raised and equipped 
1 [See by Mr. Hamilton Gault, 1 and three units raised and equipped 
P- 93-] by Manitoba, New Brunswick, and Calgary respectively. 

ARTHUR. 

No. ii 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

London, August 8, 1914. 

B. Referring to my telegram 6th August Army Council state 

that a certain proportion of army troops will be required in 
addition to force mentioned. You will be furnished later on 
with suggested numbers. HARCOURT. 



No. 12 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Ottawa, August 8, 1914. 

B. Canadian Government desire to know what action His 

Majesty's Government desire Canadian authorities to take 
regarding Army Reservists in Canada, of which there are 
several thousand in Canada, registered at Imperial Pension 
Office, Ottawa. Are they to be sent home at once ? I 
understand officer paying Imperial Pensioners and Reservists 
here is in position to provide transport for these men and 
funds if necessary. ARTHUR. 

10 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH H.M. GOVERNMENT 



I, 



No. 13 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 



Ottawa, August 8, 1914. 

Canadian Government wish to place the two submarine B. 
boats 1 now at Esquimalt at disposal of the Admiralty for x [See 
general service. Please inform Admiralty. PP- 77-7 8 

ARTHUR. cf - also 
PP- 173> 
295-] 
No. 14 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London* August 9, 1914. 

Following from Admiralty in reply to your telegram of B. 
yesterday's date. Offer of submarine boats gratefully accepted 
by Admiralty. HARCOURT. 

No. 15 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram ) Ottawa, August 9, 1914. 

No order having been received with reference to return B. 
of Army Reservists, would War Office allow them to enlist in 
Canadian Expeditionary Force, which they are very anxious 
to do ? ARTHUR. 

No. 16 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 12.15 P.M., August 9, 1914. 

Your telegram 5th August. 1 His Majesty has been pleased D. 
to order that the troops offered by Canada shall be raised by 

1 No. 5. 

ii 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Your Royal Highness for service as an expeditionary force. 
It is suggested that terms of attestation should be as follows : 

(a) For a term of one year unless the war lasts longer 
than one year, in which case they will be retained 
until the war is over. If employed with hospitals, 
depots of mounted units, and as clerks, etc., they 
may be retained after the termination of hostilities 
until their services can be spared, but such reten- 
tion shall in no case exceed six months. If, 
however, the war is over in less than one year, 
they may be discharged at once. 

(b) To be attached to any arm of the service should 
such be required of them. 

These men should be attested by a magistrate. 

HARCOURT. 



No. 17 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 11.4 A.M., August 10, 1914. 

His Majesty's Government gratefully accept all the addi- 
tional units offered in your telegrams 7th and 8th August. 1 

HARCOURT. 



No. 18 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, August 12, 1914. 

B. Your telegrams 8th August and 9th August. 2 

Army Council would be glad if all Army Reservists could 
be sent home by first opportunity. 

If transport cannot be arranged at once they should 
return with Canadian Expeditionary Force. 

HARCOURT. 

1 Nos. 9 and 10. a Nos. 12 and 15. 

12 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH H.M. GOVERNMENT 

No. 19 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for- the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 10.15 A - M -> August 18, 1914. 

i yth August. Following for War Office : 
The mobilisation of the division is proceeding. As 

regards additional units : 

(a) Regiment of cavalry, two batteries of horse 
artillery, will be sent as soon as possible, but 
Minister of Militia would like, with your approval, 
to retain them for instructional and other purposes 
for a short time. 

(b) Two of the four infantry battalions are now 
absorbed by the Division : two are merged in 
Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, now 
being formed. 

Notification of date on which the contingent will be 
ready to embark will be sent when progress of mobilisation 
makes situation clearer. ARTHUR. 



GIFT FROM WOMEN OF CANADA 1 i [Se e 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 3.30 P.M., August 19, 1914. 

I9th August. Following for Duchess of Connaught : 

' Your telegram received yesterday. Gift of the E. 2. 
women of Canada deeply appreciated, and Admiralty 
would gladly welcome the building, equipping, and main- 
tenance of Naval Hospital with hundred beds to supple- 
ment Haslar Naval Hospital, Portsmouth. Sufficient 
number of hospital ships already available. If suggested 
form gift should take meets with approval, it would be 
convenient to arrange details through Acting High Com- 
missioner, with whom matter has been fully discussed/ 

HARCOURT. 

[Colonial Office Note. A fund had been initiated by the 
women of Canada for the provision of a hospital ship to be 

13 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

offered to the Admiralty. Subsequently it was suggested 
that the gift might take a different form.] 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 2.15 A.M., August 25, 1914. 

E. 2. 24th August. Following for First Lord of the Admiralty 
from Duchess of Connaught : 

' Canadian women exceedingly pleased with your 
suggestion of supplementary naval hospital at Ports- 
mouth. They suggest name, ' Canadian Women's 
Hospital/ Announcement has been made here. Amount 
money will be sent you about ist September/ 

ARTHUR. 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 1.15 A.M., September 24, 1914. 

E. 2. 23rd September. Following from Duchess of Connaught : 
' Am sending you by next mail draft for 57,192, 133. 
3d., from women of Canada, 20,000 to be handed over 
to War Office for hospital purposes, the balance' to 
Admiralty for the Canadian Women's Hospital at Haslar, 
as previously arranged. ARTHUR. 

[Colonial Office Note. The Fund having grown beyond 
the original anticipations of its promoters, it was found that 
a considerable sum would be available for War Office pur- 
poses after provision had been made for the Naval Hospital 
at Haslar.] 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 4.35 P.M., October 7, 1914. 

E. 2. 7th October. Please inform Duchess of Connaught that 
Army Council most gratefully accept generous gift of 20,000 
from women of Canada, and ask that warm expression of 
their thanks may be conveyed to donors. Army Council 
propose to spend whole sum in provision of motor ambulance 
14 



, 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH H.M. GOVERNMENT 



cars, half to be used in France and half in this country, and 
they would arrange that each car should be inscribed, 
' Canadian Women's Motor Ambulance/ It is estimated 
that forty cars can be purchased out of gift. 

HARCOURT. 



GIFTS OF FOOD-STUFFS AND OTHER SUPPLIES 
FROM CANADA 

No. i 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 6.40 A.M., August 7, 1914. 

[Answered by No. 2.] 

I am desired by my Government to inform you that E, i. 
iople of Canada through their Government desire to offer 
me million bags of flour of 98 pounds each as a gift to the 
people of the United Kingdom to be placed at the disposal 
of His Majesty's Government and to be used for such purposes 
as they may deem expedient. This size is most convenient 
for transportation. The first shipment will be sent in about 
ten days and the balance as soon as possible afterwards. 

ARTHUR. 

No. 2 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 12.45 P.M., August 7, 1914. 

Your telegram 6th August. 1 His Majesty's Government E. i. 
accept, on behalf of the people of the United Kingdom, with 
deep gratitude, the splendid and welcome gift of flour from 
Canada, which will be of the greatest use in this country for 
the steadying of prices and the relief of distress. We can 
never forget the promptitude and generosity of this gift and 
the patriotism from which it springs. HARCOURT. 

1 No. i. 

* 15 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

No. 3 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 11.13 p - M -> August 17, 1914. 

[Answered by No. 4.] 

E. i, lyth August. My Government received on nth August 

Alberta, following telegram from Lieutenant-Governor of Alberta : 

' I am requested by my Government to ask you to 
tender to His Majesty's Government on behalf of people 
of Alberta 500,000 bushels of Alberta oats delivered 
free of charges at any elevator on Atlantic seaboard for 
use of His Majesty's forces.' 

Through unfortunate misunderstanding in office Canadian 
Secretary of State, this offer was not immediately forwarded, 
as it was not brought to attention of Prime Minister until 
this morning. ARTHUR. 

No. 4- 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 5.10 P.M., August 18, 1914. 

E. i. Your telegram iyth August. 1 His Majesty's Government 

highly appreciate, and gladly accept, offer of Alberta Govern- 
ment, and they will be glad if expression of their thanks can 
be conveyed at once to Lieutenant-Governor with explana- 
tion of accidental delay in communication of offer. 

HARCOURT. 

No. 5 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 2.45 A.M., August 21, 1914. 

[Answered by Nos. 6, 9, and 15.] 

E. i, 2Oth August. I have to-day received following telegram 

Nova from Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia :- 

Scotia. 

1 No. 3. 
16 




CORRESPONDENCE WITH H.M. GOVERNMENT 

' Government of Nova Scotia will be pleased to con- 
tribute 100,000 tons of Nova Scotia coal for such 
purposes as will best serve the interests of the Empire 
at the present time.' ARTHUR. 

No. 6 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

iblegram.) London, 7.15 P.M., August 21, 1914. 

2ist August. Your telegram 2Oth August. 1 Please E - * 
[press to Government of Nova Scotia the sincere thanks of 
His Majesty's Government for generous offer of 100,000 
tons coal. I will communicate with you later 2 as to purposes 
to which it will be applied. HARCOURT. 

No. 7 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 7.30 P.M., August 24, 1914. 

{Answered by No. 8.] 

24th August. My Ministers have received from Lieu- E. i, 
tenant-Governor of Quebec an offer on the part of Govern- Quebec. 
ment of that Province to place at disposal of His Majesty's 
Government 4,000,000 Ibs. of cheese to be used in such a 
manner as your Government may think best. Government 
of Quebec will be pleased to receive any instructions His 
Majesty's Government may have to offer with regard to ship- 
ment of cheese. ARTHUR. 

No. 8 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 5.15 P.M., August 25, 1914. 

25th August. Your telegram 24th August. 3 His Majesty's E. i. 
Government accept with gratitude generous offer of cheese [See 

No. 17. 
1 No. 5. 2 See No. 9. 3 No. 7. 

OVERSEAS I. B I/ 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

made by the Government of Quebec. Please convey expres- 
sion of their thanks to Lieutenant-Governor and inform him 
that information as to the manner in which the gift will be 
utilised and as to shipment will be sent as soon as possible. 

HARCOURT. 

No. 9 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

London, 6.45 P.M., August 25, 1914. 

E. i. 25th August. My telegram 2ist August. 1 President 

[See Local Government Board will receive very gratefully coal 

No. 15.] from Nova Scotia, and will arrange for its distribution to 

relieve distress in winter. I will inform you later as to best 

time and place for delivery. HARCOURT. 

No. 10 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 1.15 A.M., August 26, 1914. 

[Answered by No. n.] 

E. i, 25th August. Government of Canada have received 

Prince following telegram from Premier, Prince Edward Island : 

' People of Prince Edward Island will contribute 
towards war fund 100,000 bushel oats delivered free 
at any port designated by War Office. Additional aid 
to follow/ ARTHUR. 

No. ii 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 4.45 P.M., August 26, 1914. 

E. i. 26th August.- Your telegram 25th August. 2 His Majesty's 

Government accept, with much gratitude, generous offer of 
people of Prince Edward Island, and would be glad if you would 
convey expression of thanks to Premier. Further telegram 
will be sent regarding arrangements for delivery. 

HARCOURT. 

1 No. 6. 2 No I0 

18 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH H.M. GOVERNMENT 



No. 12 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 2.15 A.M., August 27, 1914. 

[Answered by No. 13.] 

Prime Minister, Ontario, has informed my Ministers that E. i, 
his Government is fully prepared to place at disposal of the Ontario. 
Imperial Government 250,000 bags of flour to be used for 
such purposes as they may consider expedient. 

ARTHUR. 



No. 13 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 6.23 P.M., August 27, 1914. 

27th August. Your telegram 26th August. 1 His Majesty's E. i. 
Government gratefully accept offer of Government of Ontario 
and would be glad if expression of their thanks could be con- 
veyed to Prime Minister. Will communicate with you later 
as to arrangements for disposing of flour. 

HARCOURT. 



No. 14 

The Governor -General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 12.45 P.M., August 29, 1914. 

[Answered by No. 16.] 

28th August. Premier, Prince Edward Island, inquires E. i, 
whether, in addition to oats already donated, cheese and hay Prince 
would be suitable gifts ; if so, would desire directions as to 
packages and shipments. ARTHUR. 

1 No. 12. 

19 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

No. 15 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram. London, 1.50 P.M., August 29, 1914. 

E. i. 29th August. My telegram 25th August. 1 It would be 

convenient if coal from Nova Scotia could reach this country 
not earlier than November, when Local Government Board 
would be in position to make suitable arrangements for 
storage and delivery to persons in distress. 

HARCOURT. 

No. 16 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 11.25 A.M., August 30, 1914. 

E. i. 30th August. Your telegram of 28th August. 2 Please 

inform Premier of Prince Edward Island that gifts of cheese 
and hay would be most welcome. Directions as to packages 
and shipment will follow. HARCOURT. 

No. 17 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General. 

(Cablegram.) London, 6.15 P.M., August 31, 1914. 

E. i. 3ist August. My telegram 25th August. 3 Cheese will 

be used for relief of distress. HARCOURT. 



No. 18 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 3.10 A.M., September 2, 1914. 

[Answered by No. 25.] 

E. i, ist September. Government of Saskatchewan have asked 

Saskat- mv Ministers whether gift of horses would be acceptable His 

1 No. 9. * No. 14. 3 No. 8. 

20 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH H.M. GOVERNMENT 

Majesty's Government. They propose offering 1500 horses 
costing approximately 250,000 dollars. 

ARTHUR. 

No. 19 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies. 

(Cablegram.) Received i A.M., September 5, 1914. 

[Answered by No. 24.] 

4th September. Government of New Brunswick offer for E. i, 
distribution by His Majesty's .Government 100,000 bushels New 
of potatoes if acceptable. ARTHUR. Brunswick. 

No. 20 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies. 

(Cablegram.) Received 2.30 A.M., September 6, 1914. 

[Answered by No. 22.] 

Province of Manitoba offers 50,000 bags of flour, 98 bag, E. i, 
as contribution to supplies for carrying on war or such pur- Manitoba . 
poses as may seem most advantageous to His Majesty's 
Government. ARTHUR. 

No. 21 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 2.30 A.M., September 6, 1914. 

[Answered by No. 23.] 

My Prime Minister has received from Prime Minister, E. i, 
British Columbia, following message : British 

' On behalf of the people of the Province the Govern- 
ment request you to offer to His Majesty's Govern- 
ment as a gift to the Mother Country 25,000 cases British 
Columbia canned salmon.' ARTHUR. 

21 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

No. 22 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 12.10 P.M., September 6, 1914. 

E. i. 6th September. Your telegram 5th September. 1 His 
Majesty's Government gratefully accept generous offer of 
flour from Manitoba. Please convey their appreciation to 
Lieutenant-Governor. I will telegraph later as to use to 
be made of flour. HARCOURT. 

No. 23 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 12.10 P.M., September 6, 1914. 

E. i. 6th September. Your telegram 5th September. 2 Please 
convey through your Prime Minister to Premier and people 
of British Columbia sincere thanks of His Majesty's Govern- 
ment for their valuable gift of salmon. I will telegraph later 
as to its disposal. HARCOURT. 

No. 24 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

E. i. (Cablegram.) London, 12.30 P.M., September 7, 1914. 

7th September. Please inform Government of New 
Brunswick that His Majesty's Government highly appre- 
ciate and gratefully accept offer of potatoes. 3 

HARCOURT. 

No. 25 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 4.46 P.M., September 7, 1914. 

E. i. 7th September. Your telegram ist September. 4 Please 
inform Government of Saskatchewan that gift of horses would 
be very welcome and that His Majesty's Government accept 

1 No. 20. 2 No. 21. 3 No. 19. * No, 18. 

22 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH H.M. GOVERNMENT 

this splendid offer. Army Council state that horses will be of 
great assistance to them in mounting cavalry and yeomanry 
regiments. HARCOURT. 

No. 26 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

Cablegram. ) London, 6.10 P.M., September 8, 1914. 

8th September. My telegram 7th September. 1 Please E. i. 
inform Government of New Brunswick that their gift of 
potatoes will be used for relief of distress. 

HARCOURT. 

No. 27 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 11.30 A.M., September 9, 1914. 

9th September. My telegram 6th September. 2 Please E. i. 
inform Government of Manitoba that gift of flour will be used 
for relief of distress. HARCOURT. 

No. 28 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 11.30 A.M., September 9, 1914. 

9th September. My telegram 6th September. 3 Please E. i. 
inform Government of British Columbia that their gift of 
salmon will be used for relief of distress. 

HARCOURT. 

No. 29 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, 4.50 P.M., September 22, 1914. 

22nd September. My telegram 27th August. 4 Please E. 2. 
inform Government of Ontario that their gift of flour will be 
used for relief of distress. HARCOURT. 

1 No. 24. z No. 22. 3 No. 23. 4 No. 13. 

23 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



CORRESPONDENCE RELATING TO OTHER 
MATTERS 

BRITISH MORATORIUM 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, August 3, 1914. 

Moratorium for one month proclaimed here yesterday 
for bills of exchange accepted before August 4th. Tuesday, 
Wednesday and Thursday this week will be bank holidays 
in addition to usual bank holidays to-day, Monday. 

HARCOURT. 



EXPORT OF FOODSTUFFS 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Ottawa, August 4, 1914. 

B. Canadian millers and food exporters find difficulty in 
arranging shipments to Great Britain and inquire whether 
any measures are being taken to secure steady shipments 
of food products and to protect them. Large quantities 
food products available here for immediate export. My 
Advisers would be glad to have any available information. 

ARTHUR. 



The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, August 5, 1914. 

B. With reference to your cypher telegram of yesterday, food 
shipments. As stated in House of Commons yesterday His 
Majesty's Government are inaugurating a scheme of state 
insurance for ships and cargoes based on report of committee, 
copy of which goes to you by mail. Every effort is being 
made to protect shipping. HARCOURT. 

24 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH H.M. GOVERNMENT 

TIME LIMIT FOR GERMAN CONSULS TO LEAVE CANADA 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Ottawa, August 5/1914. 

My Government anxious to know time limit that should be B. 
given German Consuls to leave country. ARTHUR. 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, August 5, 1914. 

With regard to your cypher telegram of to-day's date, all B. 
rerman Consuls should leave forthwith. They may be per- 
dtted to leave consulate clerk or other unofficial representa- 
tive to arrange their personal affairs. HARCOURT. 

SUMMARY OF MR. ASQUITH'S SPEECH IN HOUSE OF COMMONS 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, August 7, 1914. 

Following is summary of speech delivered by Prime B. 
[inister in House of Commons * in proposing vote of one hundred l [See 
lillion pounds for measures for security of country, conduct Diplo- 
>f naval military operations, assisting food supplies, promoting matlc > 
xmtinuance of trade industry and business communication, IjTjf 2 

d expenses arising out of existence of war. After referring 
to strenuous and persistent efforts to secure peace Prime 
inister laid stress on communication made by German 
Chancellor July 29th in which he offered in return for British 
leutrality that Germany would not make territorial acqui- 
sition at expense of France but declined to give this assurance 
regards French possessions ; offered to respect neutrality 
of Holland, but would only promise to respect Belgian integrity 
when war was over. Chancellor observed that English 
leutrality in present crisis might form basis for future under- 
standing. This proposal in effect meant assent behind back 
)f France to annexation by Germany of the whole of French 
ixtra European possessions and bartering away treaty obliga- 
tions with regard to Belgian neutrality. The House had read 
the pathetic appeal of King of Belgium, and when Belgians 
were fighting for their lives what would position of Great 

25 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Britain have been if they had assented to this infamous pro- 
posal, and what return would have been made for betrayal 
of friends and dishonour of obligations ? Nothing but a 
promise given by a Power which at the very moment was 
announcing its intention of violating its treaty and inviting 
us to do the same. If Government had temporised they 
would have covered themselves with dishonour and betrayed 
interests of the country of which they were trustees. Prime 
Minister referred to the offer of British Government if peace 
could be preserved and crisis passed to promote some agree- 
ment to which Germany could be a party by which she could 
be assured that no aggressive or hostile policy would be 
pursued against her or her allies by Britain, France, and 
Russia, jointly or separately. Earnestness and sincerity of 
this offer obvious. In spite of great provocation His Majesty's 
Government had persisted to the very last moment in efforts 
for peace, and war had been fo'rced upon them, but they had 
thought it their duty to go to war because they believed and 
the country believed that the cause was just. Great Britain 
was fighting in the first place to fulfil a solemn international 
obligation which in private life would have been regarded as 
an obligation not only of law but of honour, and, secondly, 
to vindicate the principle that small nationalities were not 
to be crushed in defiance of international good faith by the 
arbitrary will of a strong and overmastering Power. No 
nation ever entered into a great controversy with a clearer 
and stronger conviction that it was fighting not for aggression, 
not for the maintenance of its own selfish interests, but in 
defence of principles the maintenance of which were vital 
to the civilisation of the world. It was essential that all 
the resources of the Empire should be thrown into the scale, 
and for that purpose he asked for a vote of credit for one 
hundred millions, and he announced the decision to add 
500,000 men to the Army. The Government were encouraged 
to do this not only by their sense of necessity but by the 
knowledge that India was prepared to send certainly two 
divisions, and that every one of the self-governing Dominions 
spontaneously and unasked had already tendered to utmost 
limits of their possibilities, both in men and money every help 
they could afford the Empire in a moment of need. 

HARCOURT. 
26 






CORRESPONDENCE WITH H.M. GOVERNMENT 



SUMMARY OF BRITISH WAR RISKS INSURANCE SCHEME 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 



(Cablegram.) London, August 8, 1914. 

The following is summary of war risks insurance scheme : B. 

Firstly. Ships : Government scheme for war risks on [Cf. pp. 
ships is worked through war risk insurance association of 34-6. 37- 8 > 
shipowners, already existing and every effort is being made 4 1 - 2 -] 
to bring as many ships as possible into this association. 
Government scheme only applies re insurance of King's 
enemy risks. The object of scheme is to secure as far as 
practicable the maintenance in time of war of oversea trade. 
The Government is entering into an agreement with approved 
association to reinsure to the extent of eighty per cent, all 
risks assumed by the association as far as they are King's 
enemy risks on the following terms : 

(1) On voyages current at the outbreak of war re- 
insurance will be without premium ; 

(2) On such voyages ship must comply with as far 
as possible the orders of the Government and directions 
of the committee of the association to which it belongs 
as to routes, port of call, and stoppages ; 

(3) On voyages begun after the outbreak of war 
premiums will be charged. This premium, which will not 
be less than one per cent, nor more than five per cent, 
upon voyage, will be fixed by Government. 

(4) On such last mentioned voyages ships must 

(a) comply as far as possible with the orders of 
the Government and directions of committee of the 
association to which it belongs as to the routes, port 
of call, and stoppages ; 

(b) not start on a voyage if ordered by the Govern- 
ment not to do so. 

Associations at present approved are United Kingdom 
Mutual War Risks Association, Limited, 24 Saint Mary Axe, 
E.C. ; London and Liverpool War Risks Insurance Associa- 
tion, Limited, 10 Water Street, Liverpool ; North of England 

27 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Protecting and Indemnity Association, Collingwood Build- 
ings, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Secondly. Cargo : A War Risk Insurance Office has been 
opened in London for insurance of cargoes other than enemies' 
property or goods (export of which is prohibited by pro- 
clamation) shipped for voyages commenced on or after office 
opened for business. Cargo in British ship at the time of 
outbreak of war will be treated at port of call as though that 
port were a port of loading. Only risks which will be covered 
by King's enemy risks. Cargo will be insured only if shipped 
or to be shipped in vessel covered for voyage against King's 
enemy war risks under scheme outlined above for ships. 
Rate of premium will be flat one irrespective of voyage or 
cargo insured. It is capable of variation from time to time 
within maximum of five guineas percentage and minimum of 
one guinea percentage. If sailing is delayed under order of 
Government assured shall have option of cancelling policy 
and receiving back premium paid. Value of cargo for state 
insurance will be values agreed to in maritime insurance 
policies covering same cargo, which policies will be produced 
at War Risks Insurance Office when insurance is finally 
arranged. 

Thirdly. This scheme was framed primarily intended 
for ships continuously registered in United Kingdom, but His 
Majesty's Government have decided that benefits may be 
extended to colonial registered ships which are included in 
one of the above mentioned approved associations. 

HARCOURT. 

EXPORT OF COAL TO NORWAY, SWEDEN, AND DENMARK 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the 

Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Ottawa, August 12, 1914. 

B. Dominion Coal Company has received inquiries by cable 

[For reply from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark for coal. Export to 
see next these countries has been prohibited at request of His Majesty's 
page-] Government. Canadian press announces that Admiralty has 
given permission for shipment of coal from Great Britain to 
Norway and Italy. My Advisers desire to know as soon as 
possible whether permission can be given to export Canadian 
coal to countries mentioned. ARTHUR. 

28 






CORRESPONDENCE WITH H.M. GOVERNMENT 

PRESS BUREAU AND ISSUE OF NEWS TO CANADA 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 



(Cablegram.) London, August 13, 1914. 

Press Bureau has been established which will be respon- B. 
sible for the issue of official war news to the press. I have 
ascertained that press agencies propose to supply Canadian 
press with all news of importance or general interest issued 
by Bureau. Any additional news which concerns your 
Government or is likely to affect their plans will, of course, 
be telegraphed to you by me. HARCOURT. 






THE PRIZE COURT ' PROCEDURE ' ACT, 1914. ORDER IN 
COUNCIL MAKING PRIZE COURT RULES 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 



(Cablegram.) London, August 13, 1914. 

Following Act 4 and 5 George V., Chapter 13, passed by A. Append, 
both Houses of Parliament and assented to by the King B. 'De- 
August 5th. f?om C c e o S l- 

[The text is omitted here. The Prize Court Procedure onial Office 
Act, 1914, and the Prize Court Rules, 1914, will be given in with refer- 
the International Law Division.] en 9 e t 

It is desirable that there should be no delay in bringing Courts/ 
new Rules into force or in making effective as provided by NO. i. ' 
Section 2, subsection 2, of Prize Court Act, 1894, warrants 
constituting as Prize Courts Exchequer Court of Canada at 
Halifax and Victoria and Court at Quebec, Charlottetown 
and St. John, to which reference was made in my predecessor's 
despatch General of December 1899. HARCOURT. 

EXPORT OF COAL TO NORWAY, SWEDEN, AND DENMARK 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General B 

(Cablegram.) London, August 14, 1914. i [See pre- 

Your telegram August 12th. 1 No objection to exportation vious page, 
of coal to Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. HARCOURT. cf. also 

29 P- 97-1 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



CREDIT IN GREAT BRITAIN 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, August 15, 1914. 

B. Owing to vigorous action taken here to deal with financial 
situation, particularly in regard to bills of exchange, condi- 
tions have become much easier and credit has greatly improved. 
Every hope that trade, home and foreign, will rapidly resume 
its normal course. Would be glad if your Ministers would 
make this public. HARCOURT. 



APPLICATION OF HAGUE CONVENTION IN RESPECT TO GERMAN 
VESSELS IN BRITISH PORTS AT OUTBREAK OF THE WAR 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, August 19, 1914. 

A. Append. His Majesty's Government are advised that as regards 

B. No. 2. German merchant vessels in British ports at outbreak of war 
[See Naval, or entering in ignorance of hostilities His Majesty's Govern- 
i, pp. 21-2, ment are bound under articles two, four first paragraph, and 
405-6.] fi ve O f Hague Convention number six of October i8th, 1907, 

but they are not bound under articles three and four second 
paragraph as to which Germany made reserves. His Maj esty's 
Government are advised that there is no contradiction between 
article nine Order in Council August 4th regarding detention 
merchant vessels and the convention as though ships are 
liable to capture and adjudication the adjudication need not 
be followed by condemnation (see prize rules order twenty- 
eight, rule one). This has been explained to Government of 
United States, and should be brought to notice Prize Courts. 
At the same time it might be well to inform Prize Courts that 
at midnight, August 7th, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 
formally notified Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty that 
articles three to eight of Order in Council would not come 
into operation as regards Germany. Further telegram will 
be sent respecting Austrian ships. HARCOURT. 

30 




CORRESPONDENCE WITH H.M. GOVERNMENT 

APPLICATION OF HAGUE CONVENTION IN RESPECT TO 
AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MERCHANT SHIPS 

Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor-General 

(Cablegram.) London, August 21, 1914. 

Prize Courts should be informed that Secretary of State A. Append, 
for Foreign Affairs notified Lords Commissioners of the B. No. 3. 
Admiralty August I5th, that articles three to eight of Order [See Naval, 
in Council of August 4th, which was extended to Austro- i, pp. 
Hungarian merchant vessels by proclamation dated August 8 7~9-] 
1 2th, would come into operation with regard to (?) Austro- 
Hungarian ships. These articles will accordingly (?) come 
into operation in accordance with the provisions of the Order 
in Council and the proclamation of August I2th referred to 
in my telegram of I4th August. HARCOURT. 

ADVISING THAT DECLARATION OF LONDON WITH CERTAIN 
ADDITIONS AND MODIFICATIONS is PUT IN FORCE 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor-General 

(Cablegram.) London, August 22, 1914. 

Following is text of Order in Council August 20th in rela- A. Append, 
tion to Declaration of London. B. No. 4. 

[The text is omitted here. It will be found in Naval, i, 
pp. 92-94. The English text of the Declaration of London, 
together with the General Report of the Drafting Committee, 
will be found in Naval, I, pp. 429-484.] 

INQUIRY REGARDING PRIZE COURTS IN CANADA 
The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor-General 

(Cablegram.) London, August 25, 1914. 

With reference to my telegram of August 13th, 1 Prize Courts, A. Append, 
please telegraph immediately what Prize Courts have been B. No. 5. 
proclaimed and whether new rules enclosed in draft in my i [See 
despatch of 5th December 1913, as altered in accordance with p. 29 ] 
my telegram of I3th August, have been brought into force 
and who has been authorised to act as proper officer of the 
Crown as defined in order one, rule one of new rules. 

HARCOURT. 

31 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

CONFIRMING CABLEGRAM OF AUGUST 19, 1914 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

Downing Street, August 28, 1914. 

A. Append. SIR, With reference to my telegram of the igth instant, 1 

B. No. 6. i have the honour to request Your Royal Highness to inform 

1 [See your Ministers that His Majesty's Government referred to the 
P- 30 Law Officers of the Crown the question of the jurisdiction oi 

Prize Courts over enemy ships which were liable merely tc 
detention under the provisions of the Hague Convention 
No. VI. of 1907. 

2. The advice of the Law Officers of the Crown is that it is 
clear from such cases as Lindo v. Rodney (2 Douglas, 613) thai 
British Prize Courts have been accustomed to exercise juris- 
diction in respect of ships of the enemy found in British ports 
at the outbreak of war, the reason for such jurisdiction being 
that such ships are dealt with under the exercise of the jus 
belli. No change has been made in the jurisdiction of the 
Prize Courts, and all that has been effected by the Hague 
Convention No. VI. of 1907 is that the parties to that Con- 
vention have agreed upon a less rigorous method of treatment 
of such vessels than was formerly in vogue. The jurisdiction 
of the Prize Court is not affected, and the result of the Conven- 
tion is merely to vary the order which the Prize Court will 
make. In the opinion therefore of the Law Officers the 
British Prize Courts have jurisdiction to deal with such 
vessels, and should exercise their jurisdiction by making 
orders for detention in the manner contemplated in Ordei 
XXVIII. of the New British Prize Court rules. I have, etc., 

(Signed) L. HARCOURT. 

PROCEDURE FOR RELEASE OF CARGOES OTHER THAN ENEMY 
CARGOES ON ENEMY SHIPS CAPTURED AS PRIZES 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, August 28, 1914. 

2 [See With reference to my telegram of 25th August 2 following 
previous notice has been issued by registrar Prize Courts Great Britain 

and Ireland. 
32 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH H.M. GOVERNMENT 

Begins : All persons having any interest in cargoes other A. Append, 
than enemy cargoes laden on enemy ships captured as prizes B. No. 7. 
and requiring a release of such cargoes or portion of cargoes [See Naval, 
should make inquiries in London at the office of His Majesty's *> P- l66 -] 
Procurator-General, Treasury Chambers, Whitehall, and at the 
outports of the United Kingdom at the offices of the agents 
for His Majesty's Procurator-General, whose addresses can 
be obtained from the collectors of customs at such outports. 
His Majesty's Procurator-General will require proof of owner- 
ship and particulars as to freight whether paid or unpaid. 

Ends : Notice of course only applies to ships in the ports 
of the United Kingdom. You should arrange issue of similar 
notice substituting for His Majesty's Procurator-General the 
proper officer of the Crown within the jurisdiction of the Prize 
Courts or such other person as local circumstances may make 
convenient, and report by telegram when you have done so. 
In this connection see order thirteen of new Prize Court Rules 
and my telegram of 25th August. It is assumed that arrange- 
ments will be made in suitable cases for the early release under 
order thirteen of British on neutral cargoes. As regards 
advertisement by registrars in pursuance of order two rule 
twenty-one, please telegraph from time to time name of vessel 
in respect of which writs have been issued and served with 
date for appearance in each case. HARCOURT. 



RELEASE OF GOODS CONSIGNED BY BRITISH MERCHANTS 
IN ENEMY SHIPS * 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, August 29, 1914. 

His Majesty's Government are advised that goods con- A. Append, 
signed to British or neutral ports by British merchants in B. No. 8. 
enemy's ships which left ports before outbreak of war may 
be released at the instance of owner under order thirteen of 
new Prize Rules unless such goods are contraband of war shown 
to have enemy destination. Goods consigned to persons in 
enemy country should not be released unless shipped at risk 
of consigner and before outbreak of war. Where shipped at 
risk of consignee goods liable to confiscation as enemy pro- 

OVERSEAS I. C 33 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

perty. In such cases goods should not be released even if it 
is desired to assist British claimant since latter would not 
secure good title property being in consignees. Recommend 
in such cases that goods should be condemned and vested in 
Crown, which could then be released (?) if thought fit to con- 
signers who could appear in proceedings for condemnation 
and urge equitable claims. You should communicate this 
to proper officer of the Crown. HARCOURT. 

DESPATCH COVERING REGULATIONS RESPECTING WAR 

RISKS 
Canada : No. 675. 

The. Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

Downing Street, September 4, 1914. 

A. No. 53. SIR, With reference to my despatch No. 602 of the 6th 
August, I have the honour to transmit to Your Royal High- 
ness, for the information of your Ministers, copies of an 
explanatory memorandum (as revised the 25th August) 
issued by the War Risks Insurance Office regarding Cargo 
Insurances. I have, etc., L. HARCOURT. 

CARGO INSURANCES ONLY 

Explanatory Memorandum^ As revised 2$th August 1914 

* War Risks Insurance Office, 

Cannon Street Hotel, London, E.G. 

i. The only risks which are covered by the Government 
War Risks Insurance office are King's Enemy War Risks, in 
terms of clause 2 in the policy, of which the following is a 
copy : 

' This Insurance is only to cover the risks of Capture, 
Seizure, and Detainment by the King's Enemies and the 
consequences thereof, or any attempt thereat, and all 
consequences of hostilities or warlike operations by or 
against the King's Enemies, whether before or after 
declaration of war.' 

1 [Extract.] 
34 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH H.M. GOVERNMENT 

2. Cargo only is insured. The insurance is undertaken 
subject more particularly to the following conditions : 

(a) That any cargo may be insured which is not 
enemy property, or goods the transport of which is pro- 
hibited by proclamation or otherwise restricted ; 

(b) That the cargo is carried on a British steamer 
which is entered in one of the undermentioned War Risks 
Associations approved by the Government, and that a 
war risks policy has been taken out on the vessel cover- 
ing the voyage in question under the Government Scheme 
for the reinsurance of hulls ; and 

(c) That the voyage is not one which is prohibited by 
the Admiralty. 

3. It rests with the applicant to satisfy himself that the 
conditions mentioned in paragraph 2 are complied with ; the 
warranties in the policy which deal with these and other 
points should be carefully considered, . . . 

5. As a general rule, cargo carried on a vessel which has 
already sailed cannot be insured under the Government 
Scheme, but the War Risks Insurance Office is, notwith- 
standing, authorised to consider applications for the insurance 
of cargo on a vessel which has already sailed or can be 
warranted safe at a port of call or at some point on her voyage. 

The premium is charged at a flat rate irrespective of the 
voyage or of the character of the cargo insured. Any altera- 
tion in the rate will be announced in the Press. . . . 

9. Cargo insured against King's Enemy War Risks under 
the Government Scheme must .also be covered by approved 
marine insurance policies as defined in paragraph 10. These 
marine policies must be produced at the War Risks Insurance 
Office when required, in proof of values, but this will possibly 
not be necessary except in the event of a loss or claim. In 
the case of cargoes insured against marine risks by policies 
issued on or after the 5th August 1914, the insurance will, 
in the absence of any special agreement otherwise, be deemed 
sufficient for the purposes of the Government Scheme, so 
long as not less than 70 per cent, of the value be covered 
under approved marine insurance policies. This rule does 
not apply to policies issued before the outbreak of war, so 
long as such policies shall afford sufficient proof of values. 

35 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

10. Marine insurance policies will be accepted by the 
War Risks Insurance Office as evidence of values under the 
foregoing paragraph, if issued by Members of Lloyd's, British 
Insurance Companies, or other approved Underwriters or 
Insurance Companies, as follows : 

(a) All policies (whether enemy or other) issued previous 
to the outbreak of war, i.e., signed and dated prior 
to and including the 4th August, will be accepted ; 
and 

(b) All policies of recognised British or alien Companies 
or Underwriters (other than enemy) issued on or 
after the outbreak of war will be accepted. This 
does not authorise the acceptance of policies, whether 
British or alien, issued by trading or other firms not 
coming within the general scope of recognised Under- 
writing Associations. 

Applicants for insurance of cargo under the Government 
Scheme, if in doubt as to the admissibility of their marine 
insurance policies under the foregoing rules, should, when 
submitting their proposals for insurance, produce the marine 
policies for consideration, and, in case of need, endorsement, 
if approved. 

13. No interior or land risks are taken by the War Risks 
Insurance Office. . . . 

14. The brokerage to be deducted should be calculated 
at the rate of one shilling per guinea of premium. No dis- 
count is allowed. . . . 

By Order of the Committee, 

DOUGLAS OWEN, 

Chairman. 

CANNON STREET HOTEL, LONDON, E.G., 
2$th August 1914. 

PERSONAL EFFECTS AND WAGES OF OFFICERS AND MEN 
OF CAPTURED SHIPS 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor-General 
(Cablegram.) London, September 5, 1914. 

A. Append. Authority has been given to His Majesty's Procurator- 

B. No. 9. General to hand over to officers and men of any captured ships 

36 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH H.M. GOVERNMENT 

their clothing and personal effects of ordinary kind, reserving 
for special consideration in each case any articles of excep- 
tional kinds or values. General authority has been given 
to pay from any moneys belonging to the ship but not other- 
wise the wages of officers and crews of captured ships up to 
date of seizure in harbour or in case of capture on the high 
seas of arrival in harbour. Where any special circumstances 
arise from conduct of the men or otherwise which might be 
considered to disentitle them to receive their wages the matter 
is to be specially considered. Similar authority should be given 
by you to proper officer of the Crown. HARCOURT. 

PROCEDURE WITH RESPECT TO SHIPS TAKEN ON HIGH SEAS, 
SUCH PRIZES BEING DISTINGUISHED FROM DROITS OF 
ADMIRALTY 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, September 5, 1914. 

With reference to your telegram of 3rd July [sic] His A. Append. 
Majesty's Government are advised that in cases of ships taken B - No. 10. 
on the high seas proceedings before Prize Courts should be 
commenced and conducted by proper officer of the Crown in 
the name of the Crown, and that such ships are prize and not 
to be droits to Admiralty, such droits consisting of captures 
made at sea by non-commissioned vessels and all captures 
made in port other than of vessels coming in upon revolt from 
the enemy or driven in by one of His Majesty's ships of war. 

HARCOURT. 

FURTHER DESPATCH RESPECTING WAR RISKS 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

Downing Street, September 10, 1914. 

SIR, With reference to my despatch No. 675 of the 4th A. No. 57. 
September, 1 I have the honour to request Your Royal High- i [See 
ness to inform your Ministers that the Insurance Rates both p. 34.] 
for cargo and for ships under the Government War Risks 
Insurance Scheme were altered on the ist instant as follows : 
The rate for cargo was reduced from three guineas per 

37 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



A. Append. 

B. No. 12. 

[See 
Naval, i, 

PP- 446, 

448.] 



cent, to two guineas per cent. In the case of ships the rate 
for a voyage was reduced from ij- per cent, to i per cent., the 
rate for a round voyage from 2j per cent, to 2 per cent., and 
the rate for a time policy for three months from 2\ per cent, 
to 2 per cent. In addition, it was decided that a ballast 
voyage not exceeding 800 miles in length may be treated 
as forming part of the following voyage without additional 
premium. I have, etc., L. HARCOURT. 

CONTRABAND DECLARED BY GERMAN AND AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN 
GOVERNMENTS AS IN DECLARATION OF LONDON 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor-General 

Downing Street, September 23, 1914. 

SIR, With reference to my despatch No. 711 of the iyth 
instant I have the honour to request Your Royal Highness to 
inform your Ministers that the Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs has received communications from the United States 
Ambassador informing him that during the present hostilities 
the German and Austro-Hungarian Governments will treat 
as absolute or conditional contraband those objects and 
materials which are enumerated in Articles 22 and 24 of the 
Declaration of London. I have, etc., L. HARCOURT. 



INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF AUSTRALIA 
WITH RESPECT TO GOODS FROM AN ENEMY COUNTRY 
IMPORTED ON CONSIGNMENTS FOR SALE INTO HlS 
MAJESTY'S DOMINIONS IN BRITISH SHIPS 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor-General 
(Cablegram.) London, September 23, 1914. 

A. Append. Governor-General of Australia having asked me whether 

B. No. 13. g 00( i s f rom an enemy country imported in British ships on 

consignment for sale is being seized as enemy property follow- 
ing telegram has been sent in reply. Begins : Goods from enemy 
country imported into His Majesty's Dominions in British 
ships (to?) on consignment for sale are prima facie enemy 
cargo and, unless this prima facie presumption is negatived by 
clear evidence of British, Allied or Neutral ownership, should 
be seized and adjudicated on by the Prize Courts, which will 
decide according to rules of (evidence?) applicable in such 
38 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH H.M. GOVERNMENT 

cases in whom property is vested and whether owner is alien 
enemy in accordance with (principle of?) domicile. If goods 
are condemned as enemy's goods and any British, Allied or 
Neutral interest is involved question of making some grant 
to British, Allied or Neutral subjects concerned can be con- 
sidered afterwards with due regard to equities and general 
circumstances of case. Above remarks apply only to goods 
seized on board ships in which they have been imported. In 
alternative cases of goods having been landed on Australian 
soil no question of prize arises. Goods are private enemy 
property found on territory of a belligerent at outbreak of 
war which according to rule generally accepted adopted by 
His Majesty's Government in the present war is not liable 
to confiscation, though if the goods are of such a nature that 
they may be useful for military purposes they may be requi- 
sitioned provided compensation is paid at end of war. 

HARCOURT. 

REQUESTING INFORMATION WITH RESPECT TO CAPTURED 
AND DETAINED SHIPS 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor-General 

(Cablegram.) London, September 26, 1914. 

With reference to my telegram of August 28th 1 in addition A. Append, 
to telegraphing from time to time particulars as to captured B No - I 4- 
and detained enemy ships and as to issue of writs, please tele- * [See 
graph from time to time corresponding particulars as to ships P- 3 2 -l 
whose cargoes are detained in whole or in part. It would be 
convenient also if you would telegraph briefly from time to 
time results of all Prize Courts proceeding and if you could 
further arrange to send by mail full reports of all such 
proceedings. HARCOURT. 

ADVICE REGARDING PAYMENT OF FREIGHT, ETC., BY BRITISH 
OWNERS DESIRING TO RECOVER CARGO IN ENEMY SHIP 
IN A NEUTRAL PORT 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor-General 

London, September 28, 1914. 

With reference to my telegram of loth September notifi- A. Append, 
cation inserted in the London Gazette of September 25th B No - J 5- 

39 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [s 



recites (?) paragraphs five and eight of trading with enemy 
proclamation and announces that British owners of cargo 
now lying in a neutral port in a ship owned by an enemy may 
for purposes of obtaining possession of such cargo pay freight 
and other necessary charges to the agent of the shipowner at 
such port. HARCOURT. 

NATURALISATION OF PERSONS OF ALIEN ENEMY ORIGIN 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor- 
General 

(Cablegram.) London, September 29, 1914. 

A. Append. Your Ministers may perhaps like to know that in this 
S. No. i. country certificates of naturalisation are not at present 
granted to subjects of enemy state except to persons perform- 
ing public service or work of utility or for other special reasons. 

HARCOURT. 



40 



BORDEN-PERLEY CORRESPONDENCE 






CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN SIR ROBERT 
BORDEN AND HON. G. H. PERLEY 1 



The Prime Minister to Mr. Per ley 

Ottawa, August 4, 1914. B. 

Please cable enacting clauses of Moratorium Act. [See pp. 

BORDEN. 43-4.] 



Mr. Per ley to the Prime Minister 

London, August 5, 1914. 

Following is outline of scheme described to House of B. 
Commons by Chancellor of Exchequer for state insurance war [Cf. pp. 
risks. State will deal with and through existing associations, 27-8, 34-6, 
or clubs, or any others which may be formed and approved, 37-8J 
on condition that they extend existing forms of policy to 
cover war risks up to arrival of vessel at final port of voyage 
which it is making when war breaks out, and for ten clear 
days afterwards. Arrangements are also to be made for 
issue of similar policies on vessels starting voyage after war 
breaks out, and for this purpose Government is to make 
agreement with each of the associations, principal conditions 
of which are : 

(1) Government to reinsure eighty per cent, all those risks. 

(2) In respect of voyages current on outbreak war no 
premium to be charged, but in respect voyages begun after 
outbreak State is to fix insurance premiums to be charged on 
a voyage basis and is to receive eighty per cent, of such 
premium. 

1 [Mr., now Sir G. H. Perley, was appointed Minister of Overseas Military 
Forces of Canada. In 1914 he was a member, without portfolio, of the 
Borden Cabinet, and in charge of the office of High Commissioner for 
Canada in London. Those of the following cablegrams which summarise 
imperial legislation are important on account of the Canadian legislative 
enactments subsequent to the receipt by Sir Robert Borden of the 
information sent to him by Mr. Perley.] 

41 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

(3) State to have right to vary premiums time to time 
within maximum of five per cent, and minimum one per cent, 
and rate agreed on for specific voyage to hold good if vessel 
sails within fourteen days ; if starting delayed by orders of 
Admiralty, the assured is to have option of cancelling policy. 

(4) The associations are to assume remaining twenty per 
cent, of risks both before and after outbreak of war, receiving 
for voyages after outbreak twenty per cent, of premiums. 

(5) All expenses administration borne by clubs. 

(6) Claims to be dealt with and settled by committee of 
associations upon which Government to be represented. 
Foregoing applies to hulls only. 

In regard to cargoes, there being no existing mutual 
associations formed specially for purposes of dealing with 
war risks, it is necessary to set up offices for purpose which 
has already been done with expert advisory board containing 
official element. This state office will insure cargoes in British 
ships insured under the scheme which start on voyages after 
outbreak war, rate of premium to be flat one irrespective of 
voyage or character of cargo, rate capable of variation from 
time to time within maximum five guineas, minimum one 
guinea per cent. 

Scheme not confined to voyages of ships bringing food 
supplies and raw materials to United Kingdom, it being con- 
sidered vital that British shipping in every part of world 
should be protected. Scheme to come into actual effect when 
public notice given. PERLEY. 

Mr. Perky to the Prime Minister 

London, August 5, 1914. 

B. Following is translation decrees issued by French Republic : 
The President of the French Republic, on the report of the 
Minister of Commerce and Industry, Posts and Telegraph, 
Minister of Justice and Minister of Finance, in view of Law 
of 27th January 1910, relating to extensions and delays of 
protests and acts intended to maintain recourse in the matter 
of negotiable values, in view of Law of 24th December 1910, 
extending maturities, and in view of commercial code, the 
Council of Ministers, being advised, decrees that the delay 
within which .protests and acts intended to maintain recourse 
42 



BORDEN-PERLEY CORRESPONDENCE 

espect of all negotiable values, souscrits signed before 1st 
\ugust 1914, matured since that date, or becoming due before 
\ugust I5th, 1914, are extended for thirty days free. The 
;ame extension of thirty days free to all negotiable values 
Becoming due before I5th August 1914. 






NEW DECREE 



Art. i. The prolongation of the delay fixed for the negoti- 
able values fixed by decree of 3ist July 1914 will apply to 
the giving up of cash deposits and credit balances of current 
accounts in banks and credit establishments or deposits under 
following reserves. Any depositor or creditor whose deposit 
or balance in his favour will be inferior or equal to two hundred 
and fifty francs, will have the right to effect its entire with- 
drawal ; above the figure of two hundred and fifty francs 
depositors or creditors who have a staff of workmen or clerks 
in the execution of an industrial and commercial profession will 
have right to claim of the amounts belonging to them the 
total of the amount of the salaries on each payment date, 
they being under the obligation to justify it by production 
of pay-rolls of staff. 

Art. 2. The prolongation of delay foreseen above applies 
exactly to the reimbursement of bonds or contracts insurance 
of capitulation or saving for period, or stipulated as repay- 
able at the choice of the proprietor or bearer. 

Art, 3. The arrangement made by the present decree is 
applicable in Algiers and Tunis. 

Art. 4. The present decree will be immediately executed 
in virtue of article two of the decree of 5th November 1870. 

Art. 5. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs, et cetera, are 
charged, as far as concerns each of them, with the execution 
of the present decree. PERLEY. 

Mr. Perky to the Prime Minister 

London, August 5, 1914. 

Your cable 4th instant. 1 l [See 

Postponement of Payments Act, 1914 (Duration six months). P- 

His Majesty may by proclamation authorise the postpone- B. 
ment of the payment of any bill of exchange, or of any negoti- 

43 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

able instrument, or any other payment in pursuance of any 
contract to such extent, for such time, and subject to such 
conditions or other provisions, as may be specified in the 
proclamation. 

2. No additional stamp duty shall be payable in respect 
of any instrument as a consequence of any postponement of 
payment in pursuance of a proclamation under this Act, 
unless the proclamation otherwise directs. 

3. Any such proclamation may be varied, extended or 
revoked, by any subsequent proclamation, and separate pro- 
clamation may be made dealing with separate subjects. 

4. The proclamation dated the 3rd (2nd) day of August 
1914, relating to the postponement of payment of certain 
bills of exchange is hereby confirmed and shall be deemed to 
have been made under this Act. 

PROCLAMATION 

WHEREAS in view of the critical situation in Europe and 
the financial difficulties caused thereby it is expedient that 
the payment of certain bills of exchange be postponed as 
appears in this Proclamation : 

Now Therefore We have thought fit by and with the 
advice of Our Privy Council to issue this Our Royal Proclama- 
tion, and we do hereby proclaim, direct, and ordain as follows : 

If on the presentation for payment of a bill of exchange, 
other than a cheque or bill on demand, which has been accepted 
before the beginning of the 4th day of August 1914, the 
acceptor reaccepts the bill by a declaration on the face of the 
bill in the form set out hereunder, that bill shall for all purposes, 
including the liability of any drawer or endorser or any other 
party thereto, be deemed to be due and be payable on a date 
one calendar month after the date of its original maturity 
instead of on the day of its original maturity, and to be a bill 
for the original amount thereof increased by the amount of 
interest thereon calculated from the date of reacceptance to 
the new date of payment at the Bank of England rate current 
on the date of the reacceptance of the bill. 

FORM OF REACCEPTANCE 

Reaccepted under proclamation for (insert increased sum). 
Date Signature. 

44 PERLEY. 



BORDEN-PERLEY CORRESPONDENCE 

The Prime Minister to Mr. Perley 

Ottawa, August 6, 1914. 

Board Trade, Montreal, seriously disturbed over inability B. 
>f shippers in Canada to finance food shipments to Great [See pp. 
Britain as under existing conditions Canadian bankers cannot 49, 51.] 
secure reimbursement in London because of impossibility of 
getting funds out of England. Ask Imperial Government if 
they are making any arrangement to facilitate such transac- 
tions. Matters regarded as most important. Can we assist 
in any way ? BORDEN. 

The Prime Minister to Mr. Perley 

Ottawa, August 6, 1914. 

Informed large number Canadians in United Kingdom B. 
and Europe unable to use letters credit or otherwise obtain [See p. 47.] 
funds for passage home. If this information correct and if 
you deem it advisable Government prepared to establish 
credit of twenty thousand pounds in London to be paid out 
upon such security and conditions as you may deem proper. 
Please cable your opinion. BORDEN. 

The Prime Minister to Mr. Perley 

Ottawa, August 7, 1914. 

Please cable general moratorium proclamation referred to B. 
by Lloyd George yesterday. Most important. 

BORDEN. 

The Prime Minister to Mr. Perley 

Ottawa, August 7, 1914. 

Most important. Cable immediately whether moratorium B. 
announced yesterday covers bank deposits and payment of 
interest and principal and sinking fund on bonds and other 
securities. BORDEN. 

The Prime Minister to Mr. Perley 

Ottawa, August 7, 1914. 

Please wire exact terms British vote for war credit. See B. 
my telegram August 2. BORDEN. 

45 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Mr. Per ley to the Prime Minister 

London, August 7, 1914. 

B. Your cables yesterday. Following proclamations issued 
3rd and 4th instant ; calling out navalmen and fleet reserves, 
and officers and men naval and naval volunteers reserves ; 
extending service time expired navy men ; authorising 
Admiralty requisition any British ship within British Isles or 
waters adjacent ; prohibiting exportation certain warlike 
stores ; calling out army reserve and embodying territorial 
force ; continuing soldiers in army service ; recalling to 
active service militia reserve from Ireland and Jersey ; author- 
ising calling into temporary active service officers on reserved 
and retired lists ; suspending compulsory retirement from active 
list on account of age ; assuming control wireless telegraph. 

Following is substance proclamation entitled Regarding 
the Defence of the Realm : Subjects commanded and enjoined 
to obey and conform to all instructions and regulations which 
may be issued by King, Admiralty, Army Council, or any 
officer of Navy or Army, or any other person acting in their 
behalf, for securing public safety and defence of realm. 

Proclamation dated 5th declares state of war and specifies 
articles to be treated as contraband. PERLEY. 

Mr. Per ley to the Prime Minister 

London, August 7, 1914.-' 

B. Proclamation dated August 6th extends postponement to 
all payments due before this date, or payable before the 4th 
September, in respect of any bill of exchange being a cheque 
or bill on demand drawn before the 4th August, or in respect 
of any negotiable instrument not being bill of exchange dated 
before that time, or in respect any contract made before that 
time, for one calendar month after day on which payment 
originally due, or to 4th September, whichever is the later 
date ; but payments so postponed shall, if not otherwise 
carrying interest and if specific demand is made for payment 
and payment is refused, carry interest until payment as from 
4th August, if they become due before that day, or as from 
date on which they become due, if after that day, at Bank 
England rate current 7th August. Proclamation does not 
46 



BORDEN-PERLEY CORRESPONDENCE 

ipply to wages, amounts under five pounds, rates or taxes, 
maritime freight, any debt from resident outside British 
Islands, or whose principal place business outside British 
Islands, nor to dividends or interest payable in respect of 
trustee stocks, nor bank liability in respect of bank notes, 
nor government payments, nor national insurance, nor work- 
men's compensation payments, nor trustee savings bank. 
Bills of exchange under previous proclamation not affected. 

PERLEY. 

Mr. Per ley to the Prime Minister 

London, August 7, 1914. 

Your cable 6th. 1 Banks opened to-day. So far as can B. 
gather will be no great difficulty in cashing letters credit. * [See 
Giving matters close attention. Intervention does not appear P- 45-] 
necessary at present. Regarding Continent informed posi- 
tion has improved. Will cable you again if necessary. 

PERLEY. 

Mr. Perley to the Prime Minister 

London, August 8, 1914. 

Difficult know exactly what effect moratorium has in all B. 
directions as interpretation naturally legal question. Have 
read proclamation and made inquiries. Understand mora- 
torium covers existing bank deposits but not those made sub- 
sequent to proclamation. Moratorium does not cover pay- 
ments on account securities known as trustee investments. 
Payments on account other bonds and securities past due or 
payable before September 4th are apparently postponed but 
not after that date. Moratorium does not in any way affect 
payment in respect debts due by persons resident outside 
British Isles. Cabled you first proclamation and also full 
summary one issued yesterday. Would you like text pro- 
clamation by cable ? PERLEY. 

The Prime Minister to Mr. Perley 

Ottawa, August 8, 1914. 

Cable full text yesterday's proclamation. Ascertain B. 
whether London opinion is clear that exception from mora- 
torium of debts due by persons resident outside of British 

47 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Isles might include Canadian corporations so as to exclude 
them from the benefits of postponement of interest and other 
payments upon their securities. By interpretation statutes 
the word person usually includes corporations. 

BORDEN. 

Mr. Per ley to the Prime Minister 

London, August 8, 1914. 

B. Replying your cable yesterday. Motion made and ques- 
tion proposed in House Commons 6th instant : 

That a sum not exceeding one hundred million pounds be 
granted to His Majesty beyond the ordinary grants of Parlia- 
ment towards defraying expenses that may be incurred during 
the year ending March 3ist, 1915, for all measures which may 
be taken for the security of the country, for the conduct of 
naval and military operations, for assisting the food supply, 
for promoting the continuance of trade, industry and business 
communications, whether by means of insurance or indemnity 
against risk or otherwise, for the relief of distress, and generally 
for all expenses arising out of the existence of a state of war. 

Motion agreed to. PERLEY. 

Mr. Perley to the Prime Minister 

London, August 8, 1914. 

B. Further proclamations 5th August prohibiting trading 
with enemy ; prohibiting British vessels carrying contraband 
from one port to another foreign port ; prohibiting exporta- 
tion from United Kingdom certain warlike stores, provisions, 
and victuals ; notifying British subjects that contributing to 
German loan or contracting with German Government will 
be considered high treason ; prohibiting exportation to all 
foreign ports in Europe and on Mediterranean and Black Sea 
with exception of those of France, Russia (except Baltic), 
Spain and Portugal, of arms, ammunition, military or naval 
stores, and any articles which may be useful in increasing 
such stores ; an order authorising general or field officers to 
issue requisitions of emergency and billeting requisitions ; 
revoking two proclamations which prohibited importation 
arms, ammunition into Ireland. PERLEY. 

4 S 




BORDEN-PERLEY CORRESPONDENCE 

Mr. Per ley to the Prime Minister 

London, August 8, 1914. 
Have brought to attention Government difficulty financing B. 
food shipments from Canada. 1 Will also discuss same with i [See 
Bank England directors Monday. Financial conditions here p. 45.] 
much easier. New issue small bank notes well received. All 
banks open yesterday doing business in ordinary way after 
four successive bank holidays. Am informed in many cases 
deposits yesterday larger than withdrawals. PERLEY. 

Mr. Per ley to the Prime Minister 

London, August 10, 1914. 

Second proclamation dated 6th instant for extending the B. 
postponement of payments allowed to be made by the Pro- 
clamation of 2nd instant to certain other payments : 

WHEREAS under the Postponement of Payments Act, 1914, 
His Majesty has power by proclamation to authorise the post- 
ponement of the payment of any bill of exchange, or any 
negotiable instrument, or of any other payment in pursuance 
of any contract to such extent, for such time, and subject to 
such conditions, or other provisions, as may be specified in the 
Proclamation : 

And Whereas it is expedient that provision should be 
made for the purpose of such postponement of payment, in 
addition to the provision already made by Our Proclamation 
dated the 2nd day of August 1914, relating to postponement 
of payment of certain bills of exchange : 

Now, Therefore, We have thought fit by and with the 
advice of Our Privy Council to issue this Our Royal Proclama- 
tion, and we do hereby proclaim direct and ordain as follow : 

Save as hereinafter provided all payments which have 
become due and payable before the date of this Proclamation, 
or which will become due and payable on any day before the 
beginning of the 4th day of September 1914, in respect of any 
bill of exchange being a cheque or bill on demand, which was 
drawn before the beginning of the 4th day of August 1914, 
or in respect of any negotiable instrument not being a bill 
of exchange dated before that time, or in respect of any 
contract made before that time, shall be deemed to be due 

OVERSEAS I. D 49 




DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

and payable on a day one calendar month after the day on 
which the payment originally became due and payable, or on 
the 4th day of September 1914, whichever is the later date, 
instead of on the day on which the payment originally became 
due ; but payments so postponed shall, if not otherwise carry- 
ing interest and if specific demand is made for payment and 
payment is refused, carry interest until payment as from the 
4th day of August 1914, if they became due and payable before 
that day, and as from the date on which they become due and 
payable if they become due and payable on and after that 
day, at the Bank of England rate current on the yth day of 
August 1914 ; but nothing in this Proclamation shall prevent 
payments being made before the expiration of the month for 
which they are so postponed. 

This Proclamation shall not apply to : 

(1) Any payment in respect of wages or salary ; 

(2) Any payment in respect of a liability which when 
incurred did not exceed five pounds in amount ; 

(3) Any payment in respect of rates and taxes ; 

(4) Any payment in respect of maritime freight ; 

(5) Any payment in respect of any debt from a person 
resident outside the British Islands, or from any firm, company, 
or institution whose principal place of business is outside the 
British Islands not being a debt incurred in the British Islands 
by a person, firm, company or institution having a business 
establishment or branch business establishment in the British 
Islands ; 

(6) Any payment in respect of any dividend or interest 
payable in respect of any stocks, funds or securities other than 
real or heritable securities in which trustees are, under section 
one of the Trustee Act, 1893, or any other Act for the time 
being in force, authorised to invest ; 

(7) Any liability of a Bank of issue in respect of Bank 
notes issued by that Bank ; 

(8) Any payment to be made by or on behalf of His 
Majesty, or any government department, including the pay- 
ment of old age pensions ; 

(9) Any payment to be made by any persons or society 
in pursuance of the National Insurance Act, 1911, or any Act 
amending that Act, whether in the nature of contribution, 
benefits or otherwise 



BORDEN-PERLEY CORRESPONDENCE 

(10) Any payment under the Workmen's Compensation 
Act, 1906, or any Act amending the same ; 

(n) Any payment in respect of the withdrawal of a deposit 
by a depositor in a trustee savings bank. 

Nothing in this Proclamation shall affect any bills of 
exchange to which our Proclamation dated 2nd day of August 
1914, relating to the Postponement of Payment of Certain 
>ills of Exchange, applies. PERLEY. 

Mr. Per ley to the Prime Minister 

London, August 10, 1914. 

Have cabled you full text moratorium proclamation. B. 
r ifth exception explains about persons, firms, companies, 
and institutions outside the British Islands who do not get 
benefits of postponement. Moratorium apparently intended * 
to postpone debts here but none from abroad. Will discuss 
matter further with Bank of England directors to-day. 

PERLEY. 

Mr. Per ley to the Prime Minister 

London, August 10, 1914. 

Directors Bank England think my interpretation mora- B. 
torium correct. No debt due from outside British Isles is 
postponed unless incurred here by person, firm, company, or 
institution having business establishment or branch business 
in British Isles. No doubt further alterations in moratorium 
may come later on. Subject hurriedly discussed and arranged, 
and it is really wonderful how quiet everything is here, and 
how much financial situation has improved. Bank directors 
say arrangements finance food shipments from Canada and 
United States are being considered and no doubt satisfactory 
way will be found. PERLEY. 

Mr. Perley to the Prime Minister 

London, August 10, 1914. 

Proclamation of the 5th prohibited export of forage and B. 
feed of all kinds for animals, provisions and victuals of all 
sorts which may be used as food for men. 

Bill to enable Board of Trade, during present war, to take 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

possession of food-stuffs unreasonably withheld reads, after 
usual preamble, as follows : 

1. If the Board of Trade are of opinion that any food-stuff 
is being unreasonably withheld from the market they may, if 
so authorised by His Majesty's proclamation made generally, 
or, as respects any particular kind of food-stuff, in the manner 
provided by the proclamation, take possession of any supplies 
of food-stuff to which the proclamation relates, paying to the 
owners of the supplies such prices as may in default of agree- 
ment be decided to be reasonable, having regard to all the 
circumstances of the case, by the arbitration of a judge of the 
High Court selected by the Lord Chief-Justice of England. 

2. (i) This Act may be cited as the Unreasonable With- 
holding of Food Supplies Act, 1914. 

(2) This Act shall have effect only while a state of war 
exists between His Majesty and any foreign power. 

PERLEY. 

Mr. Perley to the Prime Minister 

London, August 13, 1914. 

B. Proclamation dated I2th August extends to Austria- 
Hungary the scope of Proclamations and Orders in Council 
previously applying to state of war with Germany prohibit- 
ing dealings of any kind and classifying Austro-Hungarian 
ships as belonging to enemy. PERLEY. 

Mr. Perley to the Prime Minister 

London, August 13, 1914. 

B. Further Proclamation dated August I2th for postponement 
of payments : 

WHEREAS it is expedient to extend Our Proclamation dated 
the 6th day of August 1914, relating to the postponement of 
payments, so as to cover bills of exchange under certain cir- 
cumstances and also payments in respect of any debt from 
any bank whose principal place of business is in any part of 
His Majesty's Dominions or any British Protectorate, 

Now, Therefore, We have thought fit by and with the 
advice of Our Privy Council to issue this Our Royal Pro- 
clamation, and we do hereby proclaim, direct, and ordain as 
follows : 



BORDEN-PERLEY CORRESPONDENCE 

Notwithstanding anything contained in the said Pro- 
clamation dated the 6th day of August 1914, relating to the 
postponement of payments, that Proclamation shall apply 
and shall be deemed always to have applied : 

(1) To any bill of exchange which has not been reaccepted 
under our proclamation dated the 2nd day of August 1914, 
as it applies to a bill of exchange being a cheque or bill on 
demand, unless on the presentation of the bill the acceptor 
has expressly refused reacceptance thereof, but with the 
substitution as respects rate of interest of the date of the pre- 
sentation of the bill for the 7th day of August 1914, and ; 

(2) Also to. payments in respect of any debt from any 
bank whose principal place of business is in any part of His 
Majesty's Dominions or any British Protectorate although 
the debt was not incurred in the British Islands and the bank 
had not a business establishment or branch business estab- 
lishment in the British Islands. PERLEY. 

Mr. Perley to the Prime Minister 

London, August 13, 1914. 
Following announcement made this morning. 

The Bank of England are prepared on the application of B. 
the holder of any approved bill of exchange accepted before 
August 4th, 1914, to discount at any time before its due date 
at bank rate without recourse to such holder, and upon its 
maturity the Bank of England will in order to assist the resump- 
tion of normal business operation give the acceptor the oppor- 
tunity until further notice of postponing payment, interest 
being payable in the meantime at two per cent, over bank 
rate varying. 

Arrangements will be made to carry this scheme into effect 
so as to preserve all existing obligations. The Bank of 
England will be prepared for this purpose to approve such 
bills of exchange as are customarily discounted by them and 
also good trade bills and the acceptance of such foreign and 
colonial firms and bank agencies as are established in Great 
Britain. PERLEY. 



53 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



CANADIAN ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND 
PROCLAMATIONS 

August i, 1914.* 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

RESPECTING REGULATIONS FOR DISCIPLINE OF THE NAVAL 
VOLUNTEER FORCE 

At the Government House at Ottawa. 
Present 

His Excellency the Deputy GOVERNOR-GENERAL 
* in Council. 

His Excellency in Council is pleased to make the follow- 
ing Regulations for the discipline of the Naval Volunteer 
A.. No. 130. Force, the establishment of which was authorised by Order 
in Council, dated i8th May, 1914 (P.C. No. 1313), and the 
same are hereby made and established accordingly : 

1. The provisions of the Naval Discipline Act, 1866, and 
the Acts in amendment thereof, and the King's Regulations 
and Admiralty Instructions, in so far as the said Acts, Regu- 
lations and Instructions are applicable, and except in so far as 
they may be inconsistent with the Naval Service Act, are 
adopted, ordained and enacted as regulations for the govern- 
ment of the Naval Volunteer Force, pursuant to the authority 
conferred by section 28 of the Naval Service Act. 

2. Every officer and seaman of the Naval Volunteer 
Force shall be subject thereto from the time of being called 
out for active service and also during any period of drill or 
training, and also while upon or within any ship, dockyard, 
battery, magazine, store or other place where guns, arms, 
torpedoes, ammunition or other naval stores are kept, or any 

1 [The dates given of Orders in Council are the dates when they were 
approved by the Governor-General or his deputy.] 
54 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

drill hall or building or place used for naval purposes and also 
during any drill or parade of any part of the Naval Volunteer 
Force at which he is present, and also at any other time when 
in uniform. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 
PROVIDING PAY FOR THE NAVAL VOLUNTEER FORCE 

His Excellency in Council is pleased to approve the A. No. 268. 
following rates of pay and allowances for the Naval Volunteer 
7 orce, the establishment of which was authorised by Order 

Council, dated i8th May, 1914 (P.C. No. 1313), and the 

te are hereby approved accordingly, viz. : 

DAILY RATES OF PAY 

Officers 
Rank or rating 

Lieutenant . . . . . $4.00 

Sub-Lieutenant . . . . . 3.00 

Midshipman . . ' . . . . 2.00 

Surgeon . . . ... 4.00 

Paymaster . . . . . . 4.00 

Assistant Paymaster . . . . 3.00 

Allowances 

Officer in Command of Company . . $1.00 

Petty Officers and Men 
Rating 

Boy $0.50 

Ordinary Seaman . . . . . 0.80 

Able Seaman ...... 0.85 

Leading Seaman ..... 0.95 

Petty Officer . . . . . i.io 

Chief Petty Officer 1.50 

Writer 1.50 

55 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

A llowances 

Efficiency . . . . . . $0.15 

Specialist . . . . . . 0.25 (a) 

Bugler 0.15 

(a) Specialist Allowance to be granted for qualifying in 
each subject of training as laid down by the Regulations. 

Signal Ratings 

Signal ratings will be granted the pay of their correspond- 
ing seamen ratings, and 25 cents per day special signal allow- 
ance in addition to the efficiency allowance when eligible for 
the latter. 

Instructional Staff 

The pay of the Instructional Staff to be the same as laid 
down for the Navy by Order in Council. 

Subsistence, Lodging, etc., Allowances 

When Naval Volunteers are proceeding to or from training 
they will receive subsistence, etc., allowance on the same 
scale as laid down for the Navy by Order in Council. 



August 2, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

AUTHORISING MINISTER OF MILITIA TO TAKE CONTROL 
OF TELEGRAPH CABLES 

Present 

His Excellency the Deputy GOVERNOR-GENERAL 
in Council. 

\. No. 269. WHEREAS a grave emergency has arisen in which it is 
"See expedient for the Public Service that the Government of 

p. 123.] Canada should have control over the transmission and recep- 
56 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

:ion of telegraph messages by any Cable Company operating 
telegraph cables within the Dominion of Canada or the terri- 
torial waters thereof : 

Therefore the Deputy Governor-General in Council is 
pleased to Order and it is hereby ordered as follows : 

The Minister of Militia and Defence by warrant under his 
hand may direct and cause so much of any Cable Company's 
property, offices or works as are within the Dominion of 
Canada or the territorial waters thereof or any part of such 
works to be taken possession of in the name and on behalf 
of His Majesty and to be used for His Majesty's service and 
subject thereto for such ordinary service as to the said Minister 
may seem fit, and in that event any person authorised by the 
said Minister may enter upon the offices and works of any 
Cable Company and take possession thereof and use the same 
as aforesaid. 

The Minister of Militia and Defence may when he considers 
it expedient instead of taking possession of the property, 
offices and works of any Cable Company, direct and authorise 
such persons as he thinks fit to assume control of the trans- 
mission of messages by any Company's cables either wholly or 
partly and in such manner as he may direct, and such persons 
may enter upon the Company's premises accordingly ; or the 
Minister of Militia and Defence may direct any Cable Company 
to submit to him or to any person authorised by him all cable- 
grams and messages tendered for transmission or arriving 
by any Company's cable or any class or classes of such cable- 
grams or messages and to stop or delay the transmission of 
any cablegrams or messages or deliver the same to him or 
his agent, and generally to obey all such directions with refer- 
ence to the transmission and reception of cablegrams as the 
Minister of Militia and Defence may prescribe, and the Company 
and its officers and agents shall obey and conform to all such 
directions. 

[A similar Order in Council published on the same day, 
A. No. 270, authorised the Minister of the Naval Service to 
take control over ' the transmission and reception of telegraph 
messages by any person or persons or by any wireless tele- 
graph company operating wireless telegraph apparatus within 
the Dominion of Canada or the territorial waters thereof/] 

57 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

ORDER IN COUNCIL 
CALLING OUT NAVAL RESERVES 

B. The Committee of the Privy Council, on the recommenda- 
tion of the Right Honourable the Prime Minister, advise that 
as His Royal Highness the Governor-General has received 
official notice that His Majesty's Government has called out 
the Royal Naval Reserves, due notice thereof be published in 
an extra of the Canada Gazette in the form hereto attached. 

ROYAL NAVAL RESERVES CALLED OUT 

Public Notice is hereby given that His Royal Highness the 
Governor-General has received a telegraphic despatch from 
the Secretary of State for the Colonies announcing that His 
Majesty the King has by Royal Proclamation called out the 
Royal Naval Reserves. Attention is directed to the fact that 
by this proclamation men serving abroad, whether on shore 
or in merchant vessels, are required to report themselves 
to first British Naval, Consular or Colonial Officer they meet, 
or failing that, to the nearest Registrar on arrival in the 
United Kingdom. 

Of which all persons concerned are required to take notice 
and to govern themselves accordingly. 

By Command, 

R. L. BORDEN, 
Secretary of State for External Affairs. 

Ottawa, 2nd August, 1914. 
[Published August 2 in Extra Canada Gazette.] 










ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

August 3, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

ROVIDING FOR INCREASED ISSUE OF DOMINION NOTES 

Present 

His Excellency the Deputy GOVERNOR-GENERAL 
in Council. 



The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them A. No. 7. 
a Memorandum, dated 3rd August 1914, from the Minister [See pp. 
of Finance, recommending, having regard to the world-wide 221-4.] 
financial crisis that has developed upon the outbreak of 
hostilities in Europe and in view of the action taken by the 
Imperial Government to conserve the commercial and 
.financial interests of the United Kingdom, that in case such 
course should in his opinion be required, he be authorised to 
issue Dominion notes to such an amount as may be necessary 
against such securities as may be deposited by the banks and 
approved by the Minister of Finance. 

The Minister further recommends as follows : 

That the Government authorise the chartered banks of 
Canada to make payment in bank notes instead of in gold or 
Dominion notes until further official announcement in that 
behalf. This action will tend to preserve the Canadian old 
supply against demands from foreign sources : 

That the Government authorise the several chartered 
banks of Canada to issue from this date and until further 
announcement excess circulation to amounts not exceeding 
fifteen per cent, of the combined unimpaired capital and rest 
or reserve fund of the respective banks as stated in their 
respective statutory monthly returns to the Minister of 
Finance for the month immediately preceding that in which 
the additional amount is issued ; 

That any necessary special legislation be obtained at the 
next Session of Parliament. 

The Minister also recommends that the Government be 
prepared to give every other possible assistance in order to 
prevent any avoidable interruption of stable business condi- 

59 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

tions, and for this purpose to use to the fullest extent all 
existing powers, and if necessary to ask further powers from 
Parliament. 

The Committee submit the same for approval. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 
AUTHORISING ADVANCES TO THE CHARTERED BANKS 

The Committee of the Privy Council have had under con- 
sideration a Report, dated 3rd August 1914, from the Minister 
of Finance, calling attention to the grave conditions now pre- 
vailing in Europe and their effect upon the financial and 
commercial situation in Canada. 

Within a week's time and with an unexpectedness un- 
paralleled in history hostilities have broken out among the 
Great Powers of Europe. 

The effect of this sudden outbreak with all its portentous 
consequences upon the financial systems of the world has been 
momentous in the extreme. In the existing loss of credit- 
confidence the demand at all the great centres for gold by 
bankers and by the public has been unprecedented in its 
magnitude and has resulted in the sale at whatever prices 
could be obtained of immense volumes of domestic and inter- 
national securities. Unable to sustain the burden of such 
selling, all the great bourses and stock exchanges of the world 
have been closed by their governing bodies. Specie pay- 
ments have for some time past been suspended on the Con- 
tinent of Europe and more recently in the United Kingdom 
where the Bank Act has been suspended under the authority 
of the Imperial Government. 

While the chartered banks of Canada, as shown by their 
official returns, are in a position of normal strength, there is 
ground for belief that in view of the exceptional conditions 
above referred to which are likely to prevail and may become 
aggravated as the European war proceeds, Canadian bankers 
will find it necessary to restrict to a considerable degree all 
commercial credits. They may also experience difficulty in 
meeting abnormal demands upon them for gold or legal tender. 
60 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

Such a condition could only result in grave and lasting injury 
to all the great interests of the Dominion. 

In view of the foregoing and after having given the matter 
full consideration the Minister is of opinion that valuable 
assistance can be afforded in this critical condition of affairs by 
action on the part of the Government which will enable the 
banks to maintain the volume of credits available to their 
customers and supply them with additional liquid resources. 
For this purpose he recommends that the Dominion Govern- 
ment advance to banks to be designated by him such sums 
as he may deem reasonable and proper to be used by the said 
banks in the usual course of their business. 

The Minister further recommends that such advances be 
made to the said banks upon such high-class securities as he 
may approve, and further that he be authorised to appoint the 
President of the Canadian Bankers Association, the General 
Manager of the Bank of Montreal, the General Manager of the 
Royal Bank, and the Manager of the Montreal Branch of the 
Canadian Bank of Commerce to advise him as to the said 
securities, and that the rate of interest charged on such advances 
be such from time to time as the Minister may approve, but not 
less than five per centum per annum. Each bank to which a 
loan or loans are made shall agree to repay the same with 
interest within a period not extending beyond ist May 1915. 

The Minister further recommends that he be authorised 
to engage the Royal Trust Company for the purpose of holding 
in trust for the Government the securities lodged by the 
banks availing themselves of this proposal, and that such 
securities or part thereof may be released from time to time 
under the authority of the Minister as the advances are repaid 
in whole or part by the banks or as other approved securities 
are lodged in substitution. 

The Minister further recommends that, in view of the 
inadvisability of attempting at this juncture to make an 
issue of Dominion securities in the London market, the pro- 
posed advances be made by an issue of such amount of 
Dominion notes as may be necessary, and that although con- 
trary to the provisions of the Dominion Notes Act such notes 
be issued against the deposit by the banks of high-class 
securities approved by the Minister of Finance, as herein- 
before provided. While the arrangement proposed is a 

61 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYOVERSEAS 

technical departure from the terms of the Dominion Notes 
Act, such departure is, in the opinion of the Minister, justified 
by the exceptional circumstances above mentioned. 

The Minister further recommends that at the next ensuing 
session, Parliament be asked to enact a bill of indemnity con- 
firming and sanctioning the proceedings herein recommended 
in so far as they require for their validity legal confirmation 
or sanction. 

The Committee concur in the foregoing recommendations 
and submit the same for approval. 



August 4, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

PLACING NAVAL FORCES AND NAVAL VOLUNTEER FORCE 
ON ACTIVE SERVICE 

Present 

His Royal Highness the GOVERNOR-GENERAL in 
Council. 

B WHEREAS Sections 22 and 31 of the Naval Service Act, 
Chapter 43 of the Statutes of 1910, provide that : 

22. The Governor in Council may place the Naval 
Forces, or any part thereof, on active service at any time 
when it appears advisable so to do by reason of an 
emergency. 

31. In an emergency the Governor in Council may 
order and direct that the Naval Volunteer Force, or such 
part thereof as may be deemed necessary, shall be called 
into active service, and the naval volunteers so called 
out shall be liable to serve under such regulations as may 
be prescribed. 

ii. If a naval volunteer's period of service expires while 
he is employed on active service, he shall be liable to serve 
for a further period of not more than six months, and for 
such further service he shall not be entitled to any in- 
creased remuneration, unless in the opinion of the Governor 
62 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

in Council, the circumstances of the case and the conduct of 
the person concerned merits it. 

The Governor-General in Council is pleased to Order and 
it is hereby Ordered, as an emergency exists at the present 
time, that the Naval Forces and the Naval Volunteer Forces 
be placed immediately on Active Service. 

[Published August 5, 1914, in Extra Canada Gazette.} 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 

AUTHORISING TRANSFER OF " CANADA" and " MARGARET" TO 

NAVAL SERVICE 

The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them B. 
a joint report, dated 4th August 1914, from the Minister of 
the Naval Service and the Minister of Customs, stating that 
section 43 of the Naval Service Act, chapter 43 of the Statutes 
of 1910, provides that : 

' The Governor in Council may from time to time transfer 
to or from the Naval Service any vessel belonging to his 
Majesty/ 

The Committee, on the recommendation of the Minister 
of the Naval Service and the Minister of Customs, advise that 
the C.G.S. Canada and the C.G.S. Margaret be transferred 
to the Naval Service. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 
AUTHORISING SUMMONING PARLIAMENT 

The Committee of the Privy Council, on the recommenda- B. 
tion of the Right Honourable the Prime Minister, advise that 
a Proclamation do issue, dated the 4th day of August instant, 
summoning the Parliament to meet for the despatch of 
business, on Tuesday, the i8th day of August 1914, at the 
City of Ottawa. 

"63 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

A. No. 12. PROCLAMATION CALLING A WAR SESSION OF CANADIAN 

PARLIAMENT 1 

ARTHUR 

[L.S.] 

CANADA 

George the Fifth, by the Grace of God, of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the 
British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender 
of the Faith, Emperor of India 

To Our Beloved and Faithful the Senators of the Dominion 
of Canada, and the Members elected to serve in the 
House of Commons of Our said Dominion, and to each 
and every of you Greeting : 

A PROCLAMATION 

WHEREAS Our Parliament of Canada stands Prorogued 
to Friday, the Twenty-Eighth day of the month of August 
instant, at which time, at Our City of Ottawa, you were held 
and constrained to appear : Nevertheless, for certain causes 
and considerations, WE DO WILL, by and with the advice of 
Our Privy Council for Canada, that you and each of you, be 
as to Us in this matter entirely exonerated, commanding, and 
by the tenor of these presents enjoining you, and each of you, 
and all others in this behalf interested, that on Tuesday, the 
Eighteenth day of the month of August instant, at Our City 
of Ottawa aforesaid, personally you be and appear for the 
Despatch of Business, to treat, do, act, and conclude upon 
these things which in Our said Parliament of Canada, by the 
Common Council of Our said Dominion, may by the favour 
of God, be ordained. 

In Testimony Whereof, We have caused these Our Letters 
to be made Patent, and the Great Seal of Canada to 
be hereunto affixed. Witness, Our Most Dear and 
Entirely Beloved Uncle and Most Faithful Counsellor, 

1 [This Proclamation, which was published in the Extra Canada Gazette 
of 5th August 1914, is given in extenso ; in other Proclamations the formal 
parts have been omitted.] 
64 






ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

Field Marshal His Royal Highness Prince Arthur 
William Patrick Albert, Duke of Connaught and of 
Strathearn, Earl of Sussex (in the Peerage of the 
United Kingdom) ; Prince of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Saxony, Prince of 
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha ; Knight of Our Most Noble 
Order of the Garter ; Knight of Our Most Ancient and 
Most Noble Order of the Thistle ; Knight of Our Most 
Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick ; one of Our Most 
Honourable Privy Council ; Great Master of Our Most 
Honourable Order of the Bath ; Knight Grand Com- 
mander of Our Most Exalted Order of the Star of India ; 
Knight Grand Cross of Our Most Distinguished Order 
of Saint Michael and Saint George ; Knight Grand 
Commander of our Most Eminent Order of the Indian 
Empire ; Knight Grand Cross of Our Royal Victorian 
Order ; Our Personal Aide-de-Camp ; Governor-General 
and Commander-in-Chief of Our Dominion of Canada. 
At Our Government House, in Our City of Ottawa, in Our 
said Dominion, this fourth day of August, in the year 
of Our Lord one thousand nine hundred and fourteen, 
and in the fifth year of Our Reign. 
By Command, 

JAMES G. FOLEY, 
Clerk of the Crown in Chancery for Canada. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 

TRANSFER OF "NIOBE" AND "RAINBOW" TO 
ROYAL NAVY 

The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them B. 

a Report, dated 4th August 1914, from the Minister of the pee pp. 

Naval Service, submitting that section 23 of the Naval Service 192-3.] 
Act, chapter 43 of the Statutes of 1910, provides that : 

23. In case of an emergency, the Governor in 

Council may place at the disposal of His Majesty, for 

. general service in the Royal Navy, the Naval Service or 

OVERSEAS I. E 65 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

any part thereof, any ships or vessels of the Naval Service, 
and the officers and seamen serving in such ship or vessels, 
or any officers or seamen belonging to the Naval Service. 

An emergency having arisen, the Minister recommends 
that H.M.C.S. Niobe and H.M.C.S. Rainbow, together with the 
officers and seamen serving in such vessels, be placed at the 
disposal of His Majesty for general service in the Royal Navy. 

The Committee concur in the foregoing recommenda- 
tion and submit the same for approval. 



August 5, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

GRANTING DAYS OF GRACE FOR DEPARTURE OF GERMAN 

SHIPS 

Present 
His Royal Highness the GOVERNOR-GENERAL in Council. 

A* No. 18. WHEREAS a state of war now exists between this country 
and Germany, and His Majesty the King being mindful of 
the recognition accorded to the practice of granting ' days of 
grace' to enemy merchant ships by the convention relative 
to the Status of Enemy Merchant Ships at the outbreak of 
1 [See hostilities, signed at the Hague 1 on the i8th October 1907, 
Naval i, anc i ^th the view of lessening so far as may be practicable, 
P- 45 ] the injury caused by war to peaceful and unsuspecting 
commerce, 

His Royal Highness the Governor-General in Council is 
pleased to order and it is ordered as follows : 

1. From and after the publication of this Order, no enemy 
merchant ship shall be allowed to depart, except in accordance 
with the provisions of this Order, from any Canadian port. 

2. In the event of the Governor-General being informed 
by His Majesty's Government that information had reached 
His Majesty's Government, not later than midnight on Friday, 
the seventh day of August, that, the treatment accorded to 
H68 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

British Merchant Ships and their cargoes which, at the date of 
the outbreak of hostilities were in the ports of the enemy or 
which subsequently entered them is not less favourable than 
the treatment accorded to Enemy Merchant Ships by Articles 
3 to 7 of this Order, the Secretary of State for External Affairs 
shall notify the Minister of Customs and the Minister of the 
Naval Service accordingly, and public notice thereof shall 
forthwith be given in the Canada Gazette, and Articles 3 to 8 
of this Order shall thereupon come into full force and effect. 

3. Subject to the provisions of this Order, enemy merchant 
ships which 

(i.) At the date of the outbreak of hostilities were in any 

port in which this order applies ; or 
(ii.) Cleared from their last port before the declaration 

of war, and, after the outbreak of hostilities, enter 

a port to which this Order applies, with no knowledge 

of the war ; 

shall be allowed up tifl midnight (Greenwich mean time) 1 on 
Friday, the fourteenth day of August 1914, for loading or 
unloading their cargoes and for departing from such port. 

Provided that such vessels shall not be allowed to ship 
any contraband of war, and any contraband of war already 
shipped on such vessels must be discharged. 

4. Enemy Merchant Ships which cleared from their last 
port before the declaration of war, and which with no know- 
ledge of the war arrive at a port to which this Order applies 
after the expiry of the time allowed by Article 3 for loading or 
unloading cargo and for departing, and are permitted to enter, 
may be required to depart either immediately, or within such 
time as may be considered necessary by the Customs Officer 
of the port for the unloading of such cargo as they may be 
required or specially permitted to discharge. 

Provided that such vessels may, as a condition of being 
allowed to discharge cargo, be required to proceed to any 
other specified Canadian port, and shall there be allowed 

1 At ports where Atlantic Time is kept the corresponding standard time 
of place is 8.0 P.M. ; where Eastern Standard Time is kept it is 7.0 P.M. ; 
where Central Time is kept it is 6.0 P.M. ; where Mountain Time is kept it 
is 5.0 P.M. ; and where Pacific Time is kept it is 4.0 P.M. of the same day, 
respectively. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

such time for discharge as the Customs Officer of that port 
may consider to be necessary. 

Provided also, that, if any cargo on board such vessel is 
contraband of war or is requisitioned under Article 5 of this 
Order, she may be required before departure to discharge such 
cargo within such time as the Customs Officer of the port may 
consider to be necessary ; or she may be required to proceed, 
if necessary under escort, to any other port in the Dominion 
of Canada, and shall there discharge the contraband under 
the like conditions. 

5. The Canadian Government reserves the right recog- 
nised by the said Convention to requisition at any time, 
subject to payment of compensation, enemy cargo on board 
any vessel to which Articles 3 and 4 of this Order apply. 

6. The privileges accorded by Articles 3 and 4 are not to 
extend to cable ships or to sea-going ships designed to carry 
oil-fuel, or to ships whose tonnage exceeds 5000 tons gross, or 
whose speed is 14 knots or over, regarding which the entries 
in Lloyd's Register shall be conclusive for the purposes of 
this article. Such vessels will remain liable on adjudication 
by the Prize Court to detention during the period of the war, 
or to requisition, in accordance, in either case, with the Con- 
vention aforesaid. The said privileges will also not extend 
to merchant ships which show by their build that they are 
intended for conversion into warships, as such vessels are 
outside the scope of the said Convention, and are liable on 
adjudication by the Prize Court to condemnation as prize. 

7. Enemy merchant ships allowed to depart under Articles 
3 and 4 will be provided with a pass indicating the port to 
which they are to proceed, and the route they are to follow, 
in which pass shall be embodied the following proviso : 

' Provided also that she keeps her colours constantly 
flying during her voyage, and makes no attempt to evade 
stoppage and search by British ships of war which she may 
fall in with/ 

8. A merchant ship which, after receipt of such a pass, 
does not follow the course indicated therein will be liable to 
capture. 

9. If no information reaches His Majesty's Government 
within the time allowed by it for the receipt of such informa- 
tion to trie 'effect that the treatment accorded to British 
fl 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

Merchant Ships and their cargoes which were in the ports of 
the enemy at the date of the outbreak of hostilities, or which 
subsequently entered them, is, in its opinion, not less favour- 
able than that accorded to enemy merchant ships by Articles 
3 to 8 of this Order, every enemy merchant ship which, on 
the outbreak of hostilities, was in any port to which this 
Order applies, and also every enemy ship which cleared from 
its last port befctre the declaration of war, but which, with 
no knowledge of the war enters a port to which this Order 
applies, shall, together with the cargo on board thereof, be 
liable to capture, and shall be brought before the Prize Court 
forthwith for adjudication. 

10. In the event of information reaching His Majesty's 
Government that British merchant ships which cleared from 
their last port before the declaration of war, but are met with 
by the enemy at sea after the outbreak of hostilities, are 
allowed to continue their voyage without interference with 
either the ship or the cargo, or after capture are released with 
or without proceedings in the Prize Court, or are to be detained 
during the war or requisitioned in lieu of condemnation as 
prize, the Secretary of State for External Affairs shall notify 
the Minister of the Naval Service accordingly, and shall 
publish a notification thereof in the Canada Gazette, and in 
that event, but not otherwise, enemy merchant ships which 
cleared from their last port before the declaration of war, 
and are captured after the outbreak of hostilities and brought 
before the Prize Court for adjudication, shall be released or 
detained or requisitioned in such cases and upon such terms as 
may be directed in the said notification in the Canada Gazette. 

11. Neutral cargo, other than contraband of war, on 
board an enemy merchant ship which is not allowed to depart 
from a port to which this Order applies, shall be released. 

12. In accordance with the provisions of Chapter III. of 
the Convention, relative to certain restrictions on the Exercise 

of the Right of Capture in Maritime War, 1 signed at the Hague i [See 
on i8th October 1907, an undertaking must, whether the Naval, i, 
merchant ship is allowed to depart or not, be given in writing P- 4 2 3-l 
by each of the Officers and members of the crew of such vessel, 
who is of enemy nationality, that he will not, after the conclu- 
sion of the voyage for which the pass is issued, engage while 
hostilities last in any service connected with the operation of 

69 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

the war. If any such Officer is of neutral nationality, an 
undertaking must be given in writing that he will not serve, 
after the conclusion of the voyage for which the pass is issued, 
on any enemy ship while the hostilities last. No undertaking 
is to be required from members of the crew who are of neutral 
nationality. Officers or members of the crew declining to 
give the undertakings required by this Article will be detained 
as prisoners of war. 

And the Ministers of each of the Government Depart- 
ments, and all Officers and authorities whom it may concern, 
are to give the necessary directions herein as to them may 
respectively appertain. 

[A similar Order in Council was issued in the case of 
Austro-Hungarian ships, A. No. 31, on August 14, the dates 
given in paragraphs 2 and 3 being altered to August 15 and 
22 respectively.] 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 

AUTHORISING THE MINISTER OF MILITIA TO CALL OUT ACTIVE 
MILITIA TO COMPLETE TRAINING 

A. No. 272. The Committee of the Privy Council, on the recommenda- 
tion of the Minister of Militia and Defence, advise with regard 
to the existing situation, that the Minister of Militia and 
Defence be permitted to call out units of the Active (non- 
permanent) Militia, as circumstances may demand, to com- 
plete the unexpired portion of the thirty (30) days' training 
authorised by Section 52 of the Militia Act. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 
PROVIDING FOR THE PROTECTION OF PUBLIC PROPERTY 

A. No. 273. The Committee of the Privy Council, on the recommenda- 
tion of the Right Honourable the Prime Minister, advise that 
where any Department of the Government requires or deems 
70 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

it desirable to have police protection for Government pro- 
perty or for property that may be required later on for trans- 
portation or other public purposes, such Department shall 
apply to the Minister of Justice, and that where military 
protection is required or deemed desirable such Department 
shall apply to the Minister of Militia and Defence. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 

AUTHORISING INCREASE IN STRENGTH OF ROYAL CANADIAN 

REGIMENT 

The Committee of the Privy Council, on the recommenda- B. 
tion of the Minister of Militia and Defence, advise that the 
attached draft General Order, dated 4th August 1914, 
authorising an increase in the strength of Privates of the Royal 
Canadian Regiment from 596 to 922 be approved. A state- 
ment of the expenditure involved is attached hereto. 



GENERAL ORDER 
1914 

Headquarters, Ottawa, qth August, 1914. 
ESTABLISHMENT, 1914-15 
ACTIVE MILITIA, INCLUDING PERMANENT FORCE 

With reference to General Order 87, 1914, the following 
amendment is authorised : 

ROYAL CANADIAN REGIMENT 

Page 12, in column headed Regimental Establishment 
opposite total rank and file, for ' 596 ' read ' 922.' 

(Signed) VICTOR A. S. WILLIAMS, 
Colonel, Adjutant-General. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

G.O. of the ^th August, 1914 

MEMO, re COST INVOLVED 

Amendment to G.O. 87 of 1914. Establishment R.C.R. 
The increase of 326 privates in the strength of the R.C.R. 
will involve the following annual expenditure : 

Pay and allowances .... $90,000 
Maintenance in barracks . . . 60,000 
Clothing, transport, etc. . . . 25,000 

Total yearly cost . . . $175,000 

There is sufficient clothing and equipment in store to 
outfit them on enlistment. 

J. W. B., 1 A. and P.M.G. 

[The General Order appeared in the Canada Gazette of 
Aug. 5, 1914.] 

August 6, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

AUTHORISING THE CALLING OUT OF PARTS OF THE MILITIA AS 
REQUIRED FOR ACTIVE SERVICE 

Present 
His Royal Highness the GOVERNOR-GENERAL in Council. 

WHEREAS in view of the state of war existing between the 
United Kingdom and the Dominions, Colonies and Depend- 
encies of the Empire, on the one side, and Germany, on the 
other side ; and in view of the fact that thereby the Dominion 
of Canada is liable to invasion and other assaults of a hostile 
nature, such an emergency has arisen as calls for the placing 
of the Militia on ' active service ' : 

Therefore His Royal Highness the Governor-General in 
Council, under the authority of Section Sixty-nine of the 
Militia Act, is hereby pleased to order that such corps or parts 
of the Militia as may from time to time, with the approval of 

1 [Mr. J. W. Borden, Accountant and Paymaster-General, Finance 
Member of the Militia Council.] 

72 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

the Governor-General in Council, be named or designated in 
General Orders published in the Canada Gazette, be placed on 
Active Service in Canada. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 

AUTHORISING THE MOBILISATION OF VOLUNTEERS FOR 
OVERSEAS SERVICE 

The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them A. No. 274 
a Report, dated 6th August 1914, from the Minister of 
Militia and Defence, representing, in view of the state of 
war now existing between the United Kingdom, and the 
Dominions, Colonies and Dependencies of the British Empire 
on the one side, and Germany on the other side, creating a 
menace to the well-being and integrity of the Empire, and 
having regard to the duty of the Dominion of Canada as one 
of these Dominions to provide for its own defence and to 
assist in maintaining the integrity and honour of the Empire, 
that it is desirable to mobilise Militia units of the various 
arms of the service of such effective strength as may from 
time to time be determined by Your Royal Highness in 
Council, such units to be composed of officers and men who 
are willing to volunteer for Overseas service under the British 
Crown ; to organise and equip them for war, and to make 
and perfect all arrangements necessary to enable them to 
enlist and be enrolled for service under His Majesty's Govern- 
ment, should that Government so desire. 

The Minister recommends, in order that this purpose may 
be carried out, that Your Royal Highness authorise the 
raising and equipment of such units of such effective strength 
as aforesaid, the concentrating of them at some point to be 
selected by the Minister of Militia, with Your Royal High- 
ness' approval, and to make and perfect all arrangements 
necessary to enable them to enlist and be enrolled for service 
under His Majesty's Government should that Government 
so desire, upon such terms of engagement and for such service 
as may be deemed advisable. 

The Committee concur in the foregoing and submit the 
same for Your Royal Highness' approval. 

73 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 
ESTABLISHING A CENSORSHIP OF CABLES 

A. No. 276. The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them 
a Report dated 6th August 1914, from the Minister of Militia 
and Defence, stating that in accordance with the instructions 
received from the British Government, a censorship of cables 
and wireless telegraphy has been established in Canada, 
and for this work the following personnel has been found 
necessary : 





Deputy Chief Censors. 


Censors. 


Asst. 
Censors. 


De- 
coders. 


Ottawa . 
Halifax and Camperdown 


Nos. 

I 


Nos. 
2 
2 


Nos. 

'o 


Nos. 

4 
10 


Canso 






Q 


24. 


Svdnev 






:7 


**r 
12 


Glace Bay 






2 


4" 


Fame Point 






2 




Heath Point 






2 


4. 


Victoria . 






Q 




Bamfield . 






Q 




Cape Lazo 




I 


2 




Pachens . 




I 


2 
















Total i . 


13 


40 


78 



The Committee, on the recommendation of the Minister of 
Militia and Defence, advise that the following rates of salary 
be approved, these being approximately the same as those 
paid Censors in Great Britain, viz. : 



Deputy Chief Censor 
Censor 
Asst. Censor 
Decoders 



$10.00 a day, 
9.00 
7.00 
3-50 



These rates to include everything except travelling 
expenses. 

74 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

PROCLAMATION PROHIBITING THE EXPORT OF 
CERTAIN COMMODITIES 

WHEREAS it is in and by section 291 of The Customs Act, A. No. 20. 
chapter 48 of the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1906, enacted Extra 
that the Governor in Council may, from time to time, prohibit Canada 
the exportation or the carrying coastwise or by inland navi- G* zett *> 
gation, of arms, ammunition and gunpowder, military and "^ ' 
naval stores, and any articles which the Governor in Council J? f ' , 
deems capable of being converted into or made useful in 
increasing the quantity of military or naval stores, provisions 
or any sort of victual which may be used as food by man ; 

And Whereas it is in and by section 242 of the said Act 
further enacted that If any goods, the exportation or carry- 
ing coastwise or by inland navigation of which is prohibited by 
this Act or by the Governor in Council under the authority of 
this Act, are exported, carried coastwise or by inland naviga- 
tion, or water borne, or laden in any railway carriage, or other 
vehicle for the purpose of being so exported or carried, they 
shall be seized and forfeited ; 

And Whereas our Governor-General in Council deems it 
necessary and in the public interest that the exportation from 
Canada be prohibited as in the manner hereinafter set forth : 

Now Know Ye that We do by these presents and by and 
with the advice of Our Privy Council for Canada, until We 
shall see fit otherwise to declare that the exportation from 
Canada of the following articles to all foreign ports in Europe 
and on the Mediterranean and Black Sea with the exception 
of those of France, Russia (except the Baltic ports), Spain and 
Portugal be prohibited : 

Aluminium ; aluminium alloys ; armour plating ; armour 
quality castings and similar protective material ; asbestos ; 
cables, telegraph and telephone ; camp equipment, articles 
of ; cannon and other ordnance, and parts thereof ; carbolic 
acid ; carriages and mountings for cannon and other ordnance 
and for machine-guns, and parts thereof ; coal, steam, large ; 
compasses and parts thereof, including fittings, such as 
binnacles ; cresol ; engine and boiler packings ; explosives 
of all kinds ; fuel manufactured ; implements and apparatus 
designed exclusively for the manufacture of munitions of 

75 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

war, for the manufacture or repair of arms, or of war material 
for use on land and sea ; india rubber-sheet, vulcanised ; 
manganese ; mercury ; mica ; mineral jellies ; mines, and 
parts thereof ; molybdenum ; nitrocresol, nitrates of ammo- 
nium, nitrates of potassium, nitrates of sodium, nitratoluol, 
nitric acid ; picric acid and its components ; rangefinders 
and parts thereof ; rope and steel wire and hawsers ; salt- 
petre ; sounding-machines and gear ; steam vessels, lighters 
and barges of all descriptions ; sulphur, sulphuric acid ; 
swords, bayonets and other arms not being fire-arms and 
parts thereof ; tin ; tinplates ; torpedo tubes ; torpedoes and 
parts thereof ; tungsten ; vanadium ; four-wheeled wagons 
capable of carrying one ton and over ; two-wheeled carts 
capable of carrying 15 cwt. and over ; harness and saddlery 
of all kinds ; brass wire for long spans 450 Ibs. per mile ; 
horse and pony shoes ; materials for telegraphs ; wireless 
telegraphs and telephones ; field glasses and telephones ; 
field glasses and telescopes ; railway materials, both fixed and 
rolling stock ; men's marching and shooting boots ; helio- 
graphs ; portable forges ; farriers', carpenters', wheelers/ 
and saddlers' tools, and transport service sets ; glycerine ; 
alcohol as covering rectified spirits ; uniform clothing and 
military equipment ; accoutrements ; walnut wood of scant- 
ling which can be made into rifle butts and fore-ends. 



August 7, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 
REGULATING POSITION OF GERMANS IN CANADA 

Present 
His Royal Highness the GOVERNOR-GENERAL in Council. 

WHEREAS there are many immigrants of German nation- 
ality quietly pursuing their usual avocations in various parts 
of Canada and it is desirable that such persons should con- 
tinue in such avocations without interruption ; 

Therefore His Royal Highness the Governor-General in 
76 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

Council is pleased to Order and it is hereby Ordered as 
follows : 

(1) Such persons so long as they quietly pursue their 
ordinary avocations, shall not be arrested, detained or inter- 
fered with unless there is reasonable ground to believe that 
they are engaged in espionage, or attempting to engage in 
acts of a hostile nature, or to give information to the enemy, 
or unless they otherwise contravene any law, Order in Council, 
or proclamation ; 

(2) All German Officers or Reservists attempting to leave 
Canada at any port on the Atlantic or on the Pacific shall be 
arrested and detained. 1 l [See 

(3) That, while it is impossible to guard effectually the P- 2 9 6 -] 
boundary line between Cana/ia and the United States for like 
purposes, precautions shall be taken at important points such 

as Halifax, St. John, Quebec, Montreal, Kingston, Toronto, 
Niagara, Hamilton, London, Windsor, Sarnia, Sault Ste. 
Marie, Port Arthur, Fort William, Winnipeg, Regina,Moosej aw, 
Calgary, Lethbridge, Revelstoke, Sicamous, Mission Junction, 
New Westminster, Vancouver, Victoria, and any other similar 
points in the discretion of the Minister of Militia to prevent 
German Officers or Reservists from leaving Canada for the 
purpose of entering the United States and thence proceeding 
to Germany, and any such Officers or Reservists making any 
such attempt shall be arrested and detained ; 

(4) Any legislation necessary to ratify and enforce this 
Order in Council shall be submitted to Parliament at the next 
session thereof. 

[A Proclamation, A. No. 24, to the above effect was pub- 
lished in the Extra Canada Gazette on August 8, and a similar 
Proclamation, A. No. 29, respecting Austro-Hungarian Alien 
Enemies was published on August 13.] 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 

AUTHORISING PURCHASE OF Two SUBMARINES BUILT FOR 

CHILE 

The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them B. 
a Report, dated 6th August~i9i4, from the Minister of the 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Naval Service, submitting that, in view of the existing emer- 
gency, it is necessary to provide some additional means of 
Naval Defence on the Pacific Coast of Canada. 

1 [See pp. The Minister states that two submarine boats 1 have been 

ii and offered to the Dominion Government ; that these boats were 

I 9 I J originally built for the Chilean Government, which was unable 

to receive them, and that their dimensions are as follows : 

Displacement . . 313 tons. 

Length . . . 144 feet and 125 feet respectively. 

Beam .... 15 feet. 

Speed 18 knots. 

The Technical Officers of the Department of the Naval 
Service report that these boats are very suitable and recom- 
mend their purchase. 

The Minister concurs and recommends, therefore, that 
these boats be purchased for the sum of One million and fifty 
thousand ($1,050,000) dollars, and that, as the necessity is 
urgent, a Governor-General's warrant be issued covering this 
expenditure, the Minister of Finance having reported that 
there is no Parliamentary Appropriation from which this 
expenditure can be defrayed. 

The Committee advise that a Governor-General's Warrant 
do issue as recommended accordingly. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 

AUTHORISING TRANSFER OF THE Two SUBMARINES TO 
ROYAL NAVY 

B. His Royal Highness the Governor-General in Council, 
under and in pursuance of the provisions of section 23 of 
the Naval Service Act, 1910, is pleased to Order and it is 
hereby Ordered as follows : 

The two submarine boats now at Esquimalt, B.C., are 
hereby placed at the disposal of His Majesty for general 
service in the Royal Navy. 



78 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 

SUSPENDING THE ISSUE OF MONEY ORDERS TO EUROPEAN 

COUNTRIES 

The Committee of the Privy Council, on the recommenda- A'. No. 277. 
tion of the Postmaster General, advise that, owing to the [See pp. 
unsettled financial conditions now prevailing in Europe and I02 
the high rate of exchange that prevails between Canada and I3C J 
Great Britain, which may fluctuate from day to day, money 
order business between Canada and all European countries, 
including the United Kingdom, be suspended, and that money 
order business be suspended with all countries with which 
Canada has not a direct exchange, as the settlement with 
such countries has to be made through the British Office, 
and will be affected by the high rate of exchange in the same 
manner as the direct exchange on money orders between 
Canada and Great Britain. 






PROCLAMATION 
PROHIBITING THE EXPORTATION OF CERTAIN COMMODITIES 

WHEREAS it is in and by section 291 of The Customs Act, A. No. 22. 
chapter 48 of the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1906, enacted Extra 
that the Governor in Council may, from time to time, prohibit Canada 
the exportation or the carrying coastwise or by inland naviga- Gazette, 
tion, of arms, ammunition and gunpowder, military and naval Au &- 7 
stores, and any articles which the Governor in Council deems I914 ' 
capable of being converted into or made useful in increasing ^ Cf * p * 75-1 
the quantity of military or naval stores, provisions or any 
sort of victual which may be used as food by man ; 

And Whereas it is in and by section 242 of the said Act 
further enacted that If any goods, the exportation or carry- 
ing coastwise or by inland navigation of which is prohibited 
by this Act or by the Governor irrCouncil under the authority 
of this Act, are exported, carried coastwise or by inland naviga- 
tion, or water borne, or laden in any railway carriage, or other 

79 




DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

vehicle for the purpose of being so exported or carried, they 
shall be seized and forfeited ; 

And Whereas our Governor-General in Council deems it 
necessary and in the public interest that the exportation from 
Canada be prohibited as in the manner hereinafter set forth, 

Now Know Ye that We do by these presents and by and 
with the advice of Our Privy Council for Canada, until We 
shall see fit otherwise to declare that the exportation from 
Canada of the following articles to any places other than the 
United Kingdom or any British Possessions be prohibited : 

Arms of all kinds and their distinctive component parts ; 

Projectiles, charges and cartridges of all kinds and their 
distinctive component parts ; 

Powder and explosives, specially manufactured or pre- 
pared for use in war. 

Gun mountings, limber boxes, limbers, military wagons, 
field forges, and their distinctive component parts ; 

Petroleum and its products, used for fuel or as a lubricant ; 

Saddle, draught and pack animals, suitable for use in war ; 

Chrome and ferrochrome ; cotton suitable for use in the 
manufacture of explosives ; cotton waste, dimithylaniline, 
fulminate of mercury ; blast-furnace oil ; fuel oil shale ; 
mineral lubricating oil ; silk cloth, silk braid, silk thread 
suitable for cartridge charges ; surgical dressings and bandages ; 

Clothing and equipment of a military character ; 

All kinds of harness of a military character ; 

Articles of military camp equipment and their component 
parts ; 

Implements and apparatus, designed for the manufacture 
or repair of arms or war material ; 

And further that the exportation from Canada, to any 
places other than the United Kingdom, British Possessions, 
the United States, Japan, France, and Russia, of the follow- 
ing article be prohibited : 

COAL. 



.So 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

August 8, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

FOR CONVERSION OF LONG Ross RIFLES, ETC. ' 

The Committee of the Privy Council, on the recommenda- B. 
tion of the Minister of Militia and Defence, advise that a [See p. 85.] 
contract be made with the Canada Tool and Specialty Com- 
pany, Limited, of New Glasgow, for the conversion of 10,000 
long Ross rifles, and the supply of 10,000 screw elevating 
sights and charger guide bridges, subject to the following 
conditions : 

1. That the company take delivery, F.O.B. cars, New 
Glasgow, of 10,000 long Ross rifles, in carload lots, packed in 
chests. 

2. That the company remove the sight bases and hand 
guards, etc., from the rifles, and fit them with new screw 
elevating sights and new charger guide bridges, placed on the 
rear position, and also new hand guards of a proper pattern. 

3. That the design of the sight and bridge should be the 
same as that approved for the long Ross Mark II., and that 
the components should be interchangeable therewith. 

4. That the new sights, charger guide bridges and hand 
guards should all be manufactured by the company in their 
factory at New Glasgow. 

5. That all the work and materials, to be done and pro- 
vided under the proposed contract, be subject to inspection 
by the Chief Inspector of Arms and Ammunition, or other 
officer appointed for that purpose by the Minister ; and shall 
be accepted only upon the report of such officer. 

6. That the inspector shall have access to the company's 
factory during the progress of the work at all reasonable times. 

7. That all necessary plans, drawings and specifications be 
furnished by the Minister. 

8. That after the completion of the work and its accept- 
ance by the Inspector, the company shall repack and ship 
the rifles to the Chief Inspector of Arms and Ammunition, 
Quebec ; or to such other address as may be required. 

9. That the company be paid $3.30 for each rifle so con- 
verted, F.O.B. cars, New Glasgow ; this price to include the 
work of conversion and the supply of new sights, charger 

OVERSEAS I. F 8l 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

guide bridges and hand guards ; as well as the cost of all 
plant, tools, jigs, fixtures, etc., necessary for the work. 

10. That the work should be begun on or before October ist, 
1914, provided the rifles are available at that time ; and should 
be completed on or before April i, 1915. Any delay in the 
delivery of the rifles to the company will entitle the company 
to a corresponding extension of the time for completion of 
the contract. 

11. That all payments to be made to the company under 
the proposed contract shall be charged against Appropria- 
tions for the then current fiscal year. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 

FOR ORGANISATION OF CITY CORPS BATTALION AT HULL 

(QUEBEC) 

B. The Committee of the Privy Council, on the recommenda- 
tion of the Minister of Militia and Defence, advise that the 
attached draft General Order, dated 7th August 1914, author- 
ising the organisation of an eight-company City Corps Battalion 
of Infantry at Hull, P.Q., be approved. 

The Minister observes that statement of the expenditure 
involved is attached hereto. 

GENERAL ORDER 
1914 

Headquarters, Ottawa, jth August 1914. 

ORGANISATION 

3rd Division. The organisation of an eight-company City 
Corps Battalion of Infantry, with headquarters at Hull, P.Q., 
is authorised. 

(H.Q. 31-1-157) 
(H.Q. 32-9-24 ) 
By Command, 

VICTOR A. S. WILLIAMS, 

Colonel, Adjutant-General. 
82 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

ORGANISATION 
The expense involved under this head is as follows : 

HULL REGIMENT OF INFANTRY 

Arms and Equipment . . . . $22,011 
Clothing ...... 18,418 

Total initial expense . . $40,429 

In addition there will be annual expenses of training 
amounting, with the Regimental Allowances, to, approxi- 
mately, $9500. 

[The General Order appeared on August 8 in the Canada 
Gazette.} 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 
FOR INCREASE OF ROYAL NORTH-WEST MOUNTED POLICE 

The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them B. 
a Memorandum from the President of the Privy Council, dated [Cf. p. 91.] 
7th August 1914, submitting the annexed report, of even date, 
from the Comptroller of the R.N.W.M. Police, in which he 
concurs. 

The Minister recommends that steps be taken at the 
approaching session of Parliament to obtain authority for 
the increase of the Royal North- West Mounted Police to 
1200 Non-commissioned Officers and Constables for the 
period of one year. 

The Minister further recommends that the sum of $600,000 
be placed in the Estimates to be submitted at the coming 
session of Parliament to meet the expenses of the above 
increase. 

The Committee concur in the foregoing recommendations 
and submit the same for approval. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



August 10, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

AUTHORISING COMPOSITION OF OVERSEAS EXPEDITIONARY 

FORCE 

The Committee of the Privy Council, on the recommenda- 
tion of the Minister of Militia and Defence advise that authority 
be granted for the Canadian Overseas Expeditionary Force to 
be composed in accordance with the accompanying table. 

THE CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

Statement showing by arms, etc., the strength (all ranks) 
of the force which it is proposed to assemble at Valcartier, P.Q., 
prior to the embarkation of a Division, with which a quota of 
L. of C. (Administrative) units. 





DIVISION. 






rt fe 

<L> 8 

T3 ^ 5 (/> 




Arms, etc. 




L. of C. 
(adminis- 
trative) 
units. 


Total 
embarking 
strength. 


IMS 

Sg|3 

3'g rt'S 


Total force 
assembling 

Valcartier, 

T> r\ 


In the 


Details 
at the 




field. 


oversea 








P.Q. 






base. 






fail! 




Commanders, staffs 














special appoint- 














ments, police, etc. 


QO 




. . 


90 


12 


102 


Cavalry 


157 


14 




171 


25 


196 


Artillery 


3,888 


37 6 


"60 


4,324 


500 


4,824 


Engineers 


442 


42 


. . 


484 


50 


534 


Signal Service 


160 


14 


m , 


174 


25 


199 


Infantry 


12,025 


1,200 


. . 


13,225 


2,OOO 


15,225 


Army Service Corps 


567 


50 


1,161 


1,778 


60 


1,838 


Army Medical Ser- 














vice 


698 


54 


692 


1,444 


60 


1,504 


Army Veterinary 














Service 


ii 


. . 


H5 


126 


IO 


136 


Ordnance Corps 


18 




167 


185 


20 


205 


Army Pay Corps . 


2 


. . 


100 


102 


10 


112 


Postal Corps . 


15 


. 


100 


US 


10 


125 


Total 


18,073 


i,75o 


2,395 


22,2l8 


2,782 


25,000 



N.B. Chaplains and nursing sisters not included. 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

ORDER IN COUNCIL 

RESPECTING CANADIAN OFFICERS IN UNITED KINGDOM 

The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them B. 
a Report, dated 7th August 1914, from the Right Honourable 
the Secretary of State for External Affairs, to whom was 
referred a telegraphic despatch, 1 dated 5th August 1914, from l [Seep. 8.] 
the Right Honourable the Secretary of State for the Colonies 
to Your Royal Highness. 

The Committee on the recommendation of the Secretary 
of State for External Affairs, advise that Your Royal High- 
ness may be pleased to inform the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, by telegraph, that the services of any Canadian 
Officers on duty at the present time in the United Kingdom, 
who may be usefully employed there, are at the disposal of 
His Majesty's Government, also that Canadian Officers and 
men whose training is finished or interrupted and whose 
services are not required in the United Kingdom should return 
to Canada at once. 

All which is respectfully submitted for approval. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 
AUTHORISING CONTRACT WITH Ross RIFLE COMPANY 

The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them B. 
a Report, dated loth August 1914, from the Minister of [See pp. 
Militia and Defence, recommending that an order be given 8l and 
to the Ross Rifle Company for 30,000 rifles, 30,000 screw I21 '-" 
elevating sights therefor, and 30,000 bayonets complete with 
scabbards, for delivery during the calendar year 1914. 

The Minister states that under the terms of the contract 
existing between the Government and the Ross Rifle Company 
it is provided that in case of war, actual or threatened, or 
any national emergency, the Contractor shall do his utmost 
to manufacture at his factory and deliver to the Government 
all such rifles as may be reasonably required and shall, if need 
be, operate his factory at any time to twenty-four hours per 
day until delivery of the rifles required is completed. 

85 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

The Minister further states that this order shall be subject 
in all respects to the provisions of the existing contract with 
the Ross Rifle Company for the manufacture and supply of 
rifles, and subject also to the following further conditions : 

1. That the rifles shall be Long Ross, Mark III., Pattern, 
and the screw elevating sight shall be the pattern which was 
adopted for that rifle. Also that the said sights shall be 
attached to, and delivered with, the rifles alluded to above. 

2. That the bayonets and scabbards shall be of the 
pattern authorised for use with Mark III. rifles. 

3. That in accordance with the provisions of Orders in 
Council dated 7th April 1913 and 7th November 1913, the 
price of the rifles is to be $26.90 each without the screw 
elevating sight ; the price of the sights $1.10 each ; and the 
price of the bayonets, each with .complete scabbard, $5.25 
each. 

4. That delivery will be taken by the Department of 
Militia and Defence at the Inspection premises of the Chief 
Inspector of Arms and Ammunition, Quebec, delivery of the 
entire lot to be completed on or before 3ist December 1914. 

The Committee concur in the foregoing and submit the 
same for approval. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 
SUSPENDING THE PAYMENT IN GOLD OF DOMINION NOTES 

A. No. 278. The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them 
[See pp. a Report, dated 8th August 1914, from the Minister of Finance, 
59, 221-4.] submitting, with reference to the Orders in Council of the 
3rd August 1914, under which arrangements were made with 
a view to preserving the gold supply of the Dominion of 
Canada from depletion, that, in his opinion, it became desir- 
able that steps be taken at that time to preserve intact the gold 
reserve held by him under the provisions of the Dominion 
Notes Act. 

The Minister, accordingly, gave instructions on the 4th 
August 1914, that, until further notice, Dominion Notes 
would not be redeemed at the offices of the Assistant Receivers 
General in specie. 
86 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

The Minister recommends that his action in this regard be 
confirmed, and that at the next session of Parliament legisla- 
tion be obtained to legalise the course thus taken. 

The Committee concur in the foregoing and submit the 
same for approval. 



August n, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

RESPECTING CIVIL SERVANTS VOLUNTEERING FOR ACTIVE 

SERVICE 

The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them B. 
a Report, dated ipth August 1914, from the Right Honour- 
able the Prime Minister, stating that since the outbreak of 
war a large number of persons employed in the Civil Service 
of Canada, who are enrolled in the active Militia, have applied 
for leave of absence to serve at home or abroad, and many 
others not so enrolled have signified a desire to volunteer for 
service either in Canada or abroad. 

The Minister observes that, considering the needs of the 
several Departments of the Government in order to maintain 
and carry on the public service and the necessity of retaining 
a sufficient number of experienced and qualified men for such 
purpose, and after consulting the heads of the various Depart- 
ments, he is of opinion it will not be possible or expedient to 
grant all applications of this character. 

The Minister, therefore, recommends as follows : 

Any person in the service of the Government, whether the 
inside or the outside service, who is enrolled in the active 
Militia shall if required by the head of his Department, with 
the consent of the Minister of Militia, resume his duties in the 
public service although he has been called out for active 
service as a member of the Militia. 

Subject to the foregoing provision all persons in the employ- 
ment of the Government of Canada who, during the present 
war, have been or may be called out for active service as 
members of the Militia, and all persons who, with the consent 
of the head of the Department in which they are engaged, 
enlist in any expeditionary force raised in Canada for service 
abroad during the war, shall be entitled to receive their 

87 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

regular salary during such period of service subject to such 
regulations and conditions as to the payment of such salary 
to the families or dependants of such persons or otherwise as 
may be prescribed by Order in Council or by the head of the 
Department in each case. 

The Committee concur in the foregoing and submit the 
same for approval. 



August 12, 1914. 

ORDER IN COUNCIL 

AUTHORISING. REORGANISATION OF EARL GREY'S OWN 

RIFLES 

B. The Committee of the Privy Council, on the recommenda- 
tion of the Minister of Militia and Defence, advise that the 
attached draft General Order, dated 7th August 1914, 
authorising the reorganisation of Earl Grey's Own Rifles as 
a 4-company City Corps, be approved. 

The Minister observes that a statement of the expenditure 
involved is attached hereto. 



Extract from the Canada Gazette of Saturday, August 8, 1914 

o 

GENERAL ORDER 
1914 

Headquarters, Ottawa, *jth August 1914. 

ORGANISATION 

Military District No. n Earl Grey's Own Rifles. The 
reorganisation of Earl Grey's Own Rifles as a 4-company City 
Corps is authorised. (H.Q. 7-114-1) 

By Command, 

(Sgd.) VICTOR A. S. WILLIAMS, 

Colonel, Adjutant-General. 
88 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 



EARL GREY'S OWN RIFLES 

Clothing $7,042 

Arms and Equipment . . . . 9,749 

Total initial cost .... $16,791 

In addition the annual cost of $6000 for training and 
allowances. 

Provision made in Supplementary Estimates 1914-15. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 

AUTHORISING CALLING OUT TROOPS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 
AND YUKON TERRITORY 

The Committee of the Privy Council, on the recommenda- B. 
tion of the Minister of Militia and Defence, advise that the 
accompanying draft General Order, dated loth August 1914, 
calling out the troops in No. n Military District on Active 
Service, be approved. 

. Extract from the Canada Gazette 

CANADIAN MILITIA 

1914 

Headquarters, Ottawa, August 10, 1914. 
CALLING OUT TROOPS ON ACTIVE SERVICE 

In virtue of an Order by His Royal Highness the Governor- 
General in Council, numbered P.C. 2068, dated the 6th day 
of August I9I4, 1 and made under the authority of section 69 l [See 
of the Militia Act, the corps and parts of corps hereinafter P- 7 2 -] 
mentioned, having their headquarters in Military District 
No. n, are placed on Active Service at their full peace estab- 
lishment for such special duties and at such points as may 
be ordered by the officer commanding that District, or as 
may hereafter from time to time be directed from Militia 
Headquarters : 

89 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [AI 

CAVALRY 

30th Regiment British Columbia Horse. 
3ist Regiment British Columbia Horse. 
Victoria Independent Squadron. 

ARTILLERY 

Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery (No. 5 Company). 
5th Regiment Canadian Garrison Artillery. 

ENGINEERS 

3rd (Fortress) Company Royal Canadian Engineers. 
6th Field Company Canadian Engineers. 

CORPS OF GUIDES 

No. ii Detachment, Corps of Guides. 

INFANTRY 

6th Regiment. 

nth Regiment. 

5oth Regiment. 

72nd Regiment. 

88th Regiment. 
iO2nd Regiment. 
I04th Regiment. 

Grand Forks Independent Company of Rifles. 
Nanaimo Independent Company. 

CANADIAN SIGNAL CORPS 

No. ii Section, Canadian Signal Corps. 

CANADIAN ARMY SERVICE CORPS 

No. 19 Company, Canadian Army Service Corps. 

ARMY MEDICAL SERVICES 

No. XVIII. Field Ambulance 

No. ii Detachment, Permanent Army Medical Corps. 
90 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

* 

CANADIAN ARMY VETERINARY CORPS 

No. ii Section, Canadian Army Veterinary Corps. 

CANADIAN ORDNANCE CORPS 

No. ii Detachment, Canadian Ordnance Corps. 

CANADIAN ARMY PAY CORPS 

No. 10 Detachment, Canadian Army Pay Corps. 
By Command, 

(Sgd.) VICTOR A. S. WILLIAMS, 

Colonel, Adjutant-General. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 

AUTHORISING REOPENING OF ST. PETER'S CANAL, CAPE 

BRETON 

The Committee of the Privy Council, on the recommenda- 
tion of the Minister of Railways and Canals, advise that, in 
view of the present crisis in International affairs, the St. 
Peter's Canal, Cape Breton, which, by the authority of an 
Order in Council of the 3rd July 1914, was closed to public 
traffic on the I5th of that month, be reopened and maintained 
in operation until further directed. 



August 13, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 
RESPECTING ROYAL NORTH-WEST MOUNTED POLICE 

The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them B. 
a Report, dated nth August 1914, from the Right Honourable [Cf. p. 83.] 
the President of the Privy Council, submitting for the con- 
sideration of Council the annexed report from the Comptroller 
of the Royal North- West Mounted Police, of even date, in 
which he concurs. 

9* 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

The Minister recommends that the following regulations 
with regard to the engagement of new men and the re-engage- 
ment of pensioners and ex-members of the Force for service 
during the war, be approved : 

1. Married men may be engaged or re-engaged. 

2. That separation allowance at the rate of $20 per month 

be granted to married men, with the exception of 
pensioners, for the maintenance of their families. 

3. That pensioners be permitted to draw their pensions 

for the support of their families, and that in cases 
where the pension is less than $20 per month, separa- 
tion allowance to make up the difference be paid to 
them. 

The Committee submit the same for approval. 

Royal North-West Mounted Police 

Ottawa, August n, 1914. 

MEMORANDUM re engagement of married men and re-engage- 
ment of pensioners and ex-members of the Force for 
service during the War. 

Paragraph 1274 of the R.N.W.M. Police Rules and Regu- 
lations provides that married men are not eligible for engage- 
ment. 

The undersigned respectfully recommends that this regu- 
lation be cancelled so far as relates to the engagement of new 
men or re-engagement . of ex-members of the Force, during 
the present emergency, and that married men, otherwise 
qualified, be accepted, and that the sum of $20 per month 
be allowed for the maintenance of their families, provided 
their husbands are separated from them. 

In the cases of married pensioners re-engaging the under- 
signed recommends that they be allowed to continue to draw 
their pensions for the support of their families if separated 
from them, and that when the pension is less than $20 per 
month separation allowance to make up the difference, be 
paid to them. 

Respectfully submitted. 

(Sgd.) LAWRENCE FORTESCUE, 

Comptroller. 

92 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

August 14, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

AUTHORISING FORMATION OF PRINCESS PATRICIA'S 
CANADIAN LIGHT INFANTRY 

The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them B. 
a Report, dated nth August 1914, from the Minister of 
Militia and Defence, recommending, with the approval of the 
Imperial Government, that authority be granted for the 
formation of a Battalion under the style and title of ' Princess 
Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry/ 

The Minister states that the battalion will be organised 
on the lines indicated in Expeditionary Force War Establish- 
ments, 1914 ; and when it embarks it will leave behind a 
regimental depot for recruiting purposes. 

That towards arming, clothing, equipping, paying, sub- 
sisting, transporting, and towards any other expense con- 
nected with the formation, training, and maintenance of the 
Battalion, whether in or out of Canada, the sum of one hundred 
thousand dollars will be contributed by Captain Hamilton 
Gault, of Montreal, the remainder being defrayed by the 
Department of Militia and Defence. 

The Minister further recommends that authority be 
granted to the various branches of the Department of Militia 
and Defence to issue the arms, accoutrements, ammunition, 
vehicles, clothing, equipment, stationery, and other articles 
comprised in the ' War Outfit ' of a battalion ; to provide 
horses (riding and draught) ; and to issue such stores and 
supplies as may be required during the process of organisa- 
tion, at Ottawa or elsewhere. 

That to enable officers, non-commissioned officers, and 
men to join the battalion, transportation requisitions will be 
supplied to them by Officers Commanding Divisions and 
Districts ; and the Quartermaster-General is hereby authorised 
to issue the necessary orders. 

That the pay of all ranks will be at the same rate as that 
approved for the other battalions of the Canadian Expedi- 
tionary Force ; and the Accountant and Paymaster-General 
is hereby authorised to issue it from the date on which each 
officer is gazetted and each man attested. 

That the principle of the financial relations between 
Captain Gault and the Department of Militia and Defence is 

93 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYOVERSEAS 

that all payments will, in the first instance, be made by the 
Department, and that a total sum of one hundred thousand 
dollars will be received, subsequently, from Captain Gault. 

That the foregoing arrangements are to hold good until the 
discharge of the officers and men after the return of the 
battalion to Canada. 

The Committee concur in the foregoing recommendations 
and submit the same for approval. 

Copy of Bond entered into by Captain Gault 

Know all men by these presents that I, Hamilton Gault, 
of the City of Montreal, in the Dominion of Canada, Merchant, 
am held, and firmly bound to the Government of the Dominion 
of Canada, in the penal sum of two hundred thousand dollars 
of lawful money of Canada, to be paid to the said Government, 
for which payment well and truly to be made, I bind myself, 
my heirs, executors and administrators, respectively, firmly 
by these presents. 

Sealed with my seal and dated at the City of Montreal, 
this day of August, A.D. 1914. 

Whereas at my request His Royal Highness the Governor- 
General in Council, by an Order in Council dated the day 
August, One thousand nine hundred and fourteen, has 
authorised the formation of a Battalion to be styled the 
' Princess Patricia's Light Infantry ' ; and 

Whereas the said Government, at my request, has under- 
taken to arm, clothe, equip, pay, subsist, train, transport, and 
maintain the said Battalion both in and out of Canada ; and 

Whereas in consideration of such undertaking on the part 
of the said Government I have promised and agreed to pay to 
the said Government the sum of One Hundred Thousand 
Dollars on or before the first day of September 1914 : 

Now the condition of this bond is such that if I, the above 
bounden Hamilton Gault, my heirs, executors or admini- 
strators, do and shall well and truly pay or cause to be paid 
to the said Government the said sum of One Hundred 
Thousand Dollars on or before said First day of September 
1914, then this obligation shall be void, otherwise to remain 
in full force and virtue. 

Signed, Sealed and Delivered 

in the presence of SEAL 

94 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

August 15, 1914. 
PROCLAMATION 

RESPECTING GERMAN AND AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN ALIEN 
ENEMIES IN CANADA 

WHEREAS a state of war exists between the United A. No. 32. 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the German [See also 
Empire, and between the United Kingdom of Great Britain p. 76 and 
and Ireland and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy ; P- 2 5 8 -] 

And Whereas certain instructions have been received from 
His Majesty's Government in connection with the arrest and 
detention of subjects in Canada of the German Empire and 
of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, and particularly of those 
who attempt to leave Canada ; 

And Whereas there are many persons of German and 
Austro-Hungarian nationality quietly pursuing their usual 
avocations in various parts of Canada, and it is desirable that 
such persons should be allowed to continue in such avocations 
without interruption, 

Now Know Ye that by and by with the advice of Our 
Privy Council for Canada, We do by these presents proclaim 
and direct as follows : 

1. That all persons in Canada of German or Austro- 
Hungarian nationality, so long as they quietly pursue their 
ordinary avocations, be allowed to continue to enjoy the pro- 
tection of the law and be accorded the respect and considera- 
tion due to peaceful and law-abiding citizens ; and that they 
be not arrested, detained or interfered with, unless there is 
reasonable ground to believe that they are engaged in espionage 
or engaging, or attempting to engage, in acts of a hostile 
nature, or are giving or attempting to give information to the 
enemy, or unless they otherwise contravene any law, order 
in council, or proclamation. 

2. That 

(a) All German or Austrian or Austro-Hungarian officers, 

soldiers or reservists who attempt to leave Canada ; 

(b) All subjects of the German Empire or of the Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy in Canada, who attempt to 
leave Canada, and in regard to whom there is reason- 
able ground to believe that their attempted departure 
is with a view to assisting the enemy ; and 

95 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

(c) All subjects of the German Empire or of the Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy in Canada engaged or attempt- 
ing to engage in espionage or acts of a hostile nature, 
or giving or attempting to give information to the 
enemy, or assisting or attempting to assist the enemy, 
or who are on reasonable grounds suspected of doing 
or attempting to do any of the said acts ; 
be arrested and detained. 

3. That in addition to and without affecting the power, 
already vested in the Militia in that behalf, power to effect the 
arrest and detention of all or any person or persons coming 
within any of the classes mentioned in paragraph (2) hereof be 
vested in the Chief Commissioner and the Commissioners and 
constables of the Dominion Police Force ; the Commissioner, 
officers and constables of the Royal North-West Mounted 
Police ; and such other persons as may be authorised so to 
do by the Chief Commissioner of Dominion Police. 

4. That such authorities and officers mentioned in para- 
graph (3) hereof, or the militia, be authorised to release any 
such person so arrested or detained as aforesaid of whose relia- 
bility they may be satisfied on his signing an undertaking in 
the form following : 

UNDERTAKING 

I at present 

of in the Province 

of in the Dominion of Canada, 

do hereby declare that I am a German 

an Austro-Hungarian 

Subject ; I now in consideration of my exemption from 
detention as a subject of Germany, do 

Austria-Hungary, 

hereby undertake and promise that I will report to such 
official and upon such terms as the Canadian authorities may 
from time to time prescribe ; that I will carefully observe 
the laws of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 
and of Canada, and such rules as may be specially laid down 
for my conduct ; that I will strictly abstain from taking up 
arms and from doing any act of hostility towards the Govern- 
ment of this Country, and that, except with the permission 
of the officer under whose surveillance I may be placed, I 
will strictly abstain from communicating to any one whom- 
96 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

soever any information respecting the existing war or the 
movements of troops, or the military preparations which the 
Authorities of Canada or Great Britain may make, or as 
respects the resources of Canada, and that I will do no act 
that might be of injury to the Dominion of Canada or the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the 
Dominions and possessions thereof. 

Dated this day of 19*4- 

Witness, 



5. That any such person so arrested and detained as afore- 
said, of whose reliability the officer or authority making the 
arrest is not satisfied, or who refuses to sign such undertaking, 
or having signed same fails to abide by its terms, be interned 
by such authorities and officers or Militia according to the 
usages and laws of war in such place as may be provided by the 
Militia, and that if it be deemed necessary that guards be placed 
on persons so interned, such guards be furnished by the active 
Militia of Canada on the request of such authorities or officers 
to officers commanding divisional areas and districts. 

6. That all such authorities and officers or militia who may 
exercise any of the powers above mentioned be directed to 
report in each case to the Chief Commissioner of Dominion 
Police, stating the name, address, and occupation of the person 
detained or paroled, the date and place of detention and gene- 
rally the circumstances of the arrest and detention, and all 
such information as may be necessary or useful for the purposes 
of record and identification. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 

PERMITTING EXPORT OF COAL TO NORWAY, SWEDEN, 
AND DENMARK 

The Governor-General in Council is pleased to Order as B. 
follows : 

The Order in Council of the 7th August IQI4, 1 prohibiting [See p. 79, 
the exportation of coal from Canada to certain places is cf. also pp. 
hereby amended, and the exportation of such coal from 28 and 2 9-J 
Canada to Norway, Sweden, and Denmark is permitted. 

OVERSEAS I. G 97 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

The Governor-General in Council is further pleased to 
Order this amending Order in Council be proclaimed and 
published in the Canada Gazette. 



August 17, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

PROVIDING LEAVE FOR OFFICERS AND MEN OF THE PER- 
MANENT STAFF AND FORCE SELECTED FOR SERVICE 
ABROAD 

A. No. 279. The Committee of the Privy Council have had under 
consideration a Report from the Minister of Militia and Defence, 
dated I7th August 1914, recommending that officers and men 
of the Permanent Staff and Force who are selected for service 
abroad with the Canadian Overseas Expeditionary Force be 
granted leave of absence, and that, whilst serving on the 
Expeditionary Force, in addition to the rates of pay which 
they may be drawing as members thereof, they shall continue, 
during their service abroad, to receive the pay of such appoint- 
ment, command or rank as they held at the time of their 
selection. 

The Minister further recommends that, on their return 
from active service, they shall resume such appointments, 
commands and ranks as they held on the date of their selec- 
tion, or the equivalent thereof. 

The Committee concur in the above recommendation and 
submit the same for approval. ; 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 

CONFIRMING ORDER OF I4TH AUGUST 1914, RESPECTING DAYS 
OF GRACE FOR DEPARTURE OF AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN 
SHIPS 

A. No. 36. WHEREAS information reached His Majesty's Government 
[See p. 66, before midnight on Saturday, the fifteenth day of August 
cf. also 1914, that the treatment accorded to British Merchant Ships 
Naval i, ari d their cargoes, which at the date of the outbreak of hos- 
P- 89.] tilities were in the ports of Austria-Hungary or which sub- 
98 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

iequently entered them, is not less favourable than the treat- 
nent accorded to the Merchant Ships of Austria-Hungary by 
\rticles 3 to 7 of an Order in Council, dated I4th August 1914, 
Dublished in the Canada Gazette on I5th August 1914, 

Therefore the Governor-General in Council is pleased to 
Drder, and it is hereby ordered, that Articles 3 to 7 of the said 
Order in Council of I4th August 1914 shall come into full force 
and effect as to Merchant Ships of Austria-Hungary. 

The Governor-General in Council is further pleased to 
order that due notice hereof be published in the Canada Gazette 
forthwith. 



August 21, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

ESTABLISHING RATES OF EXTRA PAY FOR SERVICE IN 
SUBMARINES 

WHEREAS, by Order in Council, dated 5th June 1910, rates A. No. 132. 
of pay for Officers and Men of the Naval Service of Canada 
were established ; 

And Whereas, by Order in Council, dated ist August I9I4, 1 i [See 
rates of pay and allowances for the Naval Volunteer Force p. 55.] 
were established ; 

And Whereas, it is necessary, on account of the acquisi- 
tion of submarine boats by the Government, 2 to lay down rates 2 [s ee 
of extra pay for Officers and Men serving in submarines, p. 77.] 

Therefore, the Governor-General in Council is pleased to 
order, and it is hereby ordered, as follows : 

The following rates of extra pay for service in submarine 
vessels, which are based on those in force in the Royal Navy, 
are established for the Officers and Men of the Naval Service 
and of the Naval Volunteer Force who are employed on 
submarine duty : 

Extra Submarine Pay 

Officers above the rank of Sub-Lieutenant . . $1.50 
Sub-Lieutenants, Commissioned Warrant Officers, and 

Warrant Officers . . . . . i.oo 

Chief Petty Officers, Petty Officers, and Leading 

Seamen . . .... 60 

Other ratings ....... 50 

99 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

ORDER IN COUNCIL 

RESPECTING LEAVE TO CIVIL SERVANTS OF ALLIED 
NATIONALITY 

A. No. 281. The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them 
a Report, dated 20th August 1914, from the Right Honour- 
able the Prime Minister, stating that since the outbreak of war 
a certain number of persons of French, Belgian, and Russian 
origin employed in the Civil Service of Canada, are legally liable 
under the laws of their respective countries to military service. 

The Minister recommends that any such persons who 
obtain the permission of the Head of their respective Depart- 
ments to go and do military service for any of the Allied 
Nations shall be entitled to receive their regular salary during 
such period of service, subject to such regulations and con- 
ditions as to the payment of such salary to their families or 
dependants of such persons or otherwise as maybe prescribed by 
Order in Council or by the Head of the Department in each case. 

The Committee concur in the foregoing recommendation 
and submit the same for approval. 



August 22, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

RESCINDING PROHIBITION OF EXPORTATION OF COTTON 

WASTE 

WHEREAS it appears expedient to permit the exportation 
of Cotton Waste from Canada, 

Therefore His Royal Highness the Governor-General in 
Council is pleased to order that the Order in Council of the 
7th August I9I4, 1 prohibiting the exportation from Canada 
of certain articles to any places other than the United Kingdom 
or any British Possession, be amended by striking out of the 
list of articles so prohibited by the said Order in Council the 
words, ' Cotton Waste/ 



PROCLAMATION 
RESPECTING PRIZE COURT RULES 

WHEREAS in and by section 3 of an Act passed by the 
Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
100 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

Ireland in the session thereof held in the fifty-seventh and 
fifty-eighth years of the reign of Her late Majesty Queen 
Victoria and intituled ' An Act to make further provisions 
for the establishment of Prize Courts and for other purposes 
connected therewith/ it was in effect enacted that Her late 
Majesty the Queen in Council might make rules of court, for 
regulating, subject to the provisions of the Naval Prize Act, 
1864, and the said Act, the procedure and practice of prize 
courts within the meaning of that Act, and the duties and 
conduct of the officers thereof, and of the practitioners therein, 
and for regulating the fees to be taken by the officers of the 
courts, and the costs, charges and expenses to be allowed to 
the practitioners therein ; 

And Whereas by an Imperial Order in Council bearing 
date the fifth day of August 1914, certain rules and orders of 
practice and procedure in Prize Courts, which may be cited as 
the Prize Court Rules, 1914, were established, and Order XL VI. 
of the said Prize Court Rules provided that, so far as such 
rules and orders apply to any Court in a British possession 
outside the United Kingdom, they should not come into 
operation until they are proclaimed in the possession by the 
Governor thereof ; 

And Whereas it is expedient and our Privy Council for 
Canada has advised that a proclamation do issue bringing the 
said Prize Court Rules, 1914, into force, 

Now Know Ye that by and with the advice of Our Privy 
Council for Canada we do hereby proclaim and declare that 
the said Prize Court Rules, 1914, shall come into force and 
effect upon, from and after the date of this Our proclamation. 



August 29, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

ESTABLISHING RATES OF PAY AND ALLOWANCES FOR* PETTY 
OFFICERS AND MEN VOLUNTEERING FOR WAR SERVICE 

Present 
His Royal Highness the GOVERNOR-GENERAL in Council. 

The Committee of the Privy Council have had before A. No. 133. 
them a Report, dated 2yth August 1914, from the Minister of 

101 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

the Naval Service, recommending that the following rates of 
pay and allowances be adopted for Petty Officers and Men 
volunteering for war service, who have had previous service 
in the Royal Navy, viz. : 

p. 550 Able Seaman - . . . $1.00 per diem. 

Leading Seaman . . . i.oo 
Petty Officer .... 1.25 
Chief Petty Officer . . . 1.65 

Allowances 

Gunnery and Torpedo ratings According to Naval scale : 
Signalling and Telegraph ratings . .10 cents. 
Stoker ratings . . . . . 20 ,, 

No allowance for badges. 

All ratings to be paid in accordance with their equivalent 
seamen ratings, and to enter with the seniority which they held 
on leaving the Royal Navy. 

Petty Officers and Men to have the option of being placed 
on the above rates, or on the rates of pay and allowances 
already in force in the Canadian Navy for their particular 
rating. 

The Committee concur in the foregoing recommendation 
and submit the same for approval. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 

RESUMING THE ISSUE OF MONEY ORDERS TO THE UNITED 

KINGDOM 

A. No. 283. The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them 

[See pp. a Report, dated 2Qth August 1914, from the Postmaster- 

79 and General, stating that the Post Office Department is in receipt 

II0 of information from the British Post Office Department, to the 

effect that financial conditions are now more settled than when 

money order business was suspended between the two countries, 

and that in view of present conditions it would be safe to issue 

money orders at $4.92 instead of at the old rate of $4.87, and 

recommending the resumption of money order business under 

these conditions and on a basis that no order for more than 

$100 shall be sold to any one person in one day. 

The Minister recommends in view of the above repre- 
102 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

sentations that money order business between Canada and 
Great Britain be resumed, on the conditions above enumerated. 
The Committee submit the same for approval. 



September 3, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

PROVIDING RATES OF PAY AND ALLOWANCE FOR THE 

OVERSEAS FORCE 

. 

The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them A. No. 285. 
a Report, dated 27th August 1914, from the Minister of Militia 
and Defence, recommending that the following daily rates of 
pay be authorised for the troops of the Overseas Contingents, 
these rates being in most cases the same as those now in force 
for annual training : 

DIVISIONAL HEADQUARTERS . 





Pay. 


Allowance 
Field. 




$ cts. 


$cts. 


Commander, Major-General . 


20 00 


4 oo 


General Staff Officer, ist grade 


10 00 


3 oo 


Asst. Adjutant and Quartermaster-General . 


9 oo 


3 oo 


General Staff Officer, 2nd Grade . 


8 oo 


3 oo 


Asst. Director of Medical Services 


8 oo 


3 oo 


Deputy Asst. Adjutant and Quartermaster . 


7 oo 


3 oo 


Deputy Asst. Adjutant-General . 


7 oo 


3 oo 


Deputy Asst. Quartermaster-General 


7 oo 


3 oo 


Chief Paymaster 


8 oo 


3 oo 


Deputy Asst. Director of Veterinary Services . 


8 oo 


3 oo 


General Staff Officer, 3rd Grade . 


5 oo 


3 oo 


Deputy Asst. Director of Medical Services 


5 oo 


3 oo 


Deputy Asst. Director of Ordnance Services 


5 oo 


3 oo 


Ass. Provost Marshal . . . . 


5 oo 


3 oo 


Divisional Paymaster ..... 


5 oo 


3 oo 


Asst. Divisional Paymaster . 


3 oo 


3 oo 


A.D.C. to Commander .... 


3 oo 


3 oo 


Superintending Clerk ..... 


2 OO 


I 00 


Other Clerks 


1 50 


o 50 


Staff Sergeants and Sergeants 


pay of rank 


o 50 


Other Non-commissioned Officers and Men . 


pay of rank 


o 25 



103 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



DIVISIONAL ARTILLERY HEADQUARTERS AND INFANTRY 
BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS 





Pay. 


Allowance 
Field. 




$ cts. 


$ cts. 


Commander . 


9 oo 


3 oo 


Brigade Major ...... 


6 oo 


3 oo 


Staff Captains 


4 oo 


3 oo 


Intelligence Staff Officer 


3 oo 


. 3 oo 


Veterinary Officer 


pay of rank 


3 oo 


Clerks 


i 50 


o 50 


Staff Sergeants and Sergeants 


pay of rank 


o 50 


Other Non-commissioned Officers and Men 


pay of rank 


o 25 



REGIMENTAL RATES ALL ARMS 





Pay. 


Allowance 
Field. 




$ cts. 


$ cts. 


Colonel 


6 oo 


I 50 


Lieutenant-Colonel ..... 


5 oo 


I 25 


Majors . < i . 


4 oo 


I 00 


Captains .... 


3 oo 


o 75 


Lieutenants ...... 


2 00 


o 60 


Adjutants, in addition to pay of rank 


o 50 




Paymasters 


3 oo 


o 75 


Quartermasters . ... 


3 oo 


o 75 


Warrant Officers ' , 


2 00 


o 30 


Quartermaster Sergeants .... 


I 80 


o 20 


Orderly Room Clerks ..... 


I 50 


o 20 


Pay Sergeants ...... 


I 50 


20 


Squadron, Battery or Company Sergeant-Major 
Squadron, Battery or Company Quartermaster 


I 60 


20 


Sergeant 


I 50 


20 


Colour-Sergeant or Staff-Sergeant . 


I 60 


O 20 


Sergeants ...... 


i 35 


o 15 


Corporals . ; . . . 


I IO 


10 


Bombardiers or 2nd Corporals 


I 05 


IO 


Trumpeters, buglers and drummers 


I 00 


IO 


Privates, gunners, drivers, sappers, batmen 






cooks, etc. . 


I 00 


10 



104 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

The Minister further recommends that in addition to the 
foregoing regimental rates, officers in command of regiments 
of cavalry or battalions of infantry, brigades of artillery, or 
other bodies of troops numbering 500 men or over, includ- 
ing Divisional Engineer, shall receive Command Pay at the 
rate of $i a day. This, however, shall not be paid to Divi- 
sional or Brigade Commanders or other officers in receipt 
of a special rate of Staff Pay. 

The Minister also recommends that in addition to pay of 
rank Non-Commissioned Officers and men enlisted and em- 
ployed as Farriers, Shoeing-smiths, Smiths, Saddlers, Fitters, 
Wheelers, Motor-Car Drivers, Cooks, Bakers, and Butchers shall, 
if qualified and recommended by the Officer Commanding the 
unit to which they belong, receive Working Pay at the follow- 
ing scale : 

If recommended by Officer Commanding as ist Class . $1.00 a day. 
" 2nd Class . 0.75 

3rd Class . 0.50 

The number drawing Working Pay must not, however, 
exceed the number shown on the Establishment for these 
Services. 

Armament Artificers, and Armourers, etc., of the Per- 
manent Force, if in receipt of a special rate of pay as such, 
will not be eligible for this special rate of Working Pay. 

Officers, Warrant Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers and 
Men of the Permanent Staff or Permanent Force shall not 
receive a lower rate of pay than they are entitled to in that 
Force. 

The Committee concur in the foregoing and submit the 
same for approval. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 

PROHIBITING THE USE OR POSSESSION OF FIRE-ARMS OR 
EXPLOSIVES BY ALIEN ENEMIES 

His Royal Highness the Governor-General in Council, A. No. 51. 
under and in virtue of the provisions of section 6 of the War * [See 
Measures Act, igi^is pleased to make and doth hereby make p. 215.] 

105 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

the following Orders and Regulations for prevention of the 
use or possession of fire-arms, ammunition, dynamite, gun- 
powder or other dangerous explosives, within Canada, by 
alien enemies : 

1. The possession of fire-arms, or any ammunition therefor, 
or of any dynamite, gunpowder or other dangerous explosive, 
within Canada by any alien enemy, is prohibited. 

2. It shall be the duty of every such person within Canada 
having in his possession or upon his premises any fire-arms or 
any ammunition therefor, or any dynamite, gunpowder or 
other dangerous explosive, within ten days from the publica- 
tion of this ordinance in the Canada Gazette,* to cause such fire- 
arms, ammunition, dynamite, gunpowder or other dangerous 
explosive, to be delivered to a justice of the peace residing in 
or near the locality where such fire-arms, ammunition, dyna- 
mite, gunpowder or other dangerous explosive are so had in 
possession or to an officer or constable of the Royal North- 
West Mounted Police. 

3. Any justice of the peace or any such officer or constable 
receiving any such fire-arms, ammunition, dynamite, gun- 
powder or other dangerous explosive, shall give to the person 
delivering the same a receipt therefor, and shall report the 
fact to the Chief Commissioner of Dominion Police or to the 
Commissioner of the Royal North- West Mounted Police, under 
whose direction the property so delivered shall be retained or 
otherwise disposed of. 

4. If any alien enemy within Canada is reasonably sus- 
pected to have in his possession or upon his premises any fire- 
arms, -or ammunition therefor, dynamite, gunpowder or other 
dangerous explosive, he may be searched, or his premises, or 
any place occupied or believed to be occupied by him, may be 
searched by any peace officer or by any fficer or constable of 
the Royal North- West Mounted Police without warrant, and 
if any fire-arms, ammunition, dynamite, gunpowder or other 
dangerous explosive be found upon the person or premises of 
any such alien enemy, or in any such place as aforesaid, the 
same shall be seized, and if such search and seizure shall have 
taken place after the expiration of the period of ten days here- 
inbefore mentioned, the property so seized may be forfeited to 
the Crown, and the person upon whom or upon whose premises 
or in whose possession any such fire-arms, ammunition, dyna- 
106 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

mite, gunpowder or other dangerous explosive are found shall 
further be liable to a penalty not exceeding five hundred dollars, 
or to imprisonment for any term not exceeding three months. 

5. It shall be an offence for any person to give, sell, hire, 
lease or transfer possession of any fire-arms, ammunition, 
dynamite, gunpowder or other dangerous explosive to any 
alien enemy, and any person guilty of any such offence shall 
be liable to a penalty not exceeding one hundred dollars or to 
imprisonment for any term not exceeding one month. 

6. Any offence declared and any penalty or forfeiture 
imposed or authorised by this ordinance may be prosecuted, 
recovered or enforced by summary proceedings and convic- 
tion under the provisions of Part XV. of the Criminal Code. 

7. If any question arises under this ordinance, or in any 
proceeding instituted thereunder, or with reference to any- 
thing done or proposed to be done under the authority thereof, 
as to whether any person is an alien enemy, the onus of proving 
that any person so suspected or charged is not an alien enemy 
shall lie upon the accused in such proceeding. 



September 4, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

PROVIDING SEPARATION ALLOWANCE FOR WIVES AND 
FAMILIES OF MEMBERS OF EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them A. No. 286. 
a Memorandum, dated 27th August 1914, from the Minister 
of Militia and Defence, reporting that under the regulations 
now existing the wives and families of Officers and Men of the 
Permanent Force are entitled to free quarters, fuel, light, and 
rations in the absence of their husbands on duty, while no such 
provision exists for the non-permanent units of the Overseas 
Contingent, and that it is very desirable to treat both classes 
alike as regards pay and allowances. 

The Minister, therefore, recommends that one scale of 
pay be made applicable to both permanent troops and non- 
permanent troops and, in view of the fact that wives and 
families of the permanent troops are entitled to free quarters, 
etc., in the absence of their husbands on duty, that a money 
allowance to cover quarters, fuel, light and rations be granted 

107 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYOVERSEAS 

the wives and families of the non-permanent troops sent 
abroad at the following scale : 

Rank and file . . . . $20 per month. 

Sergeants and Staff-Sergeants . 25 

Warrant Officers ... 30 

Lieutenants ... . . 30 
Captains . . . .40 

Majors ..... 50 

Colonels or Lieut. -Colonels. . 60 

Provided, however, that there may be deducted from the 
above separation allowance any amount which is being re- 
ceived by the beneficiaries in payment in whole or in part of 
the salary which the husband or father was receiving at the 
time of his enlistment. 

The Committee concur in the foregoing and submit the 
same for approval. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 

AUTHORISING CONTRACT WITH MIDVALE STEEL Co. FOR 

SHOVELS 

C. The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them 
a Report, dated the 3rd September 1914, from the Minister of 
Militia and Defence, recommending that an order be given 
to the Midvale Steel Company, Philadelphia, U.S.A., for 
25,000 shovels of special pattern, at $1.35 each, these shovels 
to be made to the following specification approved by the 
Minister of Militia and Defence : 

The spade to be 8 inches wide, with a curvature of i 
inches below a line from point to point ; 9! inches long in the 
middle and cut away to 7-^ inches at the side. There are two 
holes in each shovel, one at the right hand of the convex, or 
left hand of the concave, this hole to be 3j inches with a 
maximum width of 2 inches flanged on the concave side of the 
hole. When the spade is inverted, that is the point up, the 
point to point ; 9! inches long on the middle and cut away to 
7^ inches at the side. When the shovel is inverted the hole 
will taper from a point about half way up its length towards 
the top. This hole to be flanged. The handle will be integral 
108 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

with the shovel, tapering from 2 inches to f inch in its length 
of 4 inches, and to be the, same thickness as the shovel. There 
should also be a hole in the blade of the shovel f inch to T 5 ^. The 
shovels to be sharpened. The metal to be ^ inch in thickness, 
sufficient to resist, at three hundred (300) yards, at least three 
shots from a United States Springfield and Ross Mark VII. 
ammunition. 

Tests to be one out of every one hundred (100) shovels 
made. 

The Minister states that these shovels are required for the 
troops now mobilised at Valcartier Camp, and. the above men- 
tioned firm has agreed that, if given an order, they will have 
20,000 of the shovels ready for shipment from their factory by 
the 20th instant. 

The Committee concur in the foregoing and submit the 
same for approval. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 
AUTHORISING CONTRACT WITH DOMINION CARTRIDGE Co. 

The Committee of the Privy Council, on the recommenda- c. 
tion of the Minister of Militia and Defence, advise that a 
contract be made with the Dominion Cartridge Co., Ltd., of 
Montreal, for the manufacture and supply of 5,000,000 
rounds of .303 Mark VII. Small Arms Ammunition at $31 per 
1000 rounds ; to be delivered at Quebec subject to the usual 
Departmental inspection ; delivery to be made at the rate of 
25,000 rounds daily beginning I5th November, and to be 
increased to 35,000 rounds daily beginning I5th December 
1914. 



September 5, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 
AUTHORISING PURCHASE OF AUTOMATIC PISTOLS, ETC. 

The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them c. 
a Report, dated 5th September 1914, from the Minister of [Cf.p. 122.] 
Militia and Defence, recommending that he be given authority 
to purchase, for the Canadian Military Forces, 1000 Automatic 

109 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Pistols, 45 calibre, at a price not exceeding $18.50 each ; 
and 10,000 rounds of ammunition therefor, at a price not 
exceeding $40.00 per 1000 rounds. 

The Committee advise that the requisite authority be 
granted accordingly. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 
PROVIDING PARDON FOR DESERTERS . 

A. No. 287. The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them 
a Report, dated 3rd September 1914, from the Minister of 
Militia and Defence, representing that, in view of the present 
war and the necessities arising therefrom, it is desirable that 
pardons be granted those men of the Permanent Force, who, 
on 5th August 1914, were in a state of desertion from that 
Force, and who, on or before 3ist October 1914, surrender 
themselves in Canada and re-enlist for service either in the 
Permanent Force or in the Canadian Overseas Expeditionary 
Force. 

The Minister recommends that pardons be granted as 
above set forth, such indulgence, however, not to extend to 
men who are undergoing imprisonment for other than military 
offences. 

The Committee concur in the foregoing and submit the 
same for approval. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 
RESCINDING ORDER IN COUNCIL, OF 7x11 AUGUST 1914, 

SUSPENDING ISSUE OF MONEY ORDERS 

A. No. 288. The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them 
[See pp. a Report, dated 4th September 1914, from the Postmaster- 
79 and General, stating that the Post Office Department is in receipt 
I< J 2 -] of a cable from the Post Office Department of Great Britain 

stating that money orders can be accepted from Canada for 

all countries for which Great Britain acts as intermediary 

excepting Luxemburg and Constantinople. 

The Minister recommends that the Order in Council 

passed on the 7th day of August 1914, by which money order 



no 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

business was suspended with all European countries, be 
rescinded, and that authority be given to resume money 
order business with the above mentioned countries. 

The Committee concur in the foregoing and submit the 
same for approval. 



September n, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

RESPECTING PATENTS OF INVENTION HELD BY ALIEN 
ENEMIES 

The Governor-General in Council, under and in virtue of A. No. 289. 
the .authority conferred by the War Measures Act, 1914, x is i [See 
pleased to Order as follows : p. 315.] 

The following Orders and Regulations respecting Patents 
of Invention are hereby made and established : 

1. 'Commissioner' means the Commissioner of Patents 
and includes the Deputy Commissioner of Patents. 

2. The Commissioner may, on the application of any person, 
and subject to such terms and conditions, if any, as he may 
think fit, order the avoidance or suspension, in whole or in part, 
of any patent or license, the person entitled to the benefit of 
which is the subject of any State at War with His Majesty, 
and the Commissioner, before granting any such application, 
may require to be satisfied on the following heads : 

(a) That the person entitled to the benefit of such 
patent or license is the subject of a State at War with His 
Majesty ; 

(b) That the person applying intends to manufacture, 
or cause to be manufactured, the patented article, or to 
carry on, or cause to be carried on, the patented process 
within the Dominion of Canada ; 

(c) That it is in the general interests of the country 
or of a section of the community, or of a trade, that such 
article should be manufactured or such process carried on 
as aforesaid. 

The fee payable on such application shall be ten dollars. 
The Commissioner may at any time, in his absolute dis- 
cretion, revoke any avoidance or suspension of any patent 

in 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY -OVERSEAS 

or license ordered by him, but if any person during the period 
of such avoidance or suspension begins to manufacture, use, or 
sell in Canada the invention covered by said patent, such 
person may continue to manufacture, use or sell such inven- 
tion in as full and ample a manner as if such revocation had 
not been made. 

Provided always that the Commissioner may at any time, 
if in his absolute discretion he deem it expedient in the public 
interest, order the avoidance or suspension in whole or in part 
of any such patent or license upon such terms and conditions, 
if any, as he may think fit. 

3. The Commissioner may, at any time, during the con- 
tinuance of these Orders and Regulations, avoid or suspend 
any proceedings on any application made under the Patent 
Act by a subject of any State at War with His Majesty. 

4. The Commissioner may also, at any time, during the 
continuance of these Orders and Regulations, extend the time 
prescribed by the Patent Act or any rules made thereunder, 
for doing any act or filing any document, upon such terms 
and subject to such conditions as he may think fit in the 
following cases, namely : 

(a) Where it is shown to his satisfaction that the 
applicant, patentee, or proprietor, as the case may be, was 
prevented from doing the said act, or filing the said docu- 
ment, by reason of active service or enforced absence from 
this country, or any other circumstances arising from the 
present state of war, which, in the opinion of the Commis- 
sioner, would justify such extension ; 

(b) Where the doing of any act would, by reason of 
the circumstances arising from the present state of war, be 
prejudicial or injurious to the rights or interests of any 
applicant, patentee, or proprietor as aforesaid. 

Such extension of any prescribed time, if granted after its 
expiration, shall have the same effect as if granted prior 
thereto, provided such expiration occurred on or after the 
fourth day of August, 1914. 

5. The Commissioner may refuse to register the assign- 
ment of any patent made by a subject of any State at War 
with His Majesty and filed in the Patent Office on or after the 
fourth day of August 1914, unless satisfied that such assign- 
112 






ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 



ment was made in good faith and not for the purpose of 
evading any of the provisions of the foregoing Orders and 
Regulations. 

6. The term ' person ' used in these Orders and Regula- 
tions shall, in addition to the meaning given thereto by par. 
(20) of Section 34 of the Interpretation Act, include any 
government department. 

7. These Orders and Regulations shall come into opera- 
tion as and from the fourth day of August 1914. 



September 12, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

PROHIBITING DISCLOSURE OF MOVEMENTS OF FORCES OR 
MILITARY OPERATIONS 

His Royal Highness the Governor-General in Council under A. No. 58. 
and in virtue of the Provisions of Section 6 of the War Measures 
Act, I9I4, 1 is pleased to make and doth hereby make the 1 [See 
folio wing. Orders and Regulations for the prevention of the p. 215.] 
giving out of information calculated to be or that might be 
directly or indirectly useful to the enemy and for the preven- 
tion of espionage and generally for the security of the forces 
of His Majesty in Canada and the welfare of the people of 
Canada. 

1. No person shall without lawful authority publish or 
communicate any information with respect to the movement 
or disposition of any of the forces, ships, or war materials of 
His Majesty or of any of His Majesty's allies, or with respect 
to the plans of any naval or military operations by any such 
forces or ships, or with respect to any work or measures 
undertaken for or connected with the fortification or defence 
of any place, if the information is such as is calculated to be 
or might be directly or indirectly useful to the enemy. 

2. No person shall without the permission of the competent 
naval or military authority make any photograph, sketch, 
plan, model, or other representation of any naval or military 
work, or of any dock or harbour work in or in connection with 
a defended harbour, and no person in the vicinity of any such 
work shall without such permission have in his possession any 

OVERSEAS I. H 113 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

photographic or other apparatus or other material or thing 
suitable for use in making any such representation. 

For the purpose of this Regulation the expression ' harbour 
work ' includes lights, buoys, beacons, marks, and other things 
for the purpose of facilitating navigation in or into a harbour. 

3. No person without lawful authority shall injure, or 
tamper or interfere with, any wire or other apparatus for 
transmitting telegraphic or telephonic messages, or any 
apparatus or contrivance intended for or capable of being 
used for a signalling apparatus, either visual or otherwise, or 
prevent or obstruct or in any manner whatsoever interfere 
with the sending, conveyance, or delivery of any communi- 
cation by means of telegraph, telephone, or otherwise, or 
shall be in possession of any apparatus capable of being used 
for tapping messages sent by wireless telegraphy or otherwise. 

4. No person shall with the intent of eliciting information 
for the purpose of communicating it to the enemy or for any 
purpose calculated to assist the enemy, give or sell to a inember 
of any of His Majesty's forces any intoxicating liquor ; and no 
person shall give or sell to a member of any of His Majesty's 
forces employed in the defence of any railways,, dock, or 
harbour any intoxicating liquor when not on duty, with intent 
to make him drunk, or when on sentry or other duty, either 
with or without any such intent. 

5. No person shall do any injury to any railway, or be upon 
any railway, or under or near any bridge, viaduct, or culvert 
over which a railway passes with intent to do injury thereto. 

6. No person shall by the discharge of firearms or other- 
wise endanger the safety of any member of any of His Majesty's 
forces travelling on or guarding any railway or of any autho- 
rised person guarding any railway. 

7. No person, without the permission of the competent 
naval or military authority, shall in the vicinity of any railway 
or of any dock or harbour be in possession of dynamite or any 
other explosive substance, but nothing in this Regulation 
shall be construed as affecting the possession of ammunition 
for sporting purposes. 

8. No person in, or in the neighbourhood of, a defended 
harbour shall, by word of mouth or in writing, spread reports 
likely to create disaffection or alarm among any of His Majesty's 
forces or among the civilian population. 

114 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

9. No person shall, if an order to that affect has not been 
made by the competent naval or military authority, light any 
fire or show any light on any hill within such radius from any 
defended harbour as may be specified in the order. 

10. The competent naval or military authority at any 
defended harbour may by order direct that all lights, other 
than lights not visible from the outside of any house, shall be 
kept extinguished between such hours and within such area 
as may be specified in the order ; and all persons resident 
within that area shall comply with the order. 

11. The competent naval or military authority at any 
defended harbour may by order require every person within 
any area specified in the order to remain within doors between 
such hours as may be specified in the order, and in such case 
no person shall be or remain out between such hours unless 
provided with a permit in writing from the competent naval 
or military authority or some person duly authorised by him. 

12. If any person with the object of obtaining any infor- 
mation for the purpose of communicating it to the enemy or 
of assisting the enemy, or with intent to do any injury to any 
means of communication or to any railway, dock or harbour, 
forges, alters or tampers with any pass, permit or other docu- 
ment, or uses or has in his possession any such forged, altered 
or irregular pass, permit, or document with the like object or 
intent, or with the like object or intent personates any person 
to whom a pass, permit, or other document has been duly 
issued, he shall be guilty of a contravention of these Regula- 
tions and may be tried and punished accordingly ; and where 
in any proceedings against a person for contravention of this 
Regulation it is proved that he has forged, altered, or tampered 
with the pass, permit, or other document in question, or has 
used or had in l^is possession the forged, altered, or irregular 
pass, permit, or document in question, or has personated the 
person to whom the pass, permit, or document was duly 
issued, he shall be presumed to have forged, altered, or 
tampered with it, or to have used or had it in his possession, 
or to have personated such person as aforesaid, with such 
object or intent as aforesaid unless he proves the contrary. 

13. Any person who attempts to commit, or procures, aids 
or abets the commission of any a,ct prohibited by the fore- 
going special Regulations, or harbours any person whom he 

"5 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

knows, or has reasonable grounds for supposing, to have 
acted in contravention of such Regulations, shall be deemed 
to have acted in contravention of the Regulations in like 
manner as if he had himself committed the act. 

14. No person shall without lawful authority sell, give, 
distribute, or permit the selling, giving, or distributing of any 
newspaper, tract or pamphlet or other publication, whether 
printed or published in Canada or not, containing any informa- 
tion which is forbidden to be published or communicated under 
paragraph One of these orders and regulations. 

15. Any person contravening any of the provisions of the 
foregoing orders and regulations shall be liable to a penalty 
not exceeding Five Thousand Dollars or imprisonment for any 
term not exceeding five years or to both fine and imprisonment, 
and such penalty may be recovered or enforced by summary 
proceedings and conviction under the provisions of Part 15 of 
the Criminal Code. 



September 17, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 
RESPECTING AERIAL NAVIGATION 

A. No. 59. His Royal Highness the Governor-General in Council, 

under and in virtue of the provision of section 6 of the War 

1 [See Measures Act, IQI4, 1 is pleased to make and doth hereby 

p. 215.] make the following Orders and Regulations respecting Aerial 

Navigation. 

i. No person shall navigate or be carried in aircraft of any 
class or description over or within ten miles of any of the 
following places, namely : , 

Halifax and Sydney, in the Province of Nova Scotia ; 

St. John and Fredericton, in the Province of New Bruns- 
wick ; 

Quebec, St. Jean, Valcartier and Montreal, in the Pro- 
vince of Quebec ; 

Ottawa, Kingston, London and Toronto, in the Province 
of Ontario ; 

Winnipeg, in the Province .of Manitoba ; 

Regina, in the Province of Saskatchewan ; 
116 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

Calgary and Edmonton, in the Province of Alberta ; 
Victoria and Vancouver, in the Province of British 

Columbia ; 

Charlottetown, in the Province of Prince Edward Island. 
The following Wireless Telegraph Stations in Canada : 
Partridge Island (St. John, New Brunswick). 
Cape Sable, Nova Scotia. 
Sable Island, Nova Scotia. 
Camperdown (Halifax), Nova Scotia. 
Glace Bay, Nova Scotia. 
North Sydney, Nova Scotia. 
Pictou, Nova Scotia. 
Cape Bear, Prince Edward Island. 
Harrington, Province of Quebec. 
Heath Point, Province of Quebec. 
Grindstone Island (Magdalen Islands;. 
Fame Point, Province of Quebec. 
Clarke City, Province of Quebec. 
Father Point, Province of Quebec. 
Grosse Isle, Province of Quebec. 
Newcastle, New Brunswick. 
Quebec, Province of Quebec. 
Three Rivers, Province of Quebec. 
Montreal, Province of Quebec. 
Kingston, Ontario. 
Toronto, Ontario. 
Port Burwell, Ontario. 
Point Edward (Sarnia), Ontario. 
Midland, Ontario. 
Tobermory, Ontario. 
Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. 
Port Arthur, Ontario. 
Le Pas, Manitoba. 
Port Nelson, Manitoba. 
Point Grey (Vancouver), British Columbia. 
Gon^ales Hill (Victoria), British Columbia. 
Pachena Point, British Columbia. 
Estevan Point, British Columbia. 
Triangle Island, British Columbia. 
Cape Lazo, British Columbia. 
Alert Bay, British Columbia. 

117 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Ikeda Head, British Columbia. 
Dead Tree Point, British Columbia. 
Prince Rupert, British Columbia. 

2. No person shall navigate or be carried in aircraft coming 
from any place outside of Canada over any portion of the 
boundary or coastline of Canada or the territorial waters 
adjacent to such coastline, except such portions of the 
boundary and coastline and the territorial waters adjacent 
thereto as are described as follows : 

The Boundary Line south of Canada between Canada and 
the United States. 

3. No person navigating or being carried in aircraft coming 
from any place outside of Canada shall land at any place in 
Canada except within the areas following, and no persons shall 
navigate or be carried in aircraft over any part of Canada until 
after such person has landed in one of the said landing areas 
and has complied with the conditions set forth in paragraph 
4, of these orders and regulations. 

The said landing areas are numbered and described as 
follows : 

No. i A circular area having the Town Hall of the Town 
of Annapolis, in the Province of Nova Scotia, as its centre, 
and having a radius of three miles. 

No. 2 A circular area having the Town Hall of the Town 
of Woodstock, in the Province of New Brunswick, as its centre, 
and having a radius of three miles. 

No. 3 A circular area, having the Town Hall of the Town 
of Lake Megantic, in the Province of Quebec, as its centre, 
and having a radius of three miles. 

No. 4 A circular area having the Town Hall of the Town 
of Hemmingford, in the Province of Quebec, as its centre, and 
having a radius of three miles. 

No. 5 A circular area having the Village Hall of the 
Village of Athens, in the Province of Ontario, as its centre, 
and having a radius of three miles. 

No. 6 A circular area having the Town Hall of the Town 
of Welland, in the Province of Ontario, as its centre, and 
having a radius of three miles. 

No. 7 A circular area having' the Village Hall of the 
Village of Essex, in the Province of Ontario, as its centre, and 
having a radius of three miles. 
118 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

No. 8 A circular area having the Town Hall of the Town 
of Morris in the Province of Manitoba, as its centre, and 
having a radius of three miles. 

No. 9 A circular area having the Town Hall of the Town 
of Estevan, in the Province of Saskatchewan, as its' centre, 
and having a radius of three miles. 

No. 10 A circular area having the City Hall of the City 
of Lethbridge, in the Province of Alberta, as its centre, and 
having a radius of three miles. 

No. ii A circular area having the Town Hall of the Town 
of Chilliwack, in the Province of British Columbia, as its 
centre, and having a radius of three miles. 

4. Every person navigating or being carried in aircraft 
coming from any place outside of Canada, shall comply with 
the following conditions : 

(1) He shall before commencing a voyage in Canada, apply 
for a clearance to such officer named in this paragraph as the 
officer for the landing area on which such person lands, and 
such person shall immediately after reaching Canada, make 
a landing at the nearest landing-place, and shall not continue 
a voyage in Canada until at least twelve hours after such 
officer has issued the clearance to him. 

In the application (of which three copies must be supplied) 
he shall state the following particulars : 

(a) The name and registered number (if any) of aircraft. 

(b) Type of aircraft. 

(c) Name, nationality, and place of residence of the owner, 
of the person in charge, and of every member of the crew, and 
name, profession, nationality, and place of residence of every 
passenger (if any). 

(d) Nature of cargo (if any). 

(e) Proposed points to be visited and destination. 
(/) Object of voyage. 

No change shall be made in the arrangements stated in 
the application unless with the consent in writing of the 
officer applied to. 

(2) No person in any aircraft entering Canada shall carry 
or allow to be carried, 

(a) Any goods the importation of which is prohibited by law. 

(b) Any explosives or firearms, photographic apparatus, 
carrier or homing pigeons. 

119 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

(c) Any mails. 

(3) He shall in his subsequent voyage unless exempted by 
the terms of the clearance, comply with the following con- 
ditions : 

(a) In the case of an airship, at least one Canadian repre- 
sentative approved by the clearance officer, shall be carried in 
the aircraft. 

(b) No photographic or wireless apparatus, carrier or 
homing pigeons, explosives or firearms shall be carried. 

(c) No mails shall be carried. 

(d) The journey shall be effected within the time and by 
the route specified in the clearance. 

(e) The aircraft before quitting Canada shall descend in 
one of the prescribed landing areas and report to the clearance 
officer. 

The clearance officers for the landing areas are as follows : 

The areas Nos. i and 2 The .officer for the time being 
commanding No. 6 Military Division, at Halifax. 

For Area No. 3 The officer for the time being command- 
ing the 5th Military Division, at Quebec. 

For Area No. 4 The officer for the time being command- 
ing the 4th Military Division, at Montreal. 

For Area No. 5 The officer for the time being command- 
ing the 3rd Military Division, at Kingston. 

For Area No. 6 The officer for the time being command- 
ing the 2nd Military Division, at Toronto. 

For Area No. 7 The officer for the time being command- 
ing the 1st Military Division, at London. 

For Areas Nos. 8 and 9 The officer for the time being 
commanding Military District No. 10, at Winnipeg. 

For Area No. 10 The officer for the time being com- 
manding Military District No. 13, at Calgary. 

For Area No. n The officer for the time being com- 
manding Military District No. n, at Victoria. 

5. Foreign naval or military aircraft shall not pass over 
any part of Canada, but these regulations shall not apply to 
naval or military aircraft belonging to or employed in the 
service of His Majesty or of any of his Allies. 

6. The Minister of Militia and Defence may for special 
reasons grant exemptions from any or all of the foregoing 
orders, to such persons as he may deem expedient. 

120 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

7. Any person contravening any of the provisions of the 
foregoing orders and regulations shall be liable to a penalty not 
exceeding Five Thousand Dollars or imprisonment for any 
term not exceeding five years, or to both fine and imprison- 
ment, and such penalty may be recovered by summary pro- 
ceedings and conviction under the provisions of Part .15 of 
The Criminal Code. 



September 19, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 
RESPECTING BRITISH RESERVISTS IN THE PUBLIC SERVICE 

The Committee of the Privy Council, on the recommenda- A. No. 290. 
tion of the Right Honourable the Prime Minister, advise that 
all British reservists employed in the Civil Service of Canada, 
who have been or may be called out on Active Service in the 
present war in Europe, be entitled to receive their regular 
salaries as members of the Civil Service of Canada, while so 
on Active Service, subject to such regulations and conditions 
as to the payment of such salary to the families or dependants 
of such persons or otherwise as may be prescribed by Order 
in Council, or by the Head of the Department in each case. 



September 22, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 
AUTHORISING PAYMENT TO Ross RIFLE COMPANY 

The Committee of the Privy Council have had before C. 
them a Report, dated 22nd September 1914, from the Acting [See pp. 
Minister of Militia and Defence, submitting that an applica- 81, 85.] 
tion has been received from the Ross Rifle Company for a 
payment of $250,000 on account of the order of 30,000 rifles 
recently given that firm, the reasons for this application being 
that they have a very large amount of material coming in 
on which they are obliged to pay cash, and this, in conjunction 
with their increased pay-roll by reason of the factory being 
run twenty-four hours a day, makes it necessary that means 
should be placed at their disposal to enable them to carry on. 

121 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

The Minister recommends in view of the fact that this 
Company was suddenly called upon to turn out 30,000 rifles 
within a short period, their annual output being only 10,000 
that $200,000 be paid over to them on account of the order 
referred to, to enable them to meet their pressing needs, the 
same to be deducted from the amounts due them on progress 
estimates. 

The Committee submit the same for approval. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 
AUTHORISING CONTRACT WITH VICKERS COMPANY 

C. The Committee of the Privy Council, on the recommenda- 

tion of the Acting Minister of Militia and Defence, advise that 
a contract be made with Messrs. Vickers, Limited, of London, 
for the supply of thirty Vickers Light Automatic R. C. Guns, 
each complete with tripod, belt, belt filler and proportionate 
supply of space parts, upon the following conditions : 
The prices to be as follows : 

30 Guns ...... 127 each. 

30 Sets of spare parts .... 56 per set. 

30 Non-telescopic tripods . . . 305. each. 

120 Belts for 250 rounds each . . us. 6d. each. 

30 Belt fillers 14 los. 

1 20 Boxes ammunition . . . . i6s. 6d. 

these being the current War Offices contract prices with 
Messrs. Vickers, Limited. 

Delivery to be made at London to the Officer Commanding 
the Canadian Expeditionary Force, or his representative, on 
its arrival there. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 

AUTHORISING PURCHASE OF AUTOMATIC PISTOLS, ETC. 

C. The Committee of the Privy Council, on the recommenda- 

[Cf. p. tion of the Acting Minister of Militia and Defence, advise that 
109.] authority be given to purchase for the Canadian Military 

Forces, 1000 Automatic Pistols, 45 calibre, at a price not 

122 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

xceeding $18.50 each ; and 190,000 rounds of ammunition 
herefor, at a price not exceeding $40 per 1000 rounds. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 

APPOINTING OFFICERS TO TAKE ATTESTATION OF 
VOLUNTEERS 

The Committee of the Privy Council, on the recommenda- A. No. 291. 
:ion of the Acting Minister of Militia and Defence, advise that 
any commissioned officer in the Militia of Canada of the rank 
of Captain, or superior rank, be authorised to take the attesta- 
tion of soldiers volunteering for service in the present war. 






September 24, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

AUTHORISING THE TAKING OF CONTROL OF TELEGRAPH 
AND TELEPHONE LINES 



His Royal Highness the Governor-General in Council under A. No. 293. 
and in virtue of the provisions, of Sections 6 of the War 
Measures Act, I9I4, 1 is pleased to make and doth hereby * [See 
make the following Orders and Regulations respecting the P- 215, 
transmission and reception of telegraph and telephone messages. also c *- 

WHEREAS it is advisable for the security and defence, peace, p< 5 ' 
order and welfare of Canada, that during the existing war the 
Government of Canada should have control over the trans- 
mission and reception of telegraph and telephone messages by 
any Company and by any body corporate or politic operating 
telegraph or telephone lines within Canada : 

THEREFORE the Governor-General in Council is pleased to 
order and it is hereby ordered as follows : 

The word ' Minister ' wherever used herein shall mean 
such Minister as may be appointed for the purpose by the 
Governor in Council. 

The word ' Company ' wherever used herein shall be inter- 
preted to mean ' Company, firm, partnership, person or 
persons/ 

The Minister by warrant under his hand may direct and 
cause so much of the property, offices or works of any 

123 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Company, body corporate or politic operating telegraph or 
telephone lines in Canada as are within Canada or any part of 
such property, offices or works to be taken possession of in the 
name of and on behalf of His Majesty and to be used for His 
Majesty's service and subject thereto for such ordinary service 
as to the Minister may seem fit, and in that event any person or 
persons authorised by the Minister may enter upon the offices 
and works of any such Company, body corporate or politic, 
and take possession thereof and use the same as aforesaid. 

The Minister may, when he considers it expedient instead 
of or in addition to taking possession of the property, offices 
and works of any such Company, body corporate or politic, 
direct and authorise such person or persons as he thinks fit 
to assume control of the transmission of messages by any such 
Company, body corporate or politic either wholly or partly and 
in such manner as he may direct/and such person or persons 
may enter upon the premises accordingly ; and the Minister 
may direct any such Company, body corporate or politic to 
submit to him or to any person authorised by him, all tele- 
grams and messages, and to stop or delay the transmission of 
any telegram or message or to deliver the same to him or his 
agent ; and the Minister may direct any such Company, body 
corporate or politic to transmit all messages whether by tele- 
graph or telephone that may be passing out of Canada through 
certain named offices only and may require any person going 
into possession as aforesaid or any person employed by any 
such Company, body corporate or politic to subscribe to the 
Oath hereto annexed ; and all persons employed by or con- 
nected with any such Company, body corporate or politic or 
so going into possession of the property, offices and works of 
any such Company, body corporate or politic, shall obey and 
conform to all such directions with reference to the trans- 
mission and reception of cablegrams as the Minister may 
prescribe. 

Any person contravening, or being a director or other officer 
of a Company or Corporation contravening to the knowledge 
with the consent of such director or officer, any of the pro- 
visions of the foregoing orders and regulations shall be liable 
to a penalty not exceeding $5000 (Five Thousand Dollars) or 
imprisonment for any term not exceeding five years or to both 
fine and imprisonment, and such penalty may be recovered or 
124 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL AND PROCLAMATIONS 

enforced by summary proceedings and conviction under the 
provisions of Part 15 of the Criminal Code, and in any such 
proceedings against any such director or officer the onus of 
showing that he did not know of or consent to such contraven- 
tion shall be upon such director or officer. 



DOMINION OF CANADA 
IN THE MATTER OF THE WAR MEASURES ACT, 1914 

I, of the 

of in the 

of 

Do SOLEMNLY SWEAR : 

That I will not until relieved of this obligation by notice in 
writing from the Minister of transmit or 

permit to be transmitted any message whether by telegraph or 
telephone passing through the office or exchange in which I 
am employed and intended for delivery outside of Canada, 
unless I am satisfied on good and reasonable grounds that said 
message contains no matter giving information with respect 
to the sailing of ships or to the movement or disposition of any 
of the forces, ships or war materials of His Majesty or any of 
His Majesty's allies or with respect to the plans of any naval 
or military operations by any such forces or ships or with 
respect to any works or measures undertaken for or connected 
with the fortification or defence of any place, if the informa- 
tion is such as is calculated to be or as might be directly or 
indirectly useful to the enemy, and that I will to the best of 
my ability learn the subject matter, of all messages, intercept 
any message containing any such information, and will immedi- 
ately make known the terms of such message and all facts 
that I can ascertain as to the identity of the sender thereof to 
the 

SWORN BEFORE ME at the of 

in the of 

this day of 

, A.D.I9I4. 

125 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

August 18, 1914. 
SPEECH FROM THE THRONE 

Honourable Gentlemen of the Senate : Gentlemen of the House 
of Commons : 

Canadian Very grave events vitally affecting the interests of all His 

Hansard. Majesty's Dominions have transpired since prorogation. The 
unfortunate outbreak of war made it immediately imperative 
for my Ministers to take extraordinary measures for the defence 
of Canada and for the maintenance of the honour and integrity 
of our Empire. 

With respect to such of these measures as may require the 
sanction and approval of Parliament, the necessary legisla- 
tive proposals will be submitted for your consideration. Other 
Bills authorising additional measures which are essential for 
the public safety will also be presented to you without delay. 

Gentlemen of the House of Commons : 

Estimates will be laid before you to provide for expendi- 
ture which has been or may be caused by the outbreak of 
hostilities. 

Honourable Gentlemen of the Senate : Gentlemen of the House 
of Commons : 

The critical period into which we have just entered has 
aroused to the full the patriotism and loyalty which have 
always actuated the Canadian people. From every province 
and indeed from every community the response to the call 
of duty has been all that could be desired. The spirit which 
thus animates Canada inspires also His Majesty's Dominions 
throughout the world ; and we may be assured that united 
action to repel the common danger will not fail to strengthen 
126 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

:he ties that bind together these vast Dominions in the posses- 
sion and enjoyment of the blessings of British liberty. 

As representative of His Majesty the King, I must add 
rny expression of thanks and admiration for the splendid 
spirit of patriotism and generosity that has been displayed 
throughout the length and breadth of the Dominion. 



August 19, 1914. 
DEBATE ON THE ADDRESS IN CANADIAN SENATE 

Hon. J. BOLDUC said : We learn from the Speech from Canadian 
the Throne that the Government has already mobilised Hansard. 
a portion of the military forces in this country and has 
begun the recruiting of the volunteers to go and defend the 
Motherland, over the seas. 

We also know that important steps have been taken with 
a view to the protection of our seaports, as well as for the 
general safeguarding of the country. These measures, I feel 
sure, will meet with the unanimous approval of the honour- 
able members of this House. We are also aware that, in 
order to meet the important obligations which befall us, we 
shall have to vote the necessary amounts to defray the 
expenditure already incurred and that which will necessarily 
follow. With that purpose in view, I also believe that the 
vote will be unanimous and that no dissenting voice shall be 
heard. 

The war which has just broken out certainly threatens to 
be the most terrible, murderous, and ruinous that has ever 
taken place. 

The armies engaged in this struggle will, before many 
days, number twenty millions of men. One cannot contem- 
plate, without a feeling of horror, the consequences of this 
monstrous war, started by a single individual who, we trust, 
shall dearly pay for his criminal venture. 

The spark which seems to have caused this conflict was 
not, whatever may be said, the outcome of the murder of the 
heir-apparent of Austria by a poor feeble-minded Serbian. 1 1 [( ;), 

To those who have followed European affairs for the last Prmcip 
few years, there can be no doubt that one man only was g as n * 
looking forward to this war, and that man was William II., 

127 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Emperor of Germany, whose criminal ambition is to become 
the Napoleon of the twentieth century. 

What does he care if millions of men be sacrificed to his 
ambition, and lose' their lives in this horrible war, and .if 
millions of other men, women, and children be exposed to 
die of starvation during the war or from the effects of it ; 
what cares he if lead, steel, and fire destroy the greater part 
of Europe, if his inordinate pride is satisfied ? Nero, in his 
incendiarism of Rome, was less of a criminal. 

The first move of German policy was the crushing of 
Austria. 

In 1870 the Prussian eagle, or rather the Prussian vulture, 
lighted on France, and, without any justifiable cause, snatched 
from it, in addition to a heavy indemnity, two of its most 
beautiful provinces. 

Since 1870 we have seen Germany continually at work 
increasing its powerful army, having in view the domination 
of the whole of Europe at the first favourable opportunity, and 
quite decided to bring about this opportunity should it fail 
to arise promptly. England alone seemed to be outside of 
the scope of Germany's greed, but the autocrat had his 
objects, and if he had succeeded in gaining possession of 
every country in Europe, he would not have been slow in 
dictating his ambitious views to England. Fortunately, 
England had foresight, and had penetrated the schemes of 
perfidious William. 

Every time Germany, by its numerous maritime construc- 
tions, attempted to secure the supremacy of the seas, England, 
watchful of her own defence, defeated the plans of her 
rival by more considerable armaments. This is the sole 
explanation of the friction between England and Germany 
for the last few years. The wisdom of the English statesmen 
set to naught the nefarious schemes of William ; the wrath of 
the latter is thus explained. 

We are all aware of the mellow utterances of William to 
England before the declaration of war, but the awakening of 
the impulsive Emperor must have been bitter when England 
proudly replied that she would never be a party to the viola- 
tion of Belgian neutrality nor to the molestation of her friend, 
France. What a disappointment for the conceited monarch, 
on seeing all his schemes falling through. 
128 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

Germany was first awakened by the attitude of Belgium. 
This small nation of brave men did not hesitate, for a single 
noment, to oppose the proud Teuton, in order to preserve 
ts neutrality and to abide by its treaty agreements. 

Notwithstanding the fallacious promises of Germany, this 
>mall nation of heroes has pluckily defended its territory in a 
nanner which calls forth the admiration of the whole world, 
3ven of its enemies. A handful of valiant Belgians succeeded 
n checking the advance of the German giant and enabling 
.he Triple Entente to make preparations for repulsing the 
common enemy. Never before in history has a nation proved 
.tself more heroic than these proud Belgians. To the German 
general, demanding the surrender of Lige, the Belgian com- 
mandant proudly replied : ' Belgians may die, but will never 
surrender.' What a beautiful page to add to the history of 
this valiant nation. Before the standard of Belgium, all true 
friends of liberty should salute, in recognition of brave men 
resolved to maintain the faith of treaties. 

Germany's second disappointment was the refusal of Italy 
to side with the oppressor. The honesty of the Government, 
upheld by the unanimity of the Italian people, prompted 
the answer which is well known to all of us : ' Italy agreed 
by the treaty of the Triple Alliance to support Germany in 
case of invasion of her territory, but not to assist her in the 
invasion of other countries/ We can easily imagine the rage 
of the haughty potentate when he received this proud answer. 
William had thought that passing through Belgium to invade 
France would be a simple walk-over, and that Italy would 
join him in carrying out his scheme to become dictator of the 
whole of Europe. 

What do we see to-day ? It is Belgium which checks 
the tide of German invasion, and which for several days 
past has been inflicting bloody losses on the German hordes 
to such an extent that French territory is not yet invaded. 
Meanwhile, the Russian colossus is advancing slowly but 
surely on Prussia, and in a short time will have reached the 
gates of Berlin. It will not then be France struggling under 
the Prussian heel, but Germany itself squirming under the 
Muscovite pressure, and rendered powerless by the victori- 
ous Cossack ; that is in the best interests of humanity and 
civilisation. 
OVERSEAS i. i 129 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYOVERSEAS 

Germany had also relied on serious divisions in Ireland, 
but we are pleased to notice that war had hardly been 
declared when all parties united for the defence of the Empire. 
Redmond, the great Irish patriot, had no hesitation in recently 
declaiming in the House of Commons : ' You may withdraw 
your battalions from Ireland, and the Protestant Irishmen 
of the North and the Catholic Irishmen of the South will 
march, hand in hand, against the common enemy, in the 
1 [See defence of Ireland/ * 

Military,!., Honourable gentlemen, I do not intend to claim your 
attention much longer, but I may be permitted to say a 
word of the financial situation of the country in this almost 
general critical period. The situation, far from being des- 
perate, is not even alarming. The Government has already 
adopted wise measures, and appears to be decided to adopt 
additional precautions to prevent a panic during the war. 

Unfortunately, times like the present give rise to attempts 
at trusts and speculation. But our Government is watchful, 
and will, I am sure, be able to face the situation and protect 
the people from such extortion, and ensure to our commerce 
and our industries the necessary prosperity, to enable them 
to assist the countries devastated by war. 

However, before concluding, I may ask what should be 
the attitude of Canada under the circumstances, and especially 
of its French-Canadian citizens ? 

Our beautiful country is England's most important colony, 
and is treated with the utmost generosity. 

Under England's protection Canada has enjoyed free 
commerce, over all the seas of the world, assisted by the 
most powerful fleet that has ever existed, and by English 
diplomacy, which has always endeavoured to assure the peace 
of the world, and unite under the broad folds of the flag of 
Albion, those who might assist her in the hour of need. Our 
status of British subjects is a guarantee that we may go 
straight ahead, without fear of foreign oppression. On the 
other hand, we cannot forget that we are descendants of the 
French of Old France, and when we behold the English 
standard flying next to the French colours, there is an irre- 
sistible feeling which stirs the hearts of those who are the 
children of France as well as those of England. 

We cannot imagine the defeat of the Triple Entente 
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PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

without feeling deeply anxious as to what would be our 
uture should Germany be victorious. But I feel sure that 
)ivine Providence will favour our powerful protectors, and 
he lesson taught to our enemies will deter them from further 
>ppression. 

I have no doubt the armies belonging to the Entente 
^ordiale will triumph over German arrogance, and that when 
>eace will be again established the allies of the Triple Entente 
will take the necessary steps to ensure the world's peace for 
,i century to come. 

Allow me to heartily congratulate the brave Canadians 
who do not hesitate to leave their families and their interests 
and expose themselves to the dangers of war for the defence 
of the mother country. They furnish England the proof that 
they have their hearts in the right place. 

If, God forbid, our beautiful Canada should be invaded 
by foreign hordes, I am convinced that all Canadians would 
rise and march as a unit to repulse the enemy and prove 
that Canadians may die, but shall never consent to become 
slaves. 

I move the adoption of the Address. 

HON. E. D. SMITH : I arise to second the motion which 
the hon. gentleman from Beauce has made. Before address- 
ing the House on this question, I wish to thank the hon. 
leader of the Government for the honour he has done me 
and the district from which I come, in asking me to speak 
on what I believe to be an historic occasion in the history of 
Canada. For the first time since the Confederation of these 
provinces, Parliament has been called together to vote large 
sums of money for war purposes, and especially for the first 
time that it has ever voted large sums of money for war 
purposes in a European conflict of vast proportions that the 
people had been anticipating for a considerable time. For 
many years it has been prophesied that this conflict would 
come, and it has come rather sooner than was expected. What 
was the cause of it, and is the United Kingdom justified in 
taking part in the war ? That is a question well worthy of 
discussion. In my humble judgment, the cause of it is simply 
the overweening ambition of the Emperor of Germany. 
Many excuses have been brought forward by the Emperors 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

of Germany and Austria to justify their aggressive policy, 
but I think, every man in this Chamber, almost every man in 
the country, will agree with me that the real cause is the 
ambitious desire of the Emperor of Germany to dominate 
Europe and the world, and to inflict upon Europe and the 
world the military despotism and the military system which 
he has been so successful in establishing in Germany. Having 
a powerful army organised, he first of all seized a portion of 
Denmark, and later on used his army to crush Austria, and 
later to crush France. Having his army established, he 
had the power in his hands to continue to increase it. He has 
done so, and to such an extent that it has become a menace to 
the nations. With his views and the views of those around 
him, that army is a menace to the freedom of the world. I 
regard this as a contest between the powers that believe in 
ruling the world by the force of arms and by military power, 
and those who would be agreeable and delighted to have the 
world ruled and disputes settled by arbitration and diplomacy. 
It is a war between those who believe that force and might 
are right, and those who believe there is a better way to settle 
disputes. It is unfortunate and disastrous that those who 
love peace have to make war, but the time had come when 
war was inevitable with such a man as the Emperor of 
Germany at the head of that great nation. He picked his 
own time for the conflict. He looked round the world and 
thought he saw a civil war about to take place in Great Britain. 
He looked at France, and read statements by the Premier 
of that country that the defences were not what they should 
be. The Balkan States had been weakened by the late war, 
and he thought Russia had hardly sufficiently recovered from 
the contest with Japan. He saw that the overseas posses- 
sions of the British Empire were gradually year by year becom- 
ing more impressed with a sense of their duty to assist the 
mother country. He foresaw that the longer he put the 
conflict off, the stronger those Dominions would be, and he 
thought the time had come to strike the blow. He counted 
on Italy as his ally, but that country thought the contest 
was brought on unjustly, and so far, apparently, has no 
desire whatever to assist the other members of the Triple 
Alliance. When a German army invaded Belgium, England, 
as the guarantor of the liberty and freedom of Belgium, felt 
132 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

t her duty to carry out her promises and go to the assistance 
)f the Belgian people. 

More than that, the people of Great Britain felt that the 
reedom of the British people and of all nations who desire 
;o live in peace throughout the world was threatened, that 
;he time had arrived to fight, and not to wait until France 
s crushed, not to wait until Belgium is absorbed into the 
Serman Empire, not to wait until Germany is still stronger, 
ind more powerful, but to strike now when the time is ripe 
and the cause just. Great Britain has struck. I think the 
best proof that she is justified in doing so can be found, not 
only in our own consciousness but in the tributes that are 
paid to her by the world. Our neighbour, the United States, 
looks on as a neutral nation, and although amongst her popu- 
lation are enormous numbers of German and Austrian origin, 
any of us reading the great daily papers of the United States 
must feel grateful, as British subjects, that the great republic 
believes our course is absolutely justified and warranted. 
Around the world we find every small nation, the independent 
nations, those who love freedom, joining in the chorus that 
England is doing the right thing, doing the noble thing, doing 
what she ought to have done. We in Canada, as a part of 
that great Empire, feel that our safety is at stake ; we feel 
that if the power of England should be broken in the near 
future our independence, our freedom, and our belief in the 
settlement of disputes by arbitration, our love of peace, our 
peaceful homes and rule as we have it in Canada would be 
threatened and shattered ; therefore I feel, as every Canadian 
feels, whatever his origin even Germans themselves that 
we are justified. I have met some Germans in this country, 
and have spoken to others who have met numbers of them who 
say that they would be only too glad to enlist and take part 
in this war. It is not a war against the German people, it is 
a war against a system that has been adopted and carried 
out in Germany, a military system, and the Germans themselves 
will reap the most benefit if the power of the Emperor of 
Germany is broken, as I fully believe it will be. From the 
unanimity of the opinion of this country, including all classes, 
and the unanimity which I am sure we will meet with in this 
hour, it is clear that Canada is justified in doing everything 
she can do to assist the mother country and her Allies in this 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

emergency. If the present contingent is not enough, we will 
send another, and if need be another, until the war is con- 
cluded and settled in a way that is satisfactory to the British 
people and to the free nations of the world. Many people 
seem to feel that it is a time to lose confidence ; business is 
somewhat depressed ; we have just passed through a year or 
more of financial stagnation in the world, and Canadian 
people are prone to think that this is a time when we are 
going to be pinched. Doubtless some of our interests will 
suffer, such as the agricultural implement industry, that does 
a large portion of its business with Russia, and many of our 
homes will no doubt lose some of their loved ones, and will 
suffer in that way ; but I think that Canada stands to gain 
more in this contest in every way than any other nation or 
people in the world. We stand to gain as a nation, because 
it will be fixed and established once for all that Canada is a 
part of the British Empire and is going to stand by it through 
thick and thin. That was established, perhaps, sufficiently 
at the time of the Boer war ; but this will establish it on firmer 
ground than ever, and the nations in future, when they count 
Great Britain and Ireland, will count the British Dominions 
all over the seas as an integral part of that nation. That is 
one thing that will be made clear, and that is something that 
will be well worth while. But looking at it from a financial 
point of view, Canada stands to gain more than any other 
country in the world, because our chief products are agricul- 
tural and food-stuffs, and any one knows that these are certain 
to rise in value. We are certain to gain in that respect, having 
a surplus of exportable products in food-stuffs. We look 
around the world to see what nations export, and we will be 
able to judge more surely what our position will be. Our 
position is such that our trade routes are bound to be pro- 
tected, being shorter than those of any other food-producing 
countries in the world that have large surpluses for export. 
Our routes are sure to be amply protected ; therefore insurance 
and probably freight rates will be lower in proportion than 
from any other country in the world. Some of the countries 
which export agricultural products in large quantities will be 
handicapped. One of those countries is Russia. Russia will 
put an embargo on those products, if she has not done so 
already. Australia is a large exporter of food products, and 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

continue to export during the war, but the route from 
that country is more dangerous and the insurance rates will 
be higher. The Argentine Republic exports large quantities of 
food products to Great Britain and France, but the routes from 
there are not so well defined and protected, and insurance rates 
are bound to be higher. Therefore, of all countries in the world, 
Canada stands to get the advantage from this war if long 
continued. Then we must not forget that there are vast 
quantities of raw material besides food-stuffs that Great 
Britain and France require. Heretofore those raw materials 
have come from various countries in the world, no small 
portion of them from Germany, Austria, and Russia. Those 
sources will be absolutely cut off ; so that whatever raw 
material Canada has of any kind for manufacture will find a 
ready market. She will be in the premier position of all the 
countries in the world to take advantage of her position. 
Even in manufactured goods there will be some little advan- 
tageprint paper, for instance. Then, looking at it from 
another point of view, Germany and Austria have an enormous 
export trade with the other nations of the world, the total 
business of those countries being three billions of dollars a 
year and upwards ; but that enormous trade will be entirely 
ruined and destroyed if the war is long continued, and Great 
Britain and the United States, and other countries not engaged 
immediately in the conflict, will take advantage of it. It is 
the time of opportunity for Canadian manufacturers. If a 
Canadian manufacturer has been engaged in manufacturing 
anything that competes in the trading ground of the world 
with Germany and Austria, he will seize this opportunity to 
forge ahead and get a piece of that market. Therefore it is 
a time when Canadians ought to have confidence. Confidence 
begets confidence. If people get to feel a lack of confidence, 
it inspires a lack of confidence in others. This is a time when 
we should have confidence in ourselves. I think we are 
warranted in having confidence financially as well as politically 
and nationally. We have much to gain, although of course 
we are losing a great deal at the same time. I feel that there 
is no necessity to make an appeal for unity. Canadians are 
a unit if we are to judge by the press and by the conversations 
we have with everybody throughout the country. We are 
an absolute unit, and we have every confidence that this 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Parliament will pass the measures proposed by our Govern- 
ment as the British Parliament did, quickly, and show the 
world that we are united absolutely to carry on this warfare 
to the end. 

HON. H. BOSTOCK : When we parted two months since 
no one anticipated that we should be called together again 
within so short a time, much less that the grave condi- 
tion of affairs such as exist in Europe to-day would have 
arisen. It has been suddenly and very strongly brought to 
the realisation of the people of this country that when Great 
Britain is at war Canada is at war, and that all the interests 
of the Dominion from one end to the other suffer. 

The present conditions show that a struggle of the kind 
that is now taking place is not confined to one part of the 
world, but that on the Pacific Ocean as well as the Atlantic 
Ocean it is necessary to be prepared to protect and defend 
the country from attack. The present is not the time to 
enter into any discussion on this matter, but the Government 
is certainly to be congratulated on the prompt action they 
took in purchasing, before the outbreak of war was announced, 
the submarines l that are now defending, in conjunction with 
the Rainbow, the Shearwater, and the Algerine, the Pacific 
coast, and that they have also pushed on the work of bring- 
ing the Niobe 2 back into commission. This, together with the 
measures taken to strengthen the land defences, has restored 
confidence to the people, who, for a short time, did not know 
what they might expect. In considering the position in 
which Canada is placed to-day, we know that we are support- 
ing the right, that we are helping in a fight not only to main- 
tain the honour and position of the United Kingdom, but to 
preserve the whole basis of civilisation for which we, as a part 
of His Majesty's Dominions, stand ; and here I would like to 
refer to the words used by the Prime Minister of the United 
Kingdom, as quoted in the London Times, where he says : 

[See ' I am entitled to say, and I do say on behalf of this country I 

Diplomatic, speak not for a party but for the country as a whole we made every 
2, p. 427.] effort that a Government could possibly make for peace. This war 
has been forced upon us/ 

In supporting Great Britain in this struggle, Canada knows 
that she has not been placed in a position where she willingly 
136 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

:akes up arms to do her part until every effort that could 
lonourably be made had been put forth to keep the peace, 
md that this war has been forced upon the whole of His 
Majesty's Dominions because, although they were under no 
formal obligations to take part in such a struggle, yet they 
have to fight, to quote again the words of the Prime Minister 
of the United Kingdom : 1 1 [See 

' In the first place, to fulfil a solemn international obligation an 2 , p.^ 
obligation which, if it had been entered into between private persons 
in the ordinary concerns of life, would have been regarded as an 
obligation not only of law, but of honour, which no self-respecting 
man could possibly have repudiated. Secondly, we are fighting to 
vindicate the principle that small nationalities are not to be crushed 
in defiance of international good faith by the arbitrary will of a strong 
and overmastering power.' 

These words place in a concise form the position in which 
we are to-day and the reasons why we are engaged in this 
struggle a struggle not against the German people or the 
German race, but against the form of Imperialism and auto- 
cracy that has too long domineered over a pacific and amiable 
people, oppressing and keeping them from realising their 
natural aspirations. We admire the plucky and determined 
stand that has been made by the people of Belgium in the 
defence of their rights and of their country, and sympathise 
with them in having to bear at the present time the brunt of 
the conflict. This time, as at the time of the Crimea, we are 
the allies of the French, but now we have the Russians also 
with us. In dealing with the legislation that is mentioned in 
the Address as about to be brought before this Chamber, as 
in the House, we shall remember that the responsibility of 
dealing with the present situation rests on the members of 
the Government, that we are here to facilitate their work at 
the present time as much as possible, reserving for a future 
date any criticism that we may then think should be made. 
May I, however, be allowed to express the hope that in 
every way possible the people may be assured that there is 
no need to fear a scarcity of food in this country, and that 
they should be satisfied that everything is being done and 
will be done to keep the price of food-stuffs down to their 
normal level and readjust the trade of the country to the 
altered conditions under which it may have to be carried 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

on. A proper realisation of this position will help very much 
in the present difficulties. 

The last paragraph of the Address, which reads : 

' As representative of His Majesty the King, I must add my 
expression of thanks and admiration for the splendid spirit of patriot- 
ism and generosity that has been displayed throughout the length 
and breadth of the Dominion ' 

will be appreciated by the people as a recognition by His 
Majesty the King, expressed by His Royal Highness the Duke 
of Connaught, of the response made by the people of Canada 
in this hour of trial. 

1 [Minister HON. J. A. LouGHEED i 1 In view of the extraordinary 
without events which have happened during the present month, in- 
Portfolio.] volving the Empire in war with two of the great Powers 
of Europe, it is but commonplace to say that seriously as 
Canada has regarded the European situation for some four 
or five years past, yet we were startled into a sense of reality 
upon facing an actual declaration of war between England 
and Germany. The Government of Canada at once assumed 
the responsibility of recognising the important fact and upon 
which there could be no two opinions, that the Empire being 
at war, Canada was also at war, and that it became necessary 
for the Government to adopt such measures as would be 
commensurate with the critical situation that had so suddenly 
arisen. 

The public will and utterance were peculiarly expressive 
of that which should be done. Parliament could not have 
more clearly defined the duty that was cast upon Canada 
as was so clearly and emphatically done by the voice of the 
public will throughout the whole Dominion. Canada's mani- 
fest course was to contribute men and arms and food supplies. 
The extent to which this assistance should be given has 
been more clearly defined through the correspondence which 
has taken place between the Imperial authorities and our 
1 [See own Government. 1 Steps were at once taken for the organisa- 
pp. 6-23.] tion of a Canadian Contingent equivalent to an Army Division, 
to form part of the Imperial Forces and to be subject to the 
orders of the Imperial authorities. Canada has accordingly 
organised a force consisting of the following units : Divisional 
headquarters ; 3 infantry brigades of 12 battalions of infantry ; 
138 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

headquarters divisional artillery with 3 field artillery brigades 
of 9 batteries, and i field artillery howitzer brigade of 3 
batteries ; i heavy battery and ammunition column ; i 
divisional ammunition column ; I headquarters divisional 
engineers ; 2 field companies of engineers ; i signalling com- 
pany ; i squadron of cavalry ; I divisional train and 3 field 
ambulances, making a total of, roughly, about 600 officers 
and 17,500 men with 72 field-guns and howitzers, and about 
5600 horses. In addition to this, about 2000 men are left 
at the base, as what are called * first reinforcements/ making 
in all, roughly, about 21,000 men. 

This force is now being mobilised in camp at Valcartier 
with a view of being subjected to a more advanced organisa- 
tion before leaving our shores for the seat of war. In addition 
thereto, the Government has contributed a million bags of 
flour. The Government has also purchased from the Chilean 
Government at a cost of one million dollars two new sub- 
marines, the construction of which had just been completed 
in the shipyards of Seattle. These will be used for purposes 
of defence on the Pacific coast. We have also tendered to 
the French Government for use of the army of France sub- 
stantial aid for their hospital work. 1 Munificent assistance i [See 
has also been tendered by Provincial Governments, Munici- p. 267.] 
palities, and individuals. Mere words cannot express the 
loyalty, the patriotism, the self-sacrifice, generosity, and 
devotion exhibited by the whole of Canada in responding to 
the call of Empire at this time. It was not necessary for the 
Government of Canada to make an appeal to the country 
for the assistance which had been proffered. The spontane- 
ous response of the people has been overwhelming and the 
chief difficulty of the Government has been to keep within 
bounds the wishes and the demands of the able-bodied men 
of Canada in the tendering of their services to be sent to 
the seat of war. 

Owing to the war being in its initial stages and the uncer- 
tainty of the developments that will ensue, it is, therefore, 
impossible at the moment to say the extent to which Canada 
may be called upon to render further assistance. Up to the 
present time the measure of assistance proffered to the 
Empire has met with the most gratifying reception in Great 
Britain. The sentiment invoked by Canada and the other 

139 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Overseas Dominions has been more valuable to the Imperial 
authorities and will give greater prestige to Imperial arms 
than the material value measured by men and treasure. We 
cannot overestimate the value to Great Britain of the spon- 
taneous answer of loyalty and devotion given by the Overseas 
Dominions at a moment when a common danger threatens 
the integrity of the Empire. 

To meet the extraordinary situation which has arisen it 
has been necessary for the Government of Canada to meet 
the exigencies which have presented themselves in anticipa- 
tion of legislation being passed giving extraordinary powers 
to the Government. Such a situation not having before 
arisen in our history, our statute book is therefore destitute 
of what I mig;ht term war legislation ; consequently measures 
will be submitted to cover the extraordinary powers which 
the Government has been called upon and will be called 
upon to exercise at this critical period. 1 

This is the first time in the history of Canada since it has 
enjoyed representative institutions that we have been called 
upon to adopt special measures in aid of the Empire by reason 
of a European war. It is the first time we have been called 
upon to maintain our integrity as an integral part of the 
Empire against a European enemy. There was a time when 
Canada was the battlefield between England and France, in 
which each sought to wrest from the other the possessions 
held by both on this continent. There was a time when the 
Crown Colonies in Canada resisted the invading army of the 
American Republic when it sought to include our territory 
within its boundaries. There was a time within recent years 
when Canada responded to the call of the Empire on the 
battlefields of South Africa, but in none of these events did 
Canada occupy the unique position which in the present 
conflict she occupies to-day. This war will go down in 
history as one in which the Overseas Dominions recognised 
without discussion or hesitation that when Great Britain was 
at war those Dominions likewise were at war; that Great 
Britain's obligations were their obligations whether offensive 
or defensive ; and that the duty was theirs to march in step 
with the armies of the Empire whithersoever that march 
might lead. 

The present situation is unique not only in our actual 
140 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

elations to the Empire, but even more so in thus settling for 
some time at least the future relations of Canada to the Empire. 
For some years past the future of Canada proved a prolific 
theme for discussion and thought. Constitutional students 
tiave worked out time and again the national destiny that 
would be most advantageous for the future of Canada. Much 
has been said and written upon the inexpediency of Canada 
in any way being involved in the complexities and conflicts 
of European diplomacy. Publicists have discussed this 
subject as if it were purely one of cold reason, one in which 
Canada could at will detach itself from the sentiments and 
traditions of the Empire and map out for itself a constitution 
and a national career entirely apart and distinct from the 
ties that up to the present time have bound it to the Empire. 
We have discussed at length, and very properly in all serious- 
ness, whether Canada should involve itself in the conflicts 
and wars of another continent, but suddenly as a bolt from 
the blue England's declaration of war has aroused the whole 
of Canada to action and fired its patriotism as if we were 
part and parcel of the United Kingdom. The response which 
has been made from the Atlantic to the Pacific is not the 
response of the Government of Canada nor of any political 
party, but the irresistible sentiment and will and voice of a 
united people. It is in answer to this sentiment that this 
special meeting of Parliament has been called ; it is in re- 
sponse to this spontaneous outburst of loyalty and patriotism 
to the Empire that we are about to proceed to consider the 
measures to be submitted to Parliament. 

When war's alarms resound throughout the nation it is 
surprising how seemingly petty become many subjects and con- 
cerns of party warfare. It is gratifying to note how trivial and 
superficial are the differences that have divided great parties, 
and how easily united are all sections and parties in the face 
of a common danger. Few things have been more gratifying 
than the common front presented by political parties in Great 
Britain, who a few days ago seemed to be on the borders of 
civil war, but who within twenty-four hours forgot all their 
differences and stood shoulder to shoulder ready both to 
attack and repel the common enemy. It is likewise gratify- 
ing that within our own boundaries political divisions have 
been forgotten, party strife has been silenced, and a united 

141 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

people seek to outrival each other in responding to the calls 
of Empire. In view of what has happened the paramount 
duty of the Government upon the declaration of war was to 
respond to the sentiment and will of the people so irresistibly 
expressed throughout the whole of Canada. This we have 
done. 

While the situation which faces the Empire has been 
brought about without Canada having had a constitutional 
voice therein, yet we accept the situation as freely and as 
loyally as if the responsibility had been entirely our own. 
We therefore approach the duty cast upon the Government 
in meeting this national crisis, this state of war in which the 
Empire is placed, as a duty pointed out not by the Govern- 
ment itself nor by any political party, but by the people 
themselves. Canada finds itself as a part of the Empire in a 
state of war with Germany and Austria-Hungary. We accept 
the situation with equanimity. While we make no comment 
that we had not a voice in bringing it about, yet we view the 
situation with precisely the same satisfaction as do the people 
of Great Britain. This is another manifestation of the same 
national sentiment that is found in the very heart of the 
Empire. 

Probably no good purpose is to be served by attempting 
to discuss the causes which have led to the present war, owing 
to the complexities of the European situation which for some 
years past have placed the most extraordinary strain upon 
the Great Powers in building up those titanic armaments which 
daily threatened to convert Europe into a shambles. It has 
been apparent for some time that the strain had about reached 
its limit. The absolute refusal of Germany to call a halt in 
its armaments, notwithstanding the pacific approaches made 
from time to time by the other Powers to secure its consent 
to disarmament, constituted such a menace as to threaten 
at any moment the conflagration of war over the whole of 
Europe. 

For some years past it became apparent that Germany 
in time would again seek to crush the Republic of France. In 
a work published last year entitled Germany and the Next 
War, by General Frederick von Bernhardi, one of the generals 
of the German army, no concealment is made therein of the 
policy of Germany not only towards France but towards 
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PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

France and her Allies. On page 104 of this work we find this 
dgnificant statement : 

' In one way or another we must square our account with France 
f we wish for a free hand in our international policy. This is the first 
md foremost condition of a sound German policy, and since the 
hostility of France once and for all cannot be removed by peaceful 
Dvertures the matter must be settled by force of arms. France must 
be so completely crushed that she can never again come across our 
path.' 

This avowal of policy was equivalent to a declaration of 
war with England. Were Germany able to carry out this 
policy of absolutely crushing France, Germany would assert 
itself as the master of Europe. Even under these conditions, 
and after Germany's declaration of war against France had 
been issued, England withheld its hand until Germany grossly 
violated the neutrality of Belgium. England thus had no 
other recourse than to join arms with France in seeking not 
so much to break the power of Germany as to maintain its 
own imperial existence. 

In all the historic wars upon which England has entered, 
fighting as she has done for centuries on sea and land not 
only for her own existence but for the liberty and freedom of 
the subject against the tyranny of the despot, never in all 
those historic wars has she so upheld the traditions of her 
honour and her glory as in this war. She has cast in her lot 
with France to uphold her national honour and to observe 
the carrying out in its integrity the pact of an unwritten 
treaty. Words also cannot express the profound admira- 
tion of the world at the courage and gallantry of Belgium in 
thus far resisting the overwhelming army of Germany in 
defending not only its own soil, but at the risk of its national 
existence fighting an almost invincible army to maintain its 
obligations of neutrality to the other Powers of Europe. 

Also at this critical time we on this side of the Atlantic 
cannot fully express our admiration for the supremacy of 
England's fleet, which in its wonderful organisation is now 
so protecting the trade routes of the ocean, that shipping 
between our own ports and those of Great Britain enjoys an 
immunity almost as secure as if we were at peace with the 
world. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Of late years much has been said of universal peace. Its 
advocates in all sincerity have made extraordinary efforts to 
bring the Great Powers within the sphere of 'settling national 
controversies by peaceful methods, but, alas for human frailty, 
universal peace seems to be as distant as it ever was. Not- 
withstanding our boasted civilisation and our preachments 
for universal peace and for the abolition of war, we have but 
touched the shadow, leaving the substance in all its activity 
and hideousness. So long as human passions throb in the 
breasts of nations so long will war be an actual fact. Pro- 
bably at no time in the world's history as within the last few 
years, have such widespread efforts been made to establish 
the nations on a footing of peace, but, strange to say, with 
each effort has the carnage of war made progress in a greater 
ratio. 

At such a time and under such provocation peace at any 
price by England would not only have been cowardice, but it 
would have cost the Empire its national existence. The peace 
of Europe for the next generation at this time can only be 
secured through the success of British arms in the titanic 
struggle upon which England has entered. Peace, national 
peace, can only be purchased at such a time through the 
pouring out of lives and treasure in maintaining those great 
principles of liberty and freedom for which England in the 
past has shed its best blood on the historic battlefields of the 
world. Canada at this time recognises the struggle upon 
which Great Britain has entered. The success and glory 
which await its arms and the assured security and destiny 
of the British Empire are the greatest guarantee that the world 
can have for the future peace and prosperity of the nations. 

May I say in conclusion that we realise the gravity of our 
duty at this time. It is not in the spirit of martial display 
that Canada has answered the call of empire but from a deep 
sense of loyalty and devotion to those great national institu- 
tions that so long have stood for the highest and best interests 
of the human race. 

HON. R. DANDURAND: Hon. gentlemen, all the efforts 
of the men of good will, throughout the world, in favour 
of permanent peace have been unavailing. During the last 

fifteen years I have been in close contact with European 
144 






PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 



parliamentarians who were striving towards a better under- 
standing between nations. Most of them felt that Berlin was 
the main obstacle in the way to the attainment of that goal. It 
became quite plain that Germany intended to resort to force for 
the solution of international difficulties rather than to arbitra- 
tion when it refused obstinately to consider the British offers 
of limitation of armaments. Germany had decided upon 
war when it refused to accept Great Britain's offer of media- 
tion after Austria's ultimatum to Serbia, and the natural 
sequence to that refusal was Germany's declaration of war 
against Russia. This meant war all around, and war it must 
be. My fervent hope is that this horrible drama will be the 
dawn of a better era. It is evident that Germany is paying 
the penalty for its utter disregard of the rights of nationalities. 
Other nations have been equal sinners at different times in 
history. Poland has been one of the victims of its powerful 
greedy neighbours. We all hope that the day is near when it 
will be freed from the heel of its cruel oppressors. 

The well-known Professor Bonn, of Munich University, 
gave, last week, as the prime cause for the present war the 
invincible determination of the French to retake the two lost 
provinces of Alsace-Lorraine, and he adds the following 
commentary : 

' As far as our antagonism to France is concerned, we have always 
looked upon it as a regrettable fact which time, perhaps, might do 
away with. We are just enough to understand that a country like 
France, with a glorious past, a gallant spirit, and an undaunted 
courage, cannot forget the blow we dealt her forty-three years ago. 

' We think we have been right in retaking from her Alsace-Lorraine, 
belonging originally to the German Empire. But we look with a kind 
of envy upon her who succeeded in denationalising the people of those 
provinces to such a degree that we have not yet been able to make 
them Germans once more. 

' We have always regretted that the two most civilised nations in 
continental Europe should be rent asunder by an unforgotten past. 

' We hoped that the creation of a wonderful African empire might, 
in the long run, soothe French national feeling. We should have 
been always willing to come to an understanding in the existing state 
of affairs, but, though there have been lucky statesmen in France who 
tried such a policy, public opinion was too strong for them. French 
people preferred to sacrifice the main ideas on which their republican 
government is based, and made an alliance with Russia. 

OVERSEAS I. K 145 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

' We realise that the gallant spirit of the French people has furnished 
the mainspring which has made this war possible. 

' We honour her for her courage. For we know well enough that 
it is she alone amongst the partners who runs real risks. We know 
that she is not moved by sordid motives. But as we know her unfor- 
giving attitude, as we know that she was helping Russia and egging 
her on against us ; that she was instigating Britain and Belgium as 
well as Serb and Rumanian, we had to take her attitude as what it 
was ; as the firm policy of a patriotic and passionate people, waiting 
for the moment when they could wipe out the memory of 1870, putting 
nationality to the front, sacrificing their own ideals of humanity.' 

This outrage upon the rights of people who were snatched 
away from the bosom of their national family was perpetrated 
in modern times, under our eyes, in the very centre of European 
civilisation. 

In Canada we will all pray for the success of Great Britain 
and her Allies, in the hope that this great conflict will be 
settled with a single eye to the inalienable rights of nations 
and the establishment of permanent peace among them. 

HON. H. J. CLORAN: ... I consider the moment 
opportune to re-echo and emphasise the most notable 
declaration made for centuries on the floor of the British 
Parliament by the Irish leader, John Redmond. When 
the Prime Minister of Great Britain rose in his seat and 
informed the House and the people of England that 
his Government had declared war against Germany, the 
first to rise and extend the hand of aid in the hour 
of peril and need was the chosen representative of the Irish 
race, John Redmond. Here in the Senate of Canada, and 
in the name and on behalf of the Irish Canadian people, I 
most heartily endorse the attitude taken by the Irish leader 
on that occasion a leader who is to become, in a short 
time, the Prime Minister of Ireland, a nation able to take 
care of itself and allow England to take its soldiers to the 
front a man who in all probability may be a future Prime 
Minister of the British Empire. War has its calamities, but 
war also has its blessings. This war already, in its initial 
stage, has given to the human race many blessings. In the 
first place it has restored the ancient kingdom of Poland to 
its place in the family of nations. In the second place, it has 
silenced the enemies of Home Rule for Ireland ; thirdly, it 
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PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

,ives back to the Chinese Empire the territory that was 
isurped by Germany. Again, it will return and we all pray 
t will return to dear old France her two lost provinces, 
Usace and Lorraine. This is what the war is doing and 
iccomplishing already. It will take the clutches of Austria- 
Hungary off the Balkan people. It will force Turkey to 
imit, if not to cease, its misrule and its atrocities against the 
jeople of Eastern Europe. It will end and we will all pray 
'or that the German peril of government by autocrats. It 
vvill end that rule which the wielder of it calls divine. If it is 
divine, then the rule is carried out by a human monster. 
Phis war will call for a halt in military armaments, and the 
sacrifice of human life for the glory and benefit of all auto- 
crats. This war will give, it has already given, to the Jewish 
race its due measure of liberty and justice. This war will 
confirm and extend the reign and supremacy of democracy. 
Under these conditions, Canada's millions will be well and 
profitably spent, and Canadian life can be and will be nobly 
sacrificed, to bring about these happy results. 
The motion was agreed to. 



August 19, 1914. 

DEBATE ON THE ADDRESS IN THE CANADIAN 
HOUSE OF COMMONS 

MR. DONALD SUTHERLAND : . . . The Address delivered Canadian 
to both Houses of Parliament, though containing few Hansard. 
words, conveys a meaning, and is a reminder to the people 
of Canada, that there are duties of citizenship, which in 
times of peace may have been lightly regarded, if not alto- 
gether neglected. With all our boasted civilisation, advance- 
ment, and progress of the last fifty years, there is but one 
thought in the minds of the people to-day, and that is 
war. The skill, the genius, and the energies of the nations 
of Europe have been applied and devoted to maintaining 
what they erroneously termed ' an armed peace ' by the pre- 
paration of the most tremendous and terrible engines of 
destruction ever conceived of. Rumblings of distant thunder 
have been heard and dark and threatening clouds have been 
visible on the horizon for several years. These have at last 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

burst forth like a tornado, and threaten the whole world with 
the most terrific and devastating war the world has ever seen. 
The greatest disaster of recorded time is at hand; many 
millions of men are now engaged in one of the most desperate 
and fearful struggles the mind of man can conceive of. 

Under these circumstances, we may well ask ourselves 
where we stand, what position we occupy, what are the 
sentiments of our people in regard to the situation. As a 
part of the British Empire, when that Empire becomes in- 
volved in war, we of necessity are involved in war and subject 
to all that that implies. 

How the British Empire became involved in the struggle 
is familiar to every one. The British Government exerted 
every means in their power, in the face of great provocations 
to the contrary, to prevent war, and have sought peace with 
an earnestness worthy of responsible statesmen not a dis- 
honourable peace, but a peace in keeping with the traditions 
of the British Empire, and in keeping with the civilisation 
of the age in which we live. The proposal made to the 
British Government by the autocrat who to-day controls the 
German Empire, through his Chancellor in return for British 
neutrality in the war into which he had plunged Europe, was 
an insult to the honour of the British nation, and was well 

1 [See characterised by Premier Asquith as an infamous one. 1 It 
Diplomatic, was proposed that Great Britain should remain passive and 
2, p. 425-] allow the despot of Germany, if he could accomplish it, to 

become the despot of Europe to strip France, Great Britain's 
ally, of her possessions, and to overrun Belgium with her 
armies, in defiance of treaties the most sacred and binding to 
which she was a party. 

War has been forced upon the Empire, and Britain has 
gone to war rather than have a dishonourable peace that 
would be unworthy of the traditions of the Empire. We 

2 [See believe their cause is just, and as Premier Asquith stated 2 in 
2 D ^8 T' the * m P erial House of Commons when asking for a vote of 

' - J credit of 100,000,000, and power to raise an army of 500,000 
men Great Britain is fighting to fulfil a solemn international 
obligation, which in private life would have been regarded as 
an obligation, not only of law, but of honour, and, secondly 
to vindicate the principle that small nationalities are not to 
be crushed in defiance of international good faith by the 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

arbitrary will of a strong and overmastering power. No 
nation ever entered into a great controversy with a clearer and 
stronger conviction that it was fighting, not for aggression, 
not for the maintenance of its own selfish interest, but in 
defence of principles the maintenance of which were vital 
to the civilisation of the world. 

British rule has given British subjects the greatest degree 
of peace, liberty, and protection enjoyed by any people in 
the world, and has been the means of bringing the same to 
other nations as well. It is, therefore, not surprising under 
these circumstances that offers have been received from every 
one of the self-governing Dominions of the Empire of help to 
the limit of their resources, both in men and money. There 
is no mistaking the sentiment of the people of Canada. To-day 
we are ready to face the issue, and justly so. The British 
Empire has been forced into a war to redeem its pledged word 
and insulted honour. This is no time for discussion or hesi- 
tation, all that can be done must be done. 

Among the citizens of Canada are many people of German 
extraction or birth, who are held in high esteem as citizens and 
loyal subjects of His Majesty the King, and who are not in 
sympathy with the autocratic, military, mad ambitions of the 
German Emperor and his Government. The attitude and the 
sentiments of the German citizens of Canada with regard to the 
present war have, I believe, been clearly and truly expressed 
in a letter of the I3th instant, published in the local press of 
my county, from the pen of Prof. F. V. Riethdorf of Wood- 
stock College, a part of which I am going to quote, as follows : 

' We must deeply sympathise with the German people in the 
sufferings and dangers brought upon them by their ruling classes, by 
their oligarchic, insane, military government. It is the Germany of 
the " clinched fist " and the " drawn sword," of the " shining armour " 
and the " sabre rattling in the scabbard " that calls for no sympathy 
on our part. It is the Germany that has precipitated the monstrous 
world struggle of the day that fills us all with horror and indignation. 
It is for the official Germany and her leader and soul, William n., 
that we have only detestation, not for the peaceable, kind, amiable, 
and sane German people. We are at war with the system of Germany, 
not with the German race. 

' I am a native German and former German soldier. My own 
position in this struggle is perfectly clear. My loyalty to the British 

149 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

flag makes me stand against any and all enemies of Britain. If need 
be, I should even fight against Germany, though with a bleeding 
heart. Furthermore, I desire disaster to the German army in this 
war, for the reason that it will mean restoration of fellowship among 
the Western nations for one of the greatest peoples of Europe. A 
liberated, free, democratic Germany will start on a new and lasting 
era of prosperity, of peace, arm in arm with England and France. 
Germany's defeat will mean the establishment of a German republic 
and the elimination of William n. and all that he stands for. Such 
things as " Divine right " and " mailed fist " are anachronisms, an 
insult to the intelligence of the people of the twentieth century. 
William 11. is the common foe of Europe, and he must be eliminated. 
Defeat of Germany in this war means ultimate salvation and freedom 
for her ; Germany will be the greatest gainer through defeat. This is 
my consolation when I think of the terrible affliction which this war 
will bring upon her. Victory for the German arms would make 
William n. the war lord of the world. He would rule Europe with 
an iron hand. The militarism of the future would be far worse than 
the militarism of the present, and there would be no end to war and 
bloodshed. 

' Germany will and must lose in this righteous war, but she will 
lose only after a hard and bitter fight.' 

German citizens and those of other nationalities have 
found, under British rule in Canada and the other self-govern- 
ing Dominions of the Empire, that liberty has proven to be 
the keystone of the success of the British Empire, not only 
under our present Sovereign, King George v., but also under 
our late beloved Sovereign, King Edward vii., whose devotion 
to duty and peace earned for him in the history of kings and 
nations a place which will endure through the ages, under 
the title of Edward the Peacemaker. Liberty also charac- 
terised the long reign of Queen Victoria, during which reign 
all of us were born ; and it is recorded in history that no 
British sovereign was ever so beloved, and that no sovereign 
on any throne or in any age so commanded the admiration, 
affection, and esteem of all nations as did Queen Victoria the 
Good. We can assure His Royal Highness the Governor- 
General, the sole surviving son of that royal mother, himself 
a distinguished soldier, statesman, and diplomat, that the 
people of Canada feel they have been highly honoured and 
benefited by his appointment as Governor-General, and by 
the services which he has rendered Canada and the Empire 
150 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

during his term of office ; and we have learned with pleasure 
and satisfaction that he is to remain in that capacity until 
the termination of the present war, 1 during which his ripe * [See 
experience will prove of incalculable value to Canada, and p- 180.] 
will do much to strengthen the ties that bind together the 
vast Dominions of the Empire, and promote the blessings of 
British liberty. 

The Government are to be commended for their prompt- 
ness in immediately taking action to forward troops and 
munitions of war, without waiting for Parliament to assemble, 
with the certain assurance that the sentiment of the people 
of Canada and of Parliament would endorse and sustain such 
action. 

Canada is enormously indebted to the motherland for 
much we enjoy to-day. The whole burden of maintaining 
and sustaining the defence of the Empire has fallen on the 
shoulders of the people of the motherland. Well may the 
blush of shame mantle our cheeks when we realise the position 
we occupy to-day. Let us hope and pray that, before the 
crucial test comes in the present war, the flower of the youth 
and manhood of our nation, who are to-day volunteering by 
thousands, and who are ready, if necessary, to sacrifice their 
lives for the cause of British liberty, which means the success 
of British arms and our national existence, may be found 
fighting shoulder to shoulder with the men of the Motherland 
and the sister Dominions. 

The war may be a long and bitter one ; the loss of life is 
sure to be enormous ; suffering and want may come to many 
who are dependent on those who go to the front, or who may 
fall in battle. It is therefore the duty of the people of Canada 
and the Government of Canada to make provision for the 
alleviation of such suffering and want. Would not the tribute 
we would be called upon to pay be most beggarly when 
compared with the sacrifice, the tribute of life-blood paid by 
our country's defenders ? There is no sacrifice the occasion 
demands that the people of Canada are not prepared to 
make. Let our response to the needs of the Empire be 
immediate and sufficient. 

MR. D. O. LESPERANCE: (Translation). ... I have the 
honour to represent in this House an essentially agricultural . 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

constituency, that is to say a peaceful, thrifty, and hard- 
working community, deriving profit and happiness from 
the cultivation of the broad acres cleared by our ances- 
tors, emigrants from la belle France, and for more than a 
century enjoying peace and liberty under the folds of the 
British flag. Indeed, it would have been for me a more 
pleasing task, Mr. Speaker, to have addressed the House 
under circumstances of a less painful character, when I 
might have been content with following in the footsteps of 
my forerunners, and after their example, though in less 
felicitous language, refer in general terms to the prosperity 
of our fine and immense country, extol its wealth, point out 
its inexhaustible resources, the development of which is 
barely started, then, taking a look into the future, forecast 
with reasonable certainty the great destiny in store for it. 
But Providence has not so willed it ; the task which has 
fallen to me is unfortunately of a less agreeable and much 
more burdensome nature. It is for the purpose of defending 
the heritage of our fathers, of safeguarding our homes and 
our liberty in jeopardy, that we are assembled now. 

There was never a more opportune time for every one of 
us to repeat, with some slight alteration, the appeal uttered 
by Nelson when giving the signal for that memorable battle 
which was to ensure to Great Britain the mastery of the 
seas ; Canada expects every hon. gentleman in this House 
to do his duty. And should we need some encouragement 
from the example of others, we have under our eyes what 
has occurred in the French House of Representatives, where, 
in spite of the fierceness of the war waged between the various 
political groups, a free hand was granted, unanimously and 
enthusiastically, to the Government of the Republic, so as 
to ensure the safety of the country in the hour of danger. 
In fact, it may be asserted with absolute certainty that 
France at this moment is ready for the fray, as fully as she 
has ever been at any time. The French people are ready to 
make every sacrifice and to spill their last drop of blood to 
repel the German invader. 

We have still in our minds what happened recently in the 
British House of Commons, when a great lesson in patriotism 
given by the Irish Nationalist leader, John Redmond, did 
more possibly to forward the great cause of Ireland's auto- 
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PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

nomy in the hearts of the English people, than all the fighting 
of bygone centuries. But why should we look abroad, when 
in this very country we still have sounding in our ears the 
noble words of the right hon. leader of the Opposition, 1 stating x [See 
at the very opening of hostilities, that he would concur in p- 237.] 
every measure which the Government might think fit to 
take, so as to enable the most important colony of the Empire 
to participate in the common defence. The patriotic stand 
taken by the Right Hon. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, in the terrible 
emergency which the Canadian people and the Empire are 
confronted with, will be reckoned among the most admirable 
achievements of his long and fruitful political career. I shall 
not dilate at greater length on this subject. It appertains to 
history and not to me to record in golden letters the patriotic 
deeds of French, British, and Canadian statesmen who, at 
the proper time, have had the wisdom of setting aside their 
quarrels, to better ensure the salvation of the country. Such 
examples set by men in high positions will be followed, I am 
sure, by all Canadians whatever their origin, their creed, or 
their party affiliations. 

A thunderclap such as that which has just upset Europe 
and shaken in its very foundations the whole commercial, 
industrial, and financial fabric of the old and the new world, 
such a thunderclap, I say, was needed to make us properly 
.realise the solidarity of interests which binds every part of 
the British Empire in the matter of national defence. 

Within a week of the opening of hostilities, the British 
Admiralty was in a position to announce to the whole world 
that the "great commercial highway of the Atlantic Ocean 
could be utilised safely by ships of the allied or neutral 
nations. 1 That victory, which is of considerable bearing and l [See 
of unspeakable advantage for the whole of North America, Naval i, 
and especially for this country, was a silent victory, won p * 5 ^ 
unostentatiously, through the sheer superiority of the British 
fleet, and before Canada had even had time to contribute a 
single cent in cash or a single drop of Canadian blood. 

I was in New York, the great commercial metropolis of 
the United States, on the day following the declaration of 
war between Great Britain and Germany. The dismay 
caused in the business circles of the United States in the 
course of a few days, consequent on the blockading of the 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYOVERSEAS 

ports, the congestion of grain and merchandise, and the 
interruption of international trade, challenges description. 
The worst panic which has ever been witnessed in modern 
times was avoided, thanks to one circumstance only : the 
assurance that the British fleet would succeed before long in 
restoring freedom of intercourse between the two countries. 

Then it was, Mr. Speaker, that I fully understood the 
eminently civilising and salutary action exerted in the affairs 
of the world by the formidable, invincible British fleet. The 
British Empire makes use of that force and of that power, 
not for the purpose of enslaving peoples, or of restricting the 
trade activities of its competitors, but with the object of 
upholding treaties and coming to the rescue of states too 
weak to defend themselves, such as Belgium, or else of 
protecting the free intercourse of allied or neutral powers, 
such as France or the United States, though they may be 
rivals of Great Britain in some branches of commerce or 
industry. 

We have had in the past our differences of opinion ; 
further differences will crop up between us in the future, 
when this terrible crisis is over ; but there exists at this 
moment I make this statement without fear of contradic- 
tion there exists at this moment among Canadians no 
difference of opinion as to the absolute necessity of our 
co-operating in the defence of the Empire. 

Already the Government have taken such measures as 
circumstances rendered imperative ; this House will no doubt 
be anxious to sanction them and approve of all others which 
will be brought down for the country's security : protection 
and defence of our large seaports ; active supervision of our 
large business arteries, canals, and railways ; judicious 
increase of the paper currency, so as to prevent speculation 
or the exportation of gold, and maintain our credit on a solid 
basis, a factor of such great import to our trade and industries 
during this period of economic stringency. This House will 
also be called upon to vote moneys for the sending of con- 
tingents of Canadian volunteers, in accordance with the 
requirements of national defence. 

Not without a pang will we see the pick of our militia 
leave our shores to fight for the country outside the boundaries 
of Canada ; but I am satisfied that Canadian mothers will 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

be courageous as their sisters in France, who have words of 
encouragement only for husbands and sons when the parting 
hour is at hand, resolutely controlling their feelings until the 
dear ones have departed. But, then, how differently these 
countries are situated. On the other side all the men in a 
position to bear arms are drafted into the service ; every 
home is deprived of its bread-winners, fathers, husbands, 
brothers, sons, mere youths perhaps. Here the service is 
quite voluntary ; in the case of a married man, there is still 
another requirement before enlisting the husband must get 
his wife's consent. 1 1 [See 

It will be incumbent on the Government and on the P- 2 9 6 -l 
citizens of this country to provide for the sustenance of the 
families which will thus be deprived of their means of support. 
An enlightened patriotism commands that each one should 
do his duty and undergo willingly his share of sacrifices. 
Canada will never be able to pay off its debt of gratitude 
towards those who are leaving to fight abroad in defence of 
the common country. Glory and honours should go first to 
those who are the first in the fray. But it is incumbent on 
those who remain and who will profit by the self-sacrifice of 
the others, to help in other ways by contributing to the 
fund organised for the relief of the wounded, widows, and 
orphans ; by tendering help to the families temporarily 
deprived of their bread-winner ; by preventing in every way 
possible criminal speculation in food-stuffs and staples. 
Those wretches who avail themselves of these troublous times 
to grow rich through speculating on the misery of the people 
should be considered as enemies of their country and dealt 
with accordingly. I understand that certain classes of goods, 
owing to the increase in the demand or the restriction of 
imports, will necessarily command a higher price. We are 
willing to abide by that : it is the inevitable outcome of 
war. But that, barely a week after the declaration of war 
in Europe, a staple article of food, such as sugar, for example, 
should in Canada go up two cents a pound, I say that such 
a leap can only be the result of a selfish and shameless spirit 
of speculation, which I do not fear to brand as criminal. 

It is incumbent on the Government to at once take rigorous 
measures and punish all guilty parties, whoever they be. The 
people who will be called upon to make enormous sacrifices 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

for the defence of the country should not be made to suffer 
ruthlessly for the sole benefit of some unfeeling individuals. 

A few words, Mr. Speaker, and I shall be through. I 
promised at the outset to be brief, and I do not wish to 
impose for too long a time on the good nature of the House. 
Fully aware as I was of my inability to properly address this 
House in reference to these momentous events of recent date, 
I had decided at the outset to decline accepting the honour 
which was tendered me. However, I thought I owed it to 
the county I represent, as well as to the great mass of my 
fellow-people, farmers and artisans, whose labours, efforts, 
sorrows, and joys I have shared in my youth, to express in 
the common but sincere language of the people, what I think 
and do not fear to speak aloud. 

A member hailing from another province than my own 
inquired from me last week what Quebec was going to do in 
the present crisis. ' Its duty/ I answered. And I hastened 
to add : ' Tell me, at what time in the history of the country 
did the French-speaking Canadian turn a deaf ear when called 
upon to defend his country, his religion, his tongue, and his 
rights ? ' In this war all that is dear to the French-speaking 
Canadian is at stake. The defeat of England, the dis- 
memberment of the Empire, would signify for him the loss 
shortly of all that makes up his strength, ensures his pros- 
perity and happiness of his home life. The noble stand of the 
Nationalist leader, John Redmond, to whom I referred a 
moment ago, has had its counterpart in previous history : 
that was the stand taken by the Catholic clergy *of Lower 
Canada, about one hundred and forty years ago, at the time 
of the War of Independence. And since then French- 
Canadians have not receded from that stand ; on the contrary, 
they have adhered to it with increasing firmness consequent 
on the respect shown by Great Britain for our privileges 
and laws, and the wider autonomy granted to us by the 
mother country. 

It is not now, Mr. Speaker, when both our mother countries, 
France and England, are fighting hand in hand for civilisation 
and liberty, that the French-Canadian will adopt a policy 
different from that which was laid down for him by his loyal 
and devoted clergy on the day following the conquest. 

The sons of those gallant Frenchmen who settled Canada. 
156 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

a cross covering their breasts, with one hand clenching their 
musket, while the other held the plough, fear neither battle 
nor bullets when it comes to defend, as in this case, the 
integrity of the vast Empire which ensures to them the 
greatest measure of freedom and happiness which ever people 
was allowed to enjoy. 

I have the honour to second, Mr. Speaker, the motion 
for the Address. 

RIGHT HON. SIR WILFRID LAURIER : * This session has 1 [Leader 
been called for the purpose of giving the authority of f the 
Parliament and the sanction of law to such measures as 9PP? si " 
have already been taken by the Government, and any further 
measures that may be needed, to ensure the defence of Canada 
and to give what aid may be in our power to the mother 
country in the stupendous struggle which now confronts her. 
Speaking for those who sit around me, speaking for the wide 
constituencies which we represent in this House, I hasten to 
say that to all these measures we are prepared to give im- 
mediate assent. If in what has been done or in what remains 
to be done there may be anything which in our judgment should 
not be done or should be differently done, we raise no question, 
we take no exception, we offer no criticism, and we shall offer 
no criticism so long as there is danger at the front. It is our 
duty, more pressing upon us than all other duties, at once, 
on this first day of this extraordinary session of the Canadian 
Parliament, to let Great Britain know, and to let the friends 
and foes of Great Britain know, that there is in Canada but 
one mind and one heart, and that all Canadians stand behind 
the mother country, conscious and proud that she has engaged 
in this war, not from any selfish motive, for any purpose of 
aggrandisement, but to maintain untarnished the honour of 
her name, to fulfil her obligations to her Allies, to maintain 
her treaty obligations, and to save civilisation from the un- 
bridled lust of conquest and domination. 

We are British subjects, and to-day we* are face to face 
with the consequences which are involved in that proud fact. 
Long we have enjoyed the benefits of our British citizenship ; 
to-day it is our duty to accept its responsibilities and its sacri- 
fices. We have long said that when Great Britain is at war 
we are at war ; to-day we realise that Great Britain is at war 

157 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

and that Canada is at war also. Our territory is liable to 
attack and to invasion. So far as invasion is concerned, I 
do not see that there is any cause for apprehension, for it 
seems to me obvious that neither Austria nor Germany, our 
foes in this war, can command any force able to make an 
attack so far from their base. But no one pretends that our 
maritime cities on the Pacific and the Atlantic are free from 
the possibility of insult by an audacious corsair, who, descend- 
ing suddenly upon our shores, might subject them to an 
insolent raid and decamp with his booty before punishment 
could reach him. This is not an unfounded dread of danger ; 
this is no mere illusion ; it is a real and indeed a proximate 
danger, since it is a matter of notoriety that both on the 
Pacific and on the Atlantic there are German cruisers whose 
mission it is to inflict all the injury they can upon our com- 
merce, and even to raid our cities should they find our harbours 
unguarded. We are aware that the Government has already 
taken measures, and very appropriately, to guard against this 
danger. We know that one of our battleships on the Pacific 
has been seeking the enemy, and if she has not yet engaged 
him it is because the enemy has eluded her pursuit. 

We have had another and more striking evidence that 
when Great Britain is at war we are at war, in this that 
our commerce has been interrupted, and perhaps the expres- 
sion would not be too strong if I were to say that it has been 
to some extent dislocated. From the day war was declared 
nay, from the day the possibility of war was first mooted 
our shipping to Great Britain and to Europe has been inter- 
rupted. Ships were lying at the docks fully loaded and ready 
to put to sea, but unable to do so because of the fact that when 
England is at war Canadian property on the high seas is 
liable to capture. Our ships therefore had to remain in port 
so long as precautions had not been taken to clear the way 
and to ensure their safe passage across the ocean. What 
measures have been taken in regard to that we have not yet 
been told, but I have no doubt that we shall have that infor- 
mation in due time. 

The correspondence brought down yesterday, however, 
has informed us that the Canadian Government has already 
taken steps to send a contingent of twenty thousand men or 
thereabouts to take their place in the firing line. 1 Upon this 
158 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

occasion I owe it to the House and to myself to speak with 
absolute frankness and candour. This is a subject which has 
often been an occasion of debate in this House. I have always 
said, and I repeat it on this occasion, that there is but one 
mind and one heart in Canada. At other times we may have 
had different views as to the methods by which we are to 
serve our country and our empire. More than once I have 
declared that if England were ever in danger nay, not only 
in danger, but if she were ever engaged in such a contest as 
would put her strength to the test then it would be the 
duty of Canada to assist the mother land to the utmost of 
Canada's ability. England to-day is not engaged in an 
ordinary contest. The war in which she is engaged will in all 
probability- nay, in absolute certainty stagger the world 
with its magnitude and its horror. But that war is for as 
noble a cause as ever impelled a nation to risk her all upon 
the arbitrament of the sword. That question is no longer 
at issue ; the judgment of the world has already pronounced 
upon it. I speak not only of those nations which are engaged 
in this war, but of the neutral nations. The testimony of 
the ablest men of these nations, without dissenting voice, 
is that to-day the allied nations are fighting for freedom 
against oppression, for democracy against autocracy, for 
civilisation against reversion to that state of barbarism in 
which the supreme law is the law of might. 

It is an additional source of pride to us that England did 
not seek this war. It is a matter of history one of the 
noblest pages of the history of England that she never drew 
the sword until every means had been exhausted to secure 
and to keep an honourable peace. For a time it was hoped 
that Sir Edward Grey, who on more than one occasion has 
saved Europe from such a calamity, would again avert the 
awful scourge of war. Sir, it will go down on a still nobler 
page of history that England could have averted this war if 
she had been willing to forgo the position which she has 
maintained for many centuries at the head of European 
civilisation ; if she had been willing to desert her Allies, to 
sacrifice her obligations ; to allow the German Emperor to 
bully heroic Belgium, to trample upon defenceless Luxemburg, 
to rush upon isolated France, and to put down his booted 
heel upon continental Europe. At that price England would 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

have secured peace ; but her answer to the German Emperor 
was : ' Your proposals are infamous/ And rather than 
accept them, England has entered into this war ; and there is 
not to-day in the universe a British subject, there is not 
outside the British Empire a single man, whose admiration 
for England is not greater by reason of this firm and noble 
attitude. 

So to-day England is at war. Her fleets are maintaining 

the freedom of the ocean. Her armies have already crossed 

1 [See the Channel x towards plains made famous more than once by 

Military, i, British valour, this time to maintain the independence of 

P- 2 45-J Belgium by taking a place in the fighting line beside the small 

and heroic Belgian army, and to help scarcely less heroic 

France, whose forces are concentrated in an effort to repel 

the invader and to maintain and to save intact that which 

f to a proud nation makes life worth living. 

I am well aware that the small contingent of some 20,000 
men which we are going to send will have to show double 
courage and double steadiness if they are to give any account 
of themselves among the millions of men who are now con- 
verging towards the frontiers of France, where the battle of 
giants is to be decided. But, Sir, it is the opinion of the 
British Government, as disclosed by the correspondence 
which was brought down to us yesterday, that the assistance 
of our troops, humble as it may be, will be appreciated, either 
for its material value or for the greater moral help which will 
be rendered. It will be seen by the world that Canada, a 
daughter of Old England, intends to stand by her in this 
great conflict. When the call comes our answer goes at 
once, and it goes in the classical language of the British 
answer to the call to duty : * Ready, aye ready/ 

If my words can be heard beyond the walls of this House 
in the province from which I come, among the men whose 
blood flows in my own veins, I should like them to remember 
that, in taking their place to-day in the ranks of the Canadian 
army to fight for the cause of the allied nations, a double 
honour rests upon them. The very cause for which they are 
called upon to fight is to them doubly sacred. 

In this country we are not all of the same origin ; we are 
not all of British or of French descent. I was struck by the 
words of the hon. member for South Oxford (Mr. Donald 
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PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

Sutherland) in reference to our fellow-citizens of German 
origin. They are certainly amongst our best citizens. This 
has been acknowledged on more than one occasion. They 
are proud of the land of their adoption, which to many of 
them is the land of their birth, and they have shown more 
than once their devotion to British institutions. But, Sir, 
they would not be men if they had not in their hearts a deep 
feeling of affection for the land of their ancestors, and nobody 
would blame them for that. There is nothing, perhaps, so 
painful as the situation in which mind and heart are driven 
in opposite directions. But let me tell my fellow-countrymen 
of German origin that we have no quarrel with the German 
people. We respect and admire as much as they do the 
proud race from which they have their descent ; we acknow- 
ledge all that the world owes to the German people for their 
contribution to the happiness of mankind by their progress 
in literature, in art, and in science. But perhaps our German 
fellow-citizens will permit me to say that, in the struggle for 
constitutional freedom which has been universal in Europe, 
during the last century, the German people have not made 
the same advance as have some of the other nations of 
Europe. I am sure that they will agree with me that if the 
institutions of the land of their ancestors were as free as the 
institutions of the land of their adoption, this cruel war 
would never have taken place. Nothing can be truer than the 
words which are reported to have been uttered by a German 
soldier made a prisoner in Belgium that this war is not a war 
of the German people ; and if there is a silver lining to this 
darkest cloud which now overhangs Europe it is that, as a 
result and consequence of this war, the German people will 
take the determination to put an end for ever to this personal 
imperialism, and to make it impossible evermore for one man 
to throw millions of the human race into all the horrors of 
modern warfare. 

We cannot forget that the issue of battles is always 
uncertain, as has been proven already in the present contest. 
In invading Belgium, some two weeks ago, the German 
Emperor invoked the memory of his ancestors and called 
upon the blessing of God. The German Emperor might 
have remembered that there is a treaty guaranteeing the 
independence, the integrity, the neutrality of Belgium, and 

OVERSEAS I. L l6l 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

that this treaty was signed in the last century by the most 
illustrious of his ancestors, Emperor William the First of 
1 [See Germany. 1 He might have remembered also that there is 
Dipio- this precept in the divine Book : ' Remove not the ancient 
pp*488-ql landmarks which thy fathers have set up.' But the German 
Emperor threw his legions against this landmark in the 
fulness of his lust of power, with the full expectation that 
the very weight of his army would crush every opposition 
and would secure their passage through Belgium. He did 
not expect, he could not believe, that the Belgians, few in 
number and peaceful in disposition and in occupation, would 
rise in his way and bar his progress ; or if he harboured such 
a thought for one moment his next thought was that if he 
met such opposition he could brush it aside by a wave of his 
imperial hand. Sir, he should have remembered that in the 
sixteenth century the ancestors of the Belgians rose againsl 
the despotism of Philip n. of Spain, and, through years oi 
blood and fire and miseries and sufferings indescribable, they 
maintained an unequal contest against Spain Spain as 
powerful in Europe at that time as the German Empire is 
to-day. Sir, if there are men who forget the teachings oi 
their fathers, the Belgians are not of that class ; they have 
proved equal to the teachings of their fathers ; they have 
never surrendered ; the blood of the fathers still runs in the 
veins of the sons ; and again to-day, through blood and fire 
and miseries and sufferings indescribable, they hold at bay 
the armies of the proud Kaiser. 

I repeat, Sir, that the issue of battles is always uncertain, 
There may be disappointments, there may be reverses, bu1 
we enter into this fight with full hope as to the ultimate 
result : 

' For freedom's battle once begun, 
Bequeathed from bleeding sire to son, 
Though baffled oft, is ever won.' 

Sir, upon this occasion we, too, invoke the blessing oi 
God not the God of battles, but the God of justice and 
mercy ; and it is with ample confidence in Providence that 
we appeal to the justice of our cause. 

Nay, more, already England has won a signal victory, a 
victory more precious, perhaps, than any that can be achieved 
by her fleets or by her armies. Only a few weeks ago the 
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PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

Irish problem was pending in the scales of destiny. The 
possibility of civil strife in Ireland already rejoiced the eyes 
of Britain's enemies. But to-day the spectre of civil war 
has vanished from Ireland ; all Irishmen are united, ready 
to fight for King and country. The volunteers of the north 
and the volunteers of the south, forgetting their past differ- 
ences, stand shoulder to shoulder ready to shed their blood 
for the common cause. And, Sir, may I not say that the 
hope is not vain that in that baptism of blood may be washed 
away, and for ever washed away, the distrust of one another 
which has been the curse of Ireland in ages past ? 

But it is not only in Ireland that you find this union of 
hearts. In the two other united kingdoms the voice of 
faction has been silenced. Even those who on principle do 
not believe in war admit that this was a just war and that it 
had to be fought. That union of hearts which exists in the 
United Kingdom exists also in Canada, in Australia, in New 
Zealand. Yea, even in South Africa South Africa, rent by 
war less than twenty years ago, but now united under the 
blessing of British institutions, with all, British and Dutch 
together, standing ready to shed their blood for the common 
cause. Sir, there is in this the inspiration and the hope that 
from this painful war the British Empire may emerge with 
a new bond of union, the pride of all its citizens, and a living 
light to all other nations. 

RIGHT HON. SIR ROBERT BORDEN (Prime Minister) : Mr. 
Speaker, I desire to associate myself with the words of ap- 
preciation uttered by my right hon. friend (Sir Wilfrid Laurier) 
with regard to the speeches to which we have just listened 
from the mover and the seconder of the Address. These 
speeches fully recognise the duty of unity at the present time, 
not only in Canada but throughout the British dominions, to 
meet a crisis, a possible danger, such as has not confronted this 
Empire for one hundred years at least. I have listened, too, 
with the utmost interest and profound admiration to the 
patriotic speech which has just fallen from my right hon. 
friend the leader of the Opposition (Sir Wilfrid Laurier). 
Already, even before Parliament had been called, he had 
announced to his friends and to the country that his meetings * [See 
were discontinued, 1 that the voice of party strife was hushed p. 237.] 

163 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

for the time being, and that he and his friends would co-operate 
in every way with those upon whom falls the duty, the very 
responsible duty at this moment, of administering the affairs 
of this country, in taking all such measures as may be necessary 
for the defence of Canada and for maintaining the honour and 
integrity of the Empire whose flag floats over us. 

The war has come upon us in the end very suddenly indeed 
and perhaps we have not all adequately considered the awfu 
responsibility that must have rested upon the Foreign Secretary 
and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom when they anc 
their colleagues took the issue which meant war which meanl 
the first general European war for a hundred years, and beyonc 
all question the most appalling war history has ever known 
We read in the Press of the haggard faces and the tremulous 
lips of Mr. Asquith and Sir Edward Grey when they made 
their announcements ; but there as here they were sustainec 
by the thought that for the time being party strife was stilled 
and we do not forget that those in the British Isles who hac 
protested most strongly in the first place against the participa- 
tion of Great Britain in this war united in upholding the hand* 
of the Government and in maintaining the interests and dut} 
of the Empire. 

I need not dwell very long upon the incidents which led up 
to this war. Last evening I had the opportunity of reading 
1 [See with the deepest possible interest the White Paper l which was 
British i a id upon the table of the House to-day, and which gives a ver^ 
Z)S/0 B 0k ' ful1 and detailed histor Y of the untiring efforts of Sir Edwarc 
matic -L Grey w k has been rightly characterised by his colleague the 
p. 25 et s'eq.] Prime Minister, Mr. Asquith, as the Peacemaker of Europe tc 
prevent war. The splendid efforts made by Sir Edward Gre> 
to preserve the peace of Europe command our warmest admira- 
tion. When that proved impossible he most earnestly en- 
deavoured to find some way of escape, short of dishonour, by 
which Great Britain might remain neutral in that awfu] 
contest. The armed forces of Europe, as we all know, during 
the past twenty or twenty-five years have been increasing 
beyond measure, and the closest students of the world's 
politics have believed for many years past that war was bound 
to come. It did come, and with startling suddenness ; and it 
is my duty to say that after reading the documents to which I 
have alluded, after giving them the most careful and attentive 
164 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

consideration which was permitted to me in the short time that 
has elapsed since their arrival, I am convinced that no Govern- 
ment ever with more whole-hearted earnestness sought to keep 
the peace of the world and the peace of this Empire than did 
His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. It has 
been the policy of the British Government for many years 
past to seek reduction of armaments, and thus to lessen the 
danger which lurks in the enormous armed forces with which 
the nations of Europe have confronted each other. At and 
ever since the Hague Conference in 1907, British statesmen 
have pleaded with the nations of the world to reduce their 
armaments. At the Hague Conference, and on many occasions 
since, Great Britain offered to give up what would seem to be 
very material advantages to her in time of war, if by such 
concessions she could induce Germany and other countries to 
abate the awful increase in armaments which has been pro- 
ceeding. Mr. Asquith, Sir Edward Grey, Mr. Churchill, Mr. 
McKenna, Mr. Acland I have their utterances under my hand 
and could read them to the House if there were occasion 
time after time, year after year, on occasion after occasion, the 
British Government has shown itself most truly and earnestly 
desirous of bringing about such conditions in Europe as would 
make for permanent peace if that could be accomplished. Those 
who may read the papers that have been laid upon the table 
of the House to-day will find that in the very last moments of 
peace, before Great Britain finally embarked in the conflict, 
she made this earnest proposal to the German Government : x x [See 
that if this most appalling crisis could be passed, she would Dl P l - 
use every influence and every effort that she could command at ^ f 
to bring about such an understanding between Germany and 
her ally on the one hand, and Russia, France, and Britain on 
the other hand, as would relieve Germany and Austria from 
any possible apprehension of attack from that quarter ; and 
the Minister declared himself to be inspired with a very full 
confidence that if this crisis could be passed, that great result 
would be brought about. 

I will not dwell for more than a moment on the earlier 
aspects of the war the war which broke out between Austria 
and Serbia ; but I cannot escape the conviction, after having 
read the documents to which I have alluded and I do not 
think any member of this House or any man in this country 

165 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

can escape the conviction that there was a deliberate de- 
termination in the first place to force war upon Serbia, regard- 
less of any humiliation to which she might consent or of any 
consequences which might result from that war. I say that 
such is my deliberate conviction. The most imperious demand 
ever made upon any free nation in the world was made by the 
Austro-Hungarian monarchy on Serbia on the 23rd day of 

1 [See July. 1 It was not to be called an ultimatum, as they after- 
Diplo- wards explained; it was to be called a 'demarche/ with a 
ma ^c> i time limit, and under the time limit the reply to that demand 

^ made on the 23rd July, had to be delivered not later than six 
o'clock on the evening of 25th July. I have a summary of 
the demand and of Serbia's answer under my hand, and I say 
that a perusal of that demand and of the answer which Serbia 
gave to it impresses us with the truth of what Sir Edward Grey 

2 [See stated when he said : 2 
Diplo- 
matic, i, ' I* seemed to me that the Serbian reply already involved the 
p. 128.] ' greatest humiliation to Serbia that I had ever seen a country undergo.' 

Ah 1 demands, demands of the most extreme character, were 
conceded, except one, and that was rejected only conditionally; 
and the demand which was not conceded was one which would 
have given to the Austro-Hungarian monarchy for the time 
being control almost of the Serbian judicial system, in so far as 
inquiry was to be made into certain matters connected with 
the regrettable assassination of the unfortunate Archduke. 
If the reply was not considered satisfactory, Serbia offered 
arbitration or a reference to the Hague tribunal. The reply 
of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy to that humiliating 
submission of Serbia was that the answer was not worthy to 
be regarded, and it was followed by an almost instant declara- 
tion of war. Well, as you know, the British Government, and 
particularly the Foreign Minister, upon whom this tremendous 
responsibility rested, made every possible attempt at media- 
tion even after that. On the 26th and 27th days of July he 
asked the Great Powers of the world to join in mediation, 
and every one of the Great Powers consented to that media- 

3 tion except the Government of Germany. 3 The Government 
Diplo- * Germany accepted it in principle, but after that there was 
matio, i, merely inaction and evasion. 

p. 122.] In the end the efforts at mediation were absolutely fruit- 
166 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

less. All pacific action was evaded, and the question arose 
as to what should be the course of Great Britain with regard 
to the war. Great Britain sought by every possible means, 
by negotiation and otherwise, that war should be carried on 
under such conditions that her intervention would not be 
necessary. And the great questions which arose at once were 
as to the neutrality and independence of Belgium, and to 
have that neutrality and independence respected by the Great 
Powers of Europe, particularly Germany and France, both 
of whom, in common with Great Britain, had guaranteed that 
neutrality, first of all in 1831, afterwards in 1839, and again, 
so far as Germany and France were concerned, during the 
period of the Franco-Prussian war. I need not read the dis- 
position of the treaty. It provided that Belgium should 
for all time to come be an absolutely neutral and inde- 
pendent country. 1 That was guaranteed by France ; that l [See 
was guaranteed by Great Britain ; that was guaranteed by Diplo- 
Germany ; that was guaranteed by all the Great Powers of ma *ic, 2, 
Europe. So great was the interest of Great Britain in this pp * 4 7 " 8 * 
regard during the Franco-Prussian war that she negotiated 
two treaties at that time, one with the North German Con- 
federation and one with France. The treaty which she 
negotiated with the North German Confederation provided 
that the neutrality of Belgium should be respected, and if 
the neutrality of Belgium were not respected by France during 
that war, then Great Britain bound herself to fight with the 
North German Confederation against France in defence of 
Belgian neutrality. She concluded also another treaty with 
France by which in the same terms she bound herself with 
France that if the North German Confederation during that 
war should violate the neutrality of Belgium, she would fight 
with France against the North German Confederation in 
support of Belgian independence and Belgian neutrality. 

I cannot resist the conclusion, and I do not think that any 
man who reads these documents can resist the conclusion, 
that it was the deliberate intention of the Government of 
Germany, formed many years ago, to violate the neutrality 
and independence of Belgium in case war should break out 
with France. Every man in this country, every man through- 
out the world, knows that plans of campaign are not made 
after war breaks out. Plans of campaign are made long in 

167 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

advance, and the German plan of campaign which has been 
carried out in the present war is one which involved as a 
first step in their warlike operations the absolute violation 
of the independence of Belgium. Let me read a few words 
1 [See from Sir Edward Grey's speech in that regard. He said : l 
Diplo- 
matic, 2, ' We were sounded in the course of last week as to whether, if a 
p. 411.] guarantee were given that, after the war, Belgian integrity would be 
preserved, that would content us. We replied that we could not 
bargain away whatever interests or obligations we had in Belgian 
neutrality.' 

In speaking of the interests of the small nationalities of 
Europe in this event, he pointed out what will commend itself 
to the judgment of every man in this House : that once a 
free nation, once any of these small nationalities commits 
itself to the principle of having its territory overrun by the 
armed forces of another nation without offering any resistance, 
from that time not only the neutrality but the independence 
of that country is gone. Sir Edward Grey went on to say 
this with regard to Holland and Belgium : 

' The smaller states in that region of Europe ask but one thing. 
Their one desire is that they should be left alone and independent. 
The one thing they fear is, I think, not so much that their integrity 
but that their independence should be interfered with. If in this 
war which is before Europe the neutrality of one of those countries 
is violated, if the troops of one of the combatants violate its neutrality 
and no action be taken to resent it, at the end of the war, whatever 
the integrity may be, the independence will be gone/ 

Further on he quoted with striking effect the words of 
Mr. Gladstone, uttered, if I remember correctly, at the time 
of the Franco-German war of 1870. Mr. Gladstone said : 

' We have an interest in the independence of Belgium which is 
wider than that which we may have in the literal operation of the 
guarantee. It is found in the answer to the question whether under 
the circumstances of the case, this country, endowed as it is with 
influence and power, would quietly stand by and witness the perpetra- 
tion of the direst crime that ever stained the pages of history, and 
thus become participators in the sin.' 

That was the question which presented itself for the con- 
sideration of the Ministers of the United Kingdom, and that 
168 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

was the question which the British Government, acting, I 
think, as they were bound to act in the interests of this Empire, 
as a whole, declared that they could not answer except by 
affirming that the whole power and resources of this Empire 
were pledged to defend the independence and integrity of 
Belgium as guaranteed by the treaties of 1831 and 1839. It 
is true that a promise was made that after the war was over 
the neutrality of Belgium would be absolutely respected, but 
the words of Mr. Asquith put the case with regard to that as 

cogently and forcibly as it could be put. He said : 1 1 [See 

Diplo- 

' What would have been the position of Great Britain to-day in matic, 2, 
the face of that spectacle if we had assented to this infamous proposal ? p. 425.] 
Yes, and what are we to get in return for the betrayal of our friends 
and the dishonour of our obligations ? What are we to get in return ? 
A promise nothing more ; a promise as to what Germany would do 
in certain eventualities ; a promise, be it observed I am sorry to have 
to say it, but it must be put upon record given by a Power which 
was at that very moment announcing its intention to violate its own 
treaty and inviting us to do the same. I can only say, if we had 
dallied or temporised, we, as a Government, should have covered our- 
selves with dishonour, and we should have betrayed the interests of 
this country, of which we are trustees.' 

And I am sure that every man in Canada will say Amen 
to Mr. Asquith's declaration. 

I was glad indeed to listen to the words of my right hon. 
friend with regard to our attitude towards the German people. 
We have absolutely no quarrel with the German people. I 
believe that they are a peaceable people, that they are not 
naturally a warlike people, although unfortunately they are 
dominated at the present time by a military autocracy. No 
one can overestimate what civilisation and the world owe to 
Germany. In literature, in science, art and philosophy, in 
almost every department of human knowledge and activity, 
they have stood in the very forefront of the world's advancement . 
Nearly half a million of the very best citizens of Canada are of 
German origin, and I am sure that no one would for one moment 
desire to utter any word or use any expression in debate which 
would wound the self-respect or hurt the feelings of any of 
our fellow-citizens of German descent. So far as those who 
were born in Germany or Austria-Hungary are concerned, 
and who have made Canada their adopted home, I may 

169 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

explain that since the outbreak of war we have had to con- 
sider the disposition of those who under the laws of their 
country are bound to perform military service, and we have 
adopted this principle which I think will commend itself to 
the judgment and common sense of this House. We have 
no reason to believe that those people are inspired by the 
militaristic tendencies which influence the German Govern- 
ment at the present time, or the Austrian Government for 
that matter. We have no reason to doubt, and we do not 
doubt, that these people will be absolutely true to the country 
of their adoption. Therefore we have declared by Order in 
Council 1 and by proclamation under the authority of His 
Royal Highness the Governor-General that those people who 
were born in Germany or in Austria-Hungary and have come 
to Canada as adopted citizens of this country, whether they 
have become naturalised or not, are entitled to the protec- 
tion of the law in Canada and shall receive it that they 
shall not be molested or interfered with, unless any among 
them should desire to aid or abet the enemy or leave this 
country for the purpose of fighting against Great Britain and 
her Allies. If any of them should be so minded we shall be 
obliged to follow the laws and usages of war in that regard 
with all the humanity that may be possible. But up to the 
present we have seen no disposition among these people to 
do anything of the kind. They are pursuing their usual 
avocations and behaving themselves as good citizens of 
Canada. We honour and respect them for it, and have every 
confidence that they will pursue that course throughout this 
crisis, however long it may continue. 

It is proper that I should state to the House some matters 
which have to do with the precautions which the Government 
was obliged to take on the outbreak of war. I need not say 
that in the United Kingdom among those most closely in 
touch with these matters, especially among the military and 
naval authorities in the United Kingdom, there has been for 
many years a conviction that some effective organisation in 
the Dominions of the Empire should be provided so that an 
emergency such as that which arose so suddenly would not 

2 [See find us altogether in confusion. 2 

Appendix.] Documents were presented to the Government of Canada, 
and submitted to me for consideration, by the Under Secre- 
170 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

tary of State for External Affairs, Sir Joseph Pope, last 
December ; and on the 6th day of January 1914, after 
having gone carefully over the documents which were so 
submitted, I wrote to him the following letter, which I think 
it desirable to communicate to the House : 

Prime Minister's Office, 
Canada, Ottawa, January 6, 1914. 

DEAR SIR JOSEPH POPE, I have carefully considered the papers 
which you left with me a short time ago relating to a proposed conference 
of deputy heads for the purpose of concerting measures to be taken by 
the various departments of the Government primarily concerned, in a 
contingency of an outbreak of war affecting His Majesty's Dominions, 
and more particularly of considering the preparation of a War Book 
which shall set forth in detail the action to be taken by every responsible 
official at the seat of Government in the event of such an emergency. 

The suggestion meets with my approval, and as the first notification 
of the outbreak of hostilities would emanate from your department, I 
authorise you, as Under Secretary of State for External Affairs, to call 
such a conference of deputy heads, to consist in the first instance of 
(i) yourself as chairman ; (2) the Governor-General's Secretary ; 
(3) the Deputy Minister of Militia and Defence ; (4) the Deputy Minister 
of Justice ; (5) the Deputy Minister of Naval Affairs ; (6) the Com- 
missioner of Customs ; (7) the Deputy Minister of Marine and Fisheries ; 
(8) the Deputy Postmaster-General ; (9) the Deputy Minister of Rail- 
ways and Canals ; with Major Gordon Hall, Director of Military 
operations (representing the Department of Militia and Defence), and 
Mr. R. M. Stephens, Director of Gunnery (representing the Department 
of the Naval Service), as joint secretaries. 

You will keep me informed from time to time of the progress and 
results of your deliberations. Yours faithfully, 

(Signed) R. L. BORDEN. 

Sir Joseph Pope, Under Secretary of State 
for External Affairs, Ottawa. 

The work went on during the winter months, and, if the 
House will permit me to do so, I can describe what has been 
accomplished more conveniently by reading a memorandum 
which has been prepared by the Chairman, and which is as 
follows : 

MEMORANDUM relating to a conference of deputy heads of certain 
departments of the public service, which met in Ottawa in the 
early part of 1914 to concert measures for the drawing up of a 
general Defence Scheme or War Book, embodying a record of the 

171 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

action to be taken in the time of emergency by every responsible 
official at the seat of Government. 

In 1913 the Secretary of State for the Colonies communicated to 
this Government certain memoranda of the Oversea Defence Com- 
mittee, outlining the action to be taken by the naval and military 
authorities when relations with any foreign power become strained, 
and on the outbreak of war. The suggestion was conveyed that the 
governments of the various self-governing Dominions might advantage- 
ously prepare a similar record in each case to meet such contingencies. 
By the direction of the Government these recommendations were 
considered by the local Interdepartmental Committee (which is com- 
posed of the expert officers of the Naval and Militia Departments 
sitting together). The Committee reported that a conference of those 
deputy ministers whose departments would primarily be affected by 
an outbreak of war should be held to consider how best to give effect 
to the proposals of the Oversea Committee. 

This suggestion was submitted to the Prime Minister and received 
the approval of the Government. Thereupon, a meeting of the under- 
mentioned deputy heads, together with the Governor-General's Military 
Secretary, was held under the chairmanship of Sir Joseph Pope, Under 
Secretary of State for External Affairs, on the I2th January 1914 : 

The Deputy Minister of Militia and Defence. 

The Deputy Minister of the Naval Service. 

The Deputy Minister of Justice. 

The Deputy Minister of Customs. 

The Deputy Postmaster-General. 

The Deputy Minister of Railways and Canals. 

The Deputy Minister of Marine and Fisheries, with Major Gordon 
Hall, director of military operations (representing the Department of 
Militia and Defence), and Lieutenant R. M. Stephens, Director of 
Gunnery (representing the Department of the Naval Service), as joint 
secretaries. 

At this meeting it was decided that the secretaries should acquaint 
each member of the conference of the various contingencies which 
might arise in the event of which the co-operation of his department 
would be required ; thus enabling him to decide what steps would be 
necessary to give effect to the decisions of the conference, and to detail 
an officer of his department to confer with the secretaries in the actual 
compilation of the War Book. 

Meetings of sub-committees were subsequently held from time to 
time, at which the necessary action to be taken by the various depart- 
ments in the event of certain contingencies arising was carefully con- 
sidered and determined. Each department then proceeded to develop 
its own line of action in detail, the whole being subsequently co- 
172 






PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

ordinated and incorporated in one scheme, indicating the course to be 
followed by the Government as a whole on an emergency arising. 
This scheme was then submitted and approved by the Prime Minister. 

The taking of these precautionary measures proved most fortunate, 
as, on the receipt of intelligence during the last few weeks of the serious 
situation hi Europe, this Government found itself in a position to take, 
without the slightest delay, such action as the exigencies of the moment 
demanded, concurrently with His Majesty's Government and with the 
sister Dominions of the Empire. 

ijth August 1914. 

I cannot overestimate the great advantage to the country 
which resulted from having these matters considered, deter- 
mined, and arranged in advance in conjunction with the 
Imperial Government. The arrangements which were 
instantly necessary, and to which I shall allude more in detail 
in a moment, were made without the slightest confusion. 
All communications from the Imperial authorities were acted 
upon promptly and with, as I say, an entire absence of 
confusion. Every detail has been previously worked out 
with precision, and I am informed by the chairman of the 
conference that especially are the thanks of the people of 
this country due to Major Gordon Hall and Mr. Stephens, 
upon whom a very large part of the work in making these 
arrangements necessarily devolved. 

In connection with the outbreak of hostilities, the Govern- 
ment has been obliged to take some extraordinary steps, and 
certain of these steps will require ratification by Parliament. 
We realised, and I hope every member of this House and all the 
people of this country will realise, that there was a tremendous 
responsibility upon us, and I can assure all the members of 
the House that in so far as we took any action which might 
require the ratification and approval of Parliament we took 
it only because we believed that in the exercise of our duty 
we were bound to do so before Parliament could possibly 
assemble. On the very day before the war broke out we 
purchased two submarines, having first consulted with the 
Admiralty. 1 Crews have been procured for both, and I believe J [See 
the officer in command on the Pacific coast at the present time p- ] 
is an expert in such matters, and that the crews are already 
competent to make these submarines useful for the defence 
of our coasts and of our shipping if occasion should require. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

The Rainbow, already in commission, was furnished with the 
necessary ammunition and stores and her crew was supple- 
mented by a number of naval volunteers. I think that great 
praise is due to those in command of her for the courageous 
act which they undertook in going south in face of two modern 
German cruisers to assist in bringing back the small boats 
Algerine and Shearwater, which were then in the south. The 
Niobe has also been put in commission, as she possesses some 
fighting strength, and she will be manned in part by the crews 
of the Shearwater and the Algerine and in part by British 
naval reservists. All of these boats have been placed under 
the direction of the Admiralty by virtue of the authority 

1 [See contained in that behalf in the Naval Service Act, 1910. 1 

P- 65-] The correspondence which has passed between the Govern- 

2 [See p. 6 ment of Canada and the Government of the United Kingdom, 2 
tf seq.} and also the correspondence which has taken place between 
8 [See Mr. Perley and myself, 8 as well as the Orders in Council, have 
PP- 4 x -53-] been laid on the table. I may say that, on returning to 

Ottawa on the morning of August ist, I consulted with such 
of my colleagues as were in Ottawa at that time, and I sent 
two telegrams, both of which have since been made public, 
one yesterday and one on a previous occasion. The first 
telegram I sent on August ist is as follows : 

August i, 1914. 

Secret. In view of the impending danger of war involving the 
Empire, my advisers are anxiously considering the most effective 
means of rendering every possible aid, and they will welcome any 
suggestions and advice which Imperial naval and military authorities 
may deem it expedient to offer. They are confident that a consider- 
able force would be available for service abroad. A question has 
been mooted respecting the status of any Canadian force serving 
abroad, as under section 69 of Canadian Militia Act the active militia 
can only be placed on active service beyond Canada for the defence 
thereof. It has been suggested that regiments might enlist as Imperial 
troops for stated period, Canadian Government undertaking to make 
all necessary financial provision for their equipment, pay, and main- 
tenance. This proposal has not yet been maturely considered here, 
and my advisers would be glad to have views of Imperial Government 
thereon.' 

The answer which we received, and which was not made 
public at the time, as war had not yet broken out, was on the 
3rd of August, and it is as follows : 

T 74 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

' With reference to your cypher telegram 2nd August, please 
inform your Ministers that their patriotic readiness to render every 
aid is deeply appreciated by His Majesty's Government, but they 
would prefer postponing detailed observations on the suggestion put 
forward pending further developments. As soon as situation appears 
to call for further measures, I will telegraph you again.' 

That telegram is significant because it shows that then, 
on the 3rd of August, the Imperial Government not only 
were using every endeavour to preserve peace, but had hopes 
that peace might be preserved. Therefore they made their 
answer to us in the guarded language which I have just 
quoted. 

MR. W. F. MACLEAN : Is that signed by the Secretary .of 
State for the Colonies ? 

SIR ROBERT BORDEN : That is signed by the Secretary 
of State for the Colonies, Mr. Harcourt. All these communica- 
tions go from His Royal Highness to the Secretary of State 
for the Colonies, and the replies are received in the same way. 

On the 4th day of August they sent us the following further 
telegram with regard to the same matter : 

' Though there seems to be no immediate necessity for any request 
on our part for an expeditionary force from Canada, I think, in view 
of their generous offer, your Ministers would be wise to take all legis- 
lative and other steps by which they would be enabled without delay 
to provide such a force in case it should be required later/ 

On the 6th day of August they sent us the following 
despatch : 

' With reference to my telegram of August 4, His Majesty's Govern- 
ment gratefully accept offer of your Ministers to send expeditionary 
force to this country, and would be glad if it could be despatched as 
soon as possible. Suggested composition follows.' 

The suggested composition which followed later was, as 
stated by my right hon. friend the leader of the Opposition, 
to whom I have communicated several of these despatches in 
the meantime, that we should send forward a Division, com- 
prising about 22,500 men. 

On the first day of August I also sent, through His Royal 
Highness the Governor-General, the following telegram : 

' My advisers, while expressing their most earnest hope that 

175 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

peaceful solution of existing international difficulties may be achieved 
and their strong desire to co-operate in every possible way for that 
purpose, wish me to convey to His Majesty's Government the firm 
assurance that, if unhappily war should ensue, the Canadian people 
will be united in a common resolve to put forth every effort and to 
make every sacrifice necessary to ensure the integrity and maintain 
the honour of our Empire/ 

To which, on the second day of August, the following reply 
was received : 

' With reference to your telegram ist August, His Majesty's Govern- 
ment gratefully welcome the assurance of your Government that in 
the present crisis they may rely on whole-hearted co-operation of the 
people of Canada.' 

I spoke in that regard of the united spirit and action of 
the people of Canada, and subsequent events have shown that 
I was not in any wise mistaken in placing that estimate upon 
the sentiment of the Canadian people. The men of Canada 
who are going to the front are going as free men by voluntary 
enlistment as free men in a free country. They are coming 
forward voluntarily for the purpose of serving this Dominion 
and this Empire in a time of peril. Already I am informed 
by the Minister of Militia that thousands more than will be 
required have volunteered to go. I desire to express my 
absolute concurrence in the view put forward by the hon. 
member for South Oxford (Mr. Sutherland) in his eloquent 
address, namely, that it is the duty of the people of Canada, 
and of the Government of Canada too, so far as may be 
necessary, to make all suitable provision for the families and 
children of those who are going to the front. We are giving 
to our country and our Empire at this time of our best, and 
we are proud to do it ; but we must not forget our duty to 
those who are left behind. Neither the people of Canada nor 
the Government of Canada will ever for one moment forget 
that duty. 

There has also been made public a telegram which we 
despatched to the mother country with regard to a provision 
which we thought might be very welcome, not only for the 
material assistance which it would afford, but as a reminder 
to the mother country that the people of the Dominions were 
with them in every sense, and that this great Dominion of 
176 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

ours has been justly called the granary of the Empire. There- 
fore we sent on the sixth day of August through His Royal 
Highness the Governor-General this telegram : 

' My advisers request me to inform you that the people of Canada, 
through their Government, desire to offer one million bags of flour, of 
ninety-eight pounds each, as a gift to the people of United Kingdom 
to be placed at the disposal of His Majesty's Government and to be 
used for such purposes as they may deem expedient.' 






It was thought desirable that this should go as a gift from 
people to people, but that it should be placed at the disposal of 
the Imperial Government to be used for such purposes as they 
might determine. We received in reply to that the following 
telegram under date of August 7th, expressing the greatest 
possible appreciation : 

' On behalf of the people of the United Kingdom His Majesty's 
Government accept with deep gratitude the splendid and welcome gift 
of flour from Canada, which will be of the greatest use for the steadying 
of prices and relief of distress in this country. We can never forget 
the generosity and promptitude of this gift and the patriotism from 
which it springs.' 

I desire to express appreciation at this moment of the 
action of the provinces of Canada and of individuals in Canada 
during the past week or ten days. From provinces and from 
individuals gifts have come, great and small, showing the 
intense eagerness of the people and of every province in Canada 
to associate themselves in this great issue with what we are 
doing in the Dominion as a whole, and with all that is being 
done in every Dominion of the Empire. The people as a whole, 
not only here in Canada, but in the mother country itself and 
in every Dominion, will, I am sure, feel the most grateful 
appreciation and render the warmest thanks for all the aid 
thus tendered. 

I have spoken already of our action with regard to re- 
servists. I have said that we have proclaimed to them that 
as citizens of Canada they are entitled to the protection of our 
laws and that they are not to be molested, unless they attempt 
to leave this country to fight against us, or to give aid to the 
enemy or otherwise violate obligations undertaken as citizens 
of Canada. 

OVERSEAS I. M 177 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

I might allude to the fact that we found it necessary 

1 [See to establish a censorship. 1 That was regarded as absolutely 
P- 74-1 essential at the outset ; and we took upon ourselves to order 

censorship, trusting that Parliament, in so far as might be 
necessary, would approve our action afterwards. We had 

2 [See also to take measures with regard to the detention of ships. 2 
p. 66.] All such matters had been arranged by the inter-departmental 

committee. We had also to provide for the prohibition of the 

3 [See export of certain articles. 3 That prohibition in regard to 
PP- 75 certain articles has since been relaxed in one or two particulars, 
an 79.] a fter consultation with the Imperial authorities ; 4 and in so 

far as the prohibition may not be found necessary for the 
ioo.? 7> purposes of war it perhaps may be further relaxed from time 
to time. 

From every part of Canada we have had most unmistakable 
evidence of the determination of the people of this Dominion 
to support the mother country and the other Dominions which 
are bound together by the strongest possible ties, the ties of 
absolute British liberty and of perfect self-government. Those 
ties bind together the provinces of Canada in this Dominion. 
Those ties bind together the Dominions of the Empire with the 
mother country ; and we rejoice to know that, in a time of 
stress and perhaps of peril such as this, they have proved the 
strongest possible ties that could be devised by any govern- 
ment throughout the world. 

It might not be out of place to say a word with regard to 
the Navy, which has been alluded to very eloquently by my 
right hon. friend and by the mover and seconder of the Address. 

It is barely two weeks since war broke out. Already 
nearly every pathway across the ocean has been cleared. Our 
foreign commerce has been but little interfered with very 
little indeed. The splendid organisation of the British Navy 
has enabled this to be accomplished. Those who are familiar 
with the religious service used at sea will remember that prayer 
goes up from the men of the Navy, in peace as in war, that they 
may be a safeguard to their Sovereign and his dominions and 
a security for such as pass upon the seas upon their lawful 
occupations. The quaint words of that old prayer express as 
perfectly as may be that which is most essential for the security 
and integrity of this Empire a safe pathway across the seas. 
Surely that prayer has been fulfilled even in this appalling war, 
178 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

for already the silent victory on the sea has been won. The 
Atlantic now is, and we have every reason to believe that the 
Pacific shortly will be, practically as safe and secure for those 
under the protection of the flag as in times of peace. 

In connection with the gift to which I alluded a. moment 
ago, the gift to the British people of a million bags of flour, 
may I add that during the past week we have been in corre- 
spondence with Mr. Perley with a view to offering to the 
Government of France, if they should desire to accept it, a 
hospital of fifty beds which we will be prepared to acquire, 
equip, and maintain. 1 The proposal has been put forward l [See 
through Mr. Perley, as High Commissioner, who had been P- 26 7-] 
instructed to ascertain the wishes of the French Government 
with regard thereto. I believe a similar proposition has been 
made by the British Government to the French Government. 
But, in the appalling stress and pressure of affairs which 
confront the Government of France at present the British 
Government have not been able to obtain an answer to their 
own request, and so we have not been able to obtain an answer 
to ours. But I thought it desirable that I should here publicly 
state that the Government of Canada, with the approval of 
Parliament, which I am sure will not be withheld, are prepared 
to establish, equip and maintain, in Paris or elsewhere, a 
hospital, making provision for fifty beds for the comfort of 
those who may be wounded in the war. 

The leader of the Opposition has alluded to the uncertainty 
of human events, and particularly events such as are before us 
in the great war which now confronts the Empire. True, the 
future is shrouded in uncertainty, but I believe that the people 
of Canada look forth upon it with steadfast eyes. But, let me 
say that while we are now upborne by the exaltation and en- 
thusiasm which come in the first days of a national crisis, so 
great that it moves the hearts of all men, we must not forget 
that days may come when our patience, our endurance, and our 
fortitude will be tried to the utmost. In those days let us see 
to it that no heart grow faint and that* no courage be found 
wanting. I was very much touched by the words of a despatch 
which came in only an hour ago these despatches are sent 
to us from hour to hour. It shows a spirit which later we may 
need to emulate when perhaps tidings shall come to us that 
those of our best and our dearest who have gone to the front 

179 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

have fallen in battle. I will read the words of the despatch, 
which are very simple and direct : 

' PARIS, August 19, 11.10 A.M. A woman with four sons in the 
French army to-day walked slowly down the steps of one of the 
municipal offices where relatives are officially informed whether 
soldiers are dead, wounded, or unreported. She was exceedingly 
white, but her emotion was greater than could be expressed in tears. 
A friend came up quickly and said : " Have you good news ? I am so 
glad my Jean is safe." " Yes, they are all safe," was the reply ; " they 
are safe in the arms of the Father ; I am proud to give all to the 
cause." 

It is not fitting that I should prolong this debate. In the 
awful dawn of the greatest war the world has ever known, in 
the hour when peril confronts us such as this Empire has not 
faced for a hundred years, every vain or unnecessary word 
seems a discord. As to our duty, all are agreed : we stand 
shoulder to shoulder with Britain and the other British 
Dominions in this quarrel. And that duty we shall not fail to 
fulfil as the honour of Canada demands. Not for love of battle, 
not for lust of conquest, not for greed of possessions, but for 
the cause of honour, to maintain solemn pledges, to uphold 
principles of liberty, to withstand forces that would convert 
the world into an armed camp ; yea, in the very name of the 
peace that we sought at any cost save that of dishonour, we 
have entered into this war ; and, while gravely conscious of 
the tremendous issues involved and of aU the sacrifices that 
they may entail, we do not shrink from them, but with firm 
hearts we abide the event. 

Motion agreed to. 



August 20, 1914. 

IN CANADIAN HOUSE OF COMMONS 
THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL'S TERM OF OFFICE EXTENDED 

Canadian SIR ROBERT BoRDEN (Prime Minister) : Mr. Speaker, I 

Hansard, desire to make the following announcement to the House : 

In view of the urgent conditions confronting Canada, in 
common with the rest of the Empire, by reason of the out- 
break of war, the Government consider it highly important 
that His Royal Highness Field-Marshal the Duke of Connaught 
180 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

should continue to give to Canada the benefit of his services 
as Governor-General. His knowledge of conditions in Canada 
and his wide experience in public and military affairs render 
his services especially valuable at this juncture. It has 
accordingly been arranged, at the request of the Canadian 
Government, with the full approval of His Majesty the King 
and the Imperial Government, that His Royal Highness's 
term of office shall be indefinitely extended during the con- 
tinuance of the war. His Royal Highness had made all 
arrangements to leave Canada at the conclusion of his extended 
term of office on the 22nd October, but, with the high sense 
of duty which has always actuated him, he has placed himself 
at the disposal of His Majesty for this purpose. 

HON. G. P. GRAHAM : The people of Canada will hear 
this announcement with great gratification and satisfaction. 
The ripe military experience, coupled with the dual knowledge 
of His Royal Highness the Governor-General of conditions in 
the old land and in our own, will make his presence in this 
part of His Majesty's Dominions during the trying period 
through which we are now passing most gratifying and 
reassuring to the people. 



THE EUROPEAN WAR 
THE BUDGET TARIFF CHANGES 

HON. W. T. WHITE (Minister of Finance) moved that the 
House go into Committee of Ways and Means. He said : 

I shall preface the introduction of the fiscal measures 
which I have to propose to the House by a brief statement 
of the financial position of the Dominion, and of the new 
situation as it presents itself to me, with which we are con- 
fronted as a result of the outbreak of war. 

Owing to widespread financial and economic conditions, 
to which I referred at length in my Budget speech of April, 
our revenues since September last have shown a marked decline. 
During the first four months of the present fiscal year, April, 
May, June, and July, we have experienced a reduction, as 
compared with the same four months of the previous fiscal 
year, of over ten million dollars. 

In consequence of a general increase in commercial activity, 

181 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

due to easier money conditions, a marked improvement 
became perceptible about the end of July. The extent of 
this improvement is reflected in the returns of the first ten 
days of August, the loss of revenue being $500,000, or at the 
rate of say $1,500,000 for the month, as compared with an 
average decline of $2,700,000 for each of the four preceding 
months. 

As the decline in revenue for the last fiscal year had begun 
in October, we had calculated that during the remainder of 
the calendar year we would gradually overtake the revenues 
of the corresponding months of the previous year, and could 
look forward to gains in January, February, and March, which 
would have recouped in some measure our earlier losses. 

This outlook has been wholly changed by the war. Its 
startlingly sudden outbreak between Austria-Hungary and 
Serbia and the appalling rapidity of its extension to Russia, 
Germany, France, Belgium, and Great Britain threw the 
civilised world into a panic such as was never known before. 
The shock to international finance was immense. In the 
general loss of confidence there arose an instantaneous and 
universal demand for gold. Huge volumes of securities were 
thrown upon the market and sold for what they would realise. 
Liquidation proceeded upon a colossal scale until the pro- 
digious losses of individuals and the vast drainage of gold 
from all great financial centres compelled the closing of the 
bourses and exchanges of the world. The demand for gold 
still continuing in the financial world, and general hoarding 
having begun on the part of the general public, a widespread 
suspension of specie payment inevitably resulted. In con- 
sequence of such suspension, accompanied in Great Britain 
and elsewhere in Europe by moratory proclamations whereby 
the payment of maturing obligations was postponed, and 
by reason of the fact that gold could no longer be shipped 
across the Atlantic owing to the menace of hostile cruisers, 
the exchange system of the world at once experienced collapse. 
In the meantime international trade was prostrated by the 
blow which severed at once all intercourse between belligerents 
and caused immediate cessation of commerce between Europe 
and America. 

All these cataclysmic events have been compressed within 
the period of two or three weeks ; and yet such is the flexi- 
182 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

bility of the financial organisation of the world that already 
order is emerging out of what seemed hopeless chaos, and 
the vast and complicated machinery of commerce and finance 
is with hourly increasing efficiency resuming its normal 
functions. 

For the purposes of this presentation it remains for me to 
estimate so far as possible our expenditures for the year, 
indicate my view as to revenue and submit the measures 
proposed by the Government to meet the altered conditions 
with which we are confronted. I should not be frank if I did 
not at once say that I put forth my view as to both revenue 
and expenditure with the utmost diffidence, because it is not 
possible for any one to forecast with any measurable degree of 
certainty what lies ahead of us under either of these headings. 

Before the outbreak of war we had calculated upon a 
revenue of $145,000,000 and an expenditure of about 
$175,000,000, of which $135,000,000 would have been upon 
Consolidated Fund Account and $40,000,000 upon Capital, 
Special, and Investment Accounts. 

In June last we floated a loan of 5,000,000, the proceeds 
of which with our expected revenues would have carried us 
into next fall, when a further loan of say 3,000,000 would 
have sufficed for our requirements until the end of the fiscal 
year, including the retirement of 1,700,000 Treasury Bills 
maturing in November next. 

Our present cash position is normal, our bank balances 
both in Canada and in London having been well maintained. 

I proceed now to deal with the situation as changed by the 
war. As to revenues for the remainder of the year, it is with 
much hesitation that I venture upon an estimate. For some 
time past I have had the tariff experts of my department and 
of the Customs Department considering the question. That 
we shall experience a sharp decline in customs revenue due to 
decreased importations seems certain. The war itself shuts 
off automatically our trade with the enemy. The increased 
risk of ocean traffic must have a most serious effect upon our 
sea-borne commerce. Above all, the temporary cessation of 
the stream of our borrowings in Great Britain will diminish 
our capital and other expenditures, and express itself in a 
marked diminution in our imports. On the other hand, we 
shall probably increase our imports from the United States, 

183 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

through whose ports goods from Europe will no doubt find 
their way. The enhanced prices of our grain, food, and other 
products will give us greater buying power than we should 
have otherwise possessed from this source. After careful 
consideration of all these aspects of the question, we are of the 
view that our revenues from present sources for the year 
should reach from $130,000,000 to $135,000,000. 

With regard to expenditures, it will be the policy of the 
Government so far as possible to maintain the existing pro- 
gramme of public works under construction. New works will 
not, however, be undertaken until the financial situation clears; 
and in this connection we must ask the forbearance and co- 
operation of members of both sides of the House. On the 
one hand, we do not desire to shut down construction now 
under way, with the consequent resulting unemployment, 
and, on the other, we must have in mind existing financial 
conditions, and embark upon new expenditure only when we 
have in view the source of funds with which it may be defrayed. 
Under this policy I estimate that our revenue will just about 
suffice to meet our ordinary running expenditure ; at least, I 
am hopeful that it will do so. 

This leaves to be otherwise provided for capital, special 
and investment expenditure a sum totalling probably to 
$30,000,000, together with such special expenditure as we may 
make for the common defence of Canada and the Empire. 
We are asking Parliament for a vote of $50,000,000. What 
portion of this may be expended during the remainder of the 
fiscal year is problematical, but we must assume at least the 
greater part. With the world at war and our national exist- 
ence at stake, it is not the part of patriotism to spare either 
blood or treasure, and the Government may be depended upon 
to continue to uphold to the utmost of its power the arm of 
Britain in the fateful contest in which she is now engaged for 
the preservation of the Empire and the freedom of the 
world. 

Assuming a capital and special war expenditure of, say, 
$60,000,000, we must further provide $8,500,000 for the re- 
tirement of Treasury Bills maturing in November, making a 
total of $68,500,000, which must be met by the proceeds of 
borrowing or special taxation. We have already borrowed 
$25,000,000 by the issue of June. This leaves a balance of 
184 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

$43,500,000, which we must now devise ways and means to 
meet. 

To partially meet the special war expenditure I have to 
propose certain increases in customs and excise duties upon 
articles and commodities to the taxation of which resort is 
usually had in the emergency of war. 

These special war taxes, representing only a small fraction 
of our increase in military and naval expenditure, due to the 
critical situation which has arisen, will fall upon the entire 
community. In paying them each citizen will feel that the 
amount he pays is a direct contribution to the defence of 
Canada and the Empire. 

From these special war taxes I estimate we shall derive 
additional revenue of about $7,000,000 during the remainder 
of the fiscal year. This leaves a sum of over $36,000,000 to 
be provided by borrowing. We shall, as opportunity offers, 
issue further loans, but I must state to the House that the 
amount upon which we can rely from this source is conjectural 
and dependent upon the course of events. 

In these circumstance I am taking authority, by legislation 
amending the Dominion Notes Act, 1 to increase the amount of l [See 
notes which may be issued against a 25 per cent, margin of P- 22I -1 
gold from thirty to fifty million dollars. This will give us an 
additional fifteen million dollars from money borrowed from 
our own people upon the Dominion's credit. We shall avail 
ourselves of this emergency measure to the extent that it may 
be found necessary to supplement our borrowings otherwise. 
I have already given notice of the legislation in that behalf. 

As to the effect of the war upon industrial and commercial 
conditions in Canada, I do not regard it as necessary that I should 
upon this occasion make any special pronouncement. Injury 
there will no doubt be to some of our enterprises, but such 
injury may be most marked at the beginning and not of long 
duration. In the circumstances, I feel that I can confidently 
appeal to all employers of labour to continue to carry on their 
operations to such extent as may be feasible to them in order 
that the distress of unemployment may be minimised as much 
as possible, and that the first brunt of the war may not fall too 
heavily upon the working community. 

To many of our industries, notably to agriculture, there 

185 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

should be pronounced stimulation and quickening of activity. 
Trade between Canada and the mother land will undoubtedly 
receive an impetus, the importance of which to our future 
relations it would be difficult to overstate. If I have any 
general advice to offer it is that the people of Canada will, as I 
am sure they will, continue to maintain the calm, sane judg- 
ment for which they have always been noted. Above all, 
confidence is a supreme patriotic duty confidence in one 
another, confidence in our country and its institutions, in 
the Empire, in the righteousness of our cause, and, under 
Providence, in the certain ultimate triumph of our arms. 



August 21, 1914. 
IN CANADIAN SENATE 

THE WAR MEASURES BILL, 1914 1 
On clause 12 : 

' 12. Section 3 of the Immigration Act, chapter 27 of the statutes 
of 1910, is amended by adding thereto the following subsection : 

' 2. No resident of Canada, whether he is a Canadian citizen or 
not, and whether he has a Canadian domicile or not, who leaves Canada 
to perform any military or other service for any country then at war 
with His Majesty, or for the purpose of aiding or abetting in any way 
His Majesty's enemies, shall be permitted to land in Canada, or remain 
therein, except with the permission of the Minister. If any such 
person is also prosecuted for any offence of which he may have been 
guilty he shall undergo any punishment imposed upon such prosecution 
before he is deported/ 

The CHAIRMAN : There are some amendments made by 
the Commons to the printed Bill. In the second last line 
of the clause, the words ' he should undergo ' have been 
changed and the following substituted : ' He shall be liable 
to undergo any punishment imposed upon him under such 
prosecution before he is deported/ 

HON. R. WATSON: What about the holdings of such a 
man? 

HON. J. A. LOUGHEED : The hon. gentleman means as to 
his interests in property. 

HON. MR. WATSON : Supposing he is a homesteader or 
owns property ? 

1 [The text of this Act the War Measures Act is given on p. 215.] 
186 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

HON. MR. LOUGHEED : I should judge that under the Bill 
the Government would have authority to make regulations 
forfeiting his right to again enter upon such homestead. 

HON. F. M. YOUNG : Why should he not lose his 
property ? 

HON. MR. WATSON : I think anybody who comes to 
Canada, lives here, and subsequently undertakes to go abroad 
to fight against His Majesty's subjects should have all his 
property in Canada forfeited. 

HON. MR. LOUGHEED : That would not be unreasonable. 

HON. H. J. CLORAN : That clause is not drastic enough 
by any means. Any person in Canada, Canadian citizens or 
otherwise, who leaves the country to enlist in the German 
army, and help Germany against the armies of Britain and 
her Allies, should not be allowed to return to Canada. If he 
should return he should be shot and any property he might 
have in Canada should be confiscated. The Government is 
too lenient. I think the country will back me up in that 
proposition. 

HON. W. McKAY : This Bill provides for all that in the 
last clause. 

HON. T. O. DAVIS : That does not say anything about 
confiscation of property. 

HON. MR. CLORAN : That does not say he should be shot. 

HON. MR. WATSON: I think the Government should go 
further in this legislation. The Government is now providing 
that an alien who leaves this country to fight for Germany 
should not be allowed to land in Canada. I think the Govern- 
ment should keep a strict supervision over these people in 
Canada, and any man who expresses himself as hostile to Great 
Britain in this war should have his property confiscated. 

An HON. GENTLEMAN : Oh, no. 

HON. SIR LYMAN MELVIN JONES : In case a man left the 
country and his wife and family remained here, what position 
would they occupy ? Perhaps they would be very much 
opposed to his leaving. What would become of them ? 

HON. MR. DAVIS : We have not to look after the families 
of people who leave the country to join the armies of nations 
warring with Great Britain. I say their property should be 
confiscated. 

HON. MR. LOUGHEED : Under clause 6, sufficiently wide 

187 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

powers are given to the Governor in Council to pass regulations 
with the force of law, if it was thought desirable. 

HON. MR. YOUNG : Where does the hon. leader find 
provision in any clause which will give the Government that 
power ? 

IN CANADIAN HOUSE OF COMMONS. 

1 [The text WAR APPROPRIATION ($50,OOO,OOO) BlLL 1 

is giv^n C O n motion of SIR ROBERT BORDEN, Bill No. 3 was read 
p. 214.] the second time, and the House went into Committee thereon. 
On section 2 payment of $50,000,000 may be made : 
SIR ROBERT BORDEN : As has already been explained, by 

2 [See the Order in Council 2 which has been brought down, the pro- 
p. 72.] posal is, in the first place, to make provision for such portion 

of the active Militia of Canada as may be called out for the 
actual defence of our own shores, both on the Atlantic and the 
Pacific, and elsewhere in Canada, wherever there may be 
apprehension of invasion or attack of any kind during the 
progress of the present war. In the next place, it is proposed, 
in accordance with arrangements which are set forth in the 

3 [See Order in Council 3 brought down, that a Division, comprising 
p. 84-] about 22,218 men, shall be provided by voluntary enlistment, 

for the purpose of aiding and co-operating with the troops of 
His Majesty in the field of operations. The Order in Council 
states certain particulars with regard to the force, and I have 
other details under my hand which I shall give to the Com- 
mittee if desired. The actual cost of equipping a force and 
maintaining it for the period of one year that is, the total cost 
of equipment, pay and maintenance is estimated at about 
$1000 per man. I have the details of the equipment required, 
and I am ready to give such further information as the Com- 
mittee may desire, so far as I have it available. 

SIR WILFRID LAURIER : This provision of $50,000,000 is 
distributed under four heads : 

(a) The defence and security of Canada ; 

(b) The conduct of naval and military operations in or beyond 
Canada ; 

(c) Promoting the continuance of trade, industry, and business 
communications whether by means of insurance or indemnity against 
war risk or otherwise ; and 

188 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

(d) The carrying out of any measures deemed necessary or advisable 
by the Governor in Council in consequence of the existence of a state of 
war. 

I think it advisable that we should take up each of these 
heads and have it explained somewhat in detail. First of all, 
the defence and security of Canada. This comprises the 
equipment and maintenance of the Niobe, the Rainbow, and 
such other ships as we have. That would come under the 
Department of Naval Affairs. It comprises also the purchase 
of the two submarines which we were told of the other day and 
their equipment. 1 I do not know whether these two items l [See 
include all that is intended to "be expended under this head. P- *39-] 
If more is to be expended we would like to know the amount 
which is to be appropriated out of the $50,000,000 for that 
purpose. 

SIR ROBERT BORDEN : The Minister of Naval Affairs has 
informed us that he is contemplating a possible expenditure of 
$6,000,000, but he does not anticipate that it will exceed 
$4,000,000. That is exclusive of the submarines, which were 
purchased at a cost of $1,150,000. That is really about all I 
can say with regard to the part which concerns the Naval 
Service. As far as the military part is concerned, the explana- 
tion I have is as follows : 



MOBILISATION AND CANADIAN OVERSEAS CONTINGENT 

Required to March 31, 1915 : 

Pay of 25,000 men for 7 months . . . $6,100,000 

Rations for 25,000 men for 7 months at 40 cents . 2,100,000 

5000 horses at $200 1,000,000 

Forage for 7 months at 60 cents . . . 600,000 

Subsistence of troops prior to arriving at Quebec 275,000 
Transport of men, horses, guns and equipments 

to Quebec . . , . . . 450,000 

Ocean transport ...... 1,000,000 

Transport abroad . . . . . 300,000 

Return transport to Canada .... 1,450,000 

$13,275,000 
189 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYOVERSEAS 

Add to these : $13,275,000 
Engineer services at Halifax, Quebec, and else- 
where ....... 500,000 

Equipment ....... 2,400,000 

Clothing . . . . . . 3,300,000 

Dominion Arsenal ammunition . . . 660,000 

Censorship 7 months ..... 150,000 

Pay, etc., of detachments of troops on guard at 

various places in Canada .... 2,000,000 

Movements of troops, ammunition, etc., to 

various places in Canada .... 100,000 

For additional troops and unforeseen expenses . 7,615,000 



Total $30,000,000 

The pay and rations have been estimated for seven months, 
but it is not very probable that the troops will return within 
that time. The censor staff, which is under the Department 
of Militia and Defence, comprises a very considerable number 
of men who are required for the purpose of maintaining an 
effective check upon the telegraphs and the various cable 
stations on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, and also on the 
wireless stations. In regard to the item of $100,000 for 
movements of troops, ammunition, etc., I may say that we 
have been required from time to time to move troops and guns 
very suddenly, so an estimate has been included for that 
purpose. 

1 [See HON. W. PUGSLEY : Are the million bags of flour 1 which 

P- X 77-] are to be sent to England to be paid for out of this vote ? 

SIR ROBERT BORDEN : The Minister of Finance is of the 
opinion that that might be done. 

MR. PUGSLEY : No other vote is to be taken for that ? 

SIR ROBERT BORDEN : We have not contemplated any 
other vote, but if the House thinks it necessary, it could be 
considered. 

MR. PUGSLEY : I have a very strong feeling that this 
Government could not do better in the interests of Canada, or 
anything which would be more appreciated by the people of 
this country, than to make a similar contribution to the 
Kingdom of Belgium. The people of Belgium have been 
fighting the battles of the Empire and the battles of Canada, 
190 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

and have displayed heroism which has never been surpassed in 
history. For many days they have held back the whole 
German army while the allies were preparing for a great and, 
as we trust, a successful defence. We are sending a million 
bags of flour to England, and we propose to do something for 
France in the way of establishing a hospital, and I think the 
Government ought certainly to consider some recognition of 
the heroism shown by the Belgian troops. I do not think we 
should confine our recognition of services to Great Britain and 
France, and I make that suggestion for the consideration of the 
Government. 

While upon my feet, I would like to ask the Minister of 
Marine and Fisheries one or two questions with regard to the 
submarines that have been purchased. At what shipyards 
were these submarines built and equipped, and what was the 
cost of their construction ? 

HON. J. D. HAZEN : The submarines referred to were 
purchased at Seattle. They were originally built for the 
Government of Chile, but for certain reasons were not 
delivered to the Chilean Government. The amount paid was 
$1,150,000, and before purchasing we had the advice of the 
Admiralty as to the desirability of doing so. 1 1 [See 

MR. PUGSLEY : What are the names of the boats ? P- "-I 

MR. HAZEN : They were not named when we bought them. 

MR. PUGSLEY : The reason I ask is because I see in the 
Naval Annual that only two submarines were being built for 
the Chilean Government last year, and these were being built 
at the Electric Torpedo Shipyards. I saw a newspaper state- 
ment that these two submarines were built at those yards, but 
my hon. friend is sure that they were built at Seattle ? 

SIR ROBERT BORDEN : They may have been built in New 
York and taken to Seattle. 

MR. H. B. AMES : I was in Seattle the day they were pur- 
chased. The submarines were primarily assembled in New 
York, and the parts were afterwards sent to Seattle and put 
together there. 

MR. PUGSLEY : Then the statement in the Naval Annual is 
correct, that they were built at the Electric Torpedo Shipyards, 
which, I may say, are closely connected with the Fore River 
Shipyards, of which my hon. friend has heard. I am glad to 
tell my hon. friend that, notwithstanding the alleged bank- 

191 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

ruptcy of that company, they have recently turned out for the 
United States Government perhaps the largest battleship 
afloat. I am glad to observe that the Government has 
transferred these submarines to the British Admiralty. 
They are now under the control of the Royal Navy, are 
they not ? 

MR. HAZEN : At the disposal of His Majesty. 

MR. PUGSLEY : I am very glad to see that that was done 
under the sections of the Naval Service Act. I would like to 
ask my hon. friend further with reference to the Order in 

1 [See Council, dated August A, 1 which I will read : 
p. 65.] 

' The Committee of the Privy Council have had before them a 
report, dated August 4, 1914, from the Minister of the Naval Service, 
submitting that section 23 of the Naval Service Act, chapter 43 of the 
statutes of 1910, provides that : 

'23. In the case of an emergency the Governor in Council may place 
at the disposal of His Majesty, for general service in the Royal Navy, 
the Naval Service or any part thereof, any ships or vessels of the Naval 
Service, and the officers and seamen serving in such ships or vessels, or 
any officers or seamen belonging to the Naval Service. 

' An emergency having arisen, the Minister recommends that 
H.M.C.S. Niobe and H.M.C.S. Rainbow, together with the officers and 
seamen serving in such vessels, be placed at the disposal of His Majesty 
for general service in the Royal Navy. 

' The Committee concur in the foregoing recommendation and 
submit the same for approval/ 

Has the Admiralty accepted the offer of these two ships for 
service in the Royal Navy ? 

MR. HAZEN : The Admiralty has accepted the offer made 
by Canada. 

MR. PUGSLEY : What is the result of that ? Does the 
British Admiralty take charge and pay for the equipment and 
maintenance, or does Canada continue to maintain and man 
the ships and pay for the equipment and manning. 

MR. HAZEN : We are continuing to pay for the equipment 
and manning. 

MR. PUGSLEY : I observe from the newspapers that although 
the Niobe has been transferred to the Royal Navy she is not yet 
fully in commission. What is the reason for the delay ? 

MR. HAZEN : The Niobe is, of course, in a sense in com- 
mission, but she will not be ready to sail until the ist of 
192 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

September. At the request of the British Government, the 
men on the Niobe were sent out to British Columbia to go on 
board the Rainbow for the purpose of cruising in the Behring 
Sea ; but when the war broke out that was changed, and the 
Rainbow was put into service for the protection of British 
shipping on the Pacific coast. The Niobe is being manned 
with ex-naval service men in Canada, many of whom have 
already reported for service, and by the crews of the Algerine 
and Shearwater. These vessels are being laid up by the 
British Government at Esquimalt, and the crews are being 
sent across the continent to 'Halifax to help to man the Niobe. 
My information is that the Niobe will be ready to sail on the 
ist September. 

MR. PUGSLEY : It was stated by the St. John Globe, which 
usually has authoritative despatches from Ottawa as to what 
the Government is doing, that considerable delay was occasioned 
by the cleaning out of the boilers of the Niobe, or the removal 
of the solid material which had been placed in the tubes to 
prevent them from rusting. I would like to ask my hon. 
friend if he has any information as to whether the guns were 
removed from the Niobe several months ago ? 

MR. HAZEN : The guns were not removed from the Niobe. 
There had to be certain work done in the way of repairing the 
vessel for the sea and making preparations for war, which 
included to a certain extent attending to the boilers and other 
parts of the machinery. That work is being done. 

MR. PUGSLEY : How long has that work been going on ? 

MR. HAZEN : About ten days or two weeks. 

HON. R. LEMIEUX : We were speaking a moment ago 
of the various contributions which had been made by the 
present Government. In that connection may I be permitted 
to say that I have received a letter from the Prime Minister 
of Quebec stating that he has offered the Imperial authori- 
ties 4,000,000 Ibs. of Canadian cheese as a contribution from 
the province of Quebec. 1 I heartily concur in what has been * [See 
said by my hon. friend from St. John [Mr. Pugsley] about P- *7-] 
Belgium. If the Government thinks it better to do something 
in the same way as was done for France, might I offer a sug- 
gestion ? One of our colleagues, the hon. member for Beauce 
(Mr. B61and), happens to be in the war zone at the present 
time, and I was informed last night by a member of this House, 

OVERSEAS I. N IQ3 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

who is just back from Europe, that he met Dr. Be*land the day 
after the declaration of hostilities took place. Dr. Beland 
very loyally offered to devote his services, for medical and 
hospital purposes, during the whole time of the war, to the 
Belgian authorities. If the Government, instead of offering 
cheese, or oats, or other commodities, thought it better to offer 
beds for hospitals, as they did, and quite properly so, to the 
French authorities, might I suggest to my right hon. friend and 
to the Belgian Consul here, that it might be well to give Dr. 
Beland the direction of that service on the other side of the 
water ? I need not say that Dr. Beland is one of the most 
distinguished members of the profession, both as a doctor and 
a surgeon, and that he would be a credit to Canada if he were 
entrusted with the direction of that hospital service in Belgium. 

SIR ROBERT BORDEN : I appreciate what has been said by 
my hon. friend from St. John (Mr. Pugsley) in regard to the 
wonderful gallantry that the Belgians have displayed in de- 
fending their country and the remarkable resistance they have 
offered to the invading army. The Government will be glad 
to take into consideration what has been suggested, but, on the 
other hand, it must be remembered that we have entered into 
a very great war for the purpose of preserving Belgian neutrality 
and independence, and, as far as the press reports indicate, a 
very large force has been sent to Belgium for the purpose of 
protecting that country. Whether, under the circumstances, 
it would be incumbent upon us to make the same offer to 
Belgium that we did to France may be a matter for considera- 
tion. I do not desire to offer any definite opinion upon the 
suggestion at the present time. 

MR. A. K. MACLEAN : I would like to ask my hon. friend 
the Minister of Militia and Defence upon what system he 
proposes making the purchases of war materials and supplies 
with the money that is being voted by this Bill. Has he any 
general plan for doing it, and if so would he give it in a 
general way to the House ? 

HON. SAM. HUGHES (Minister of Militia) : As far as the 
purchase of supplies is concerned, opportunity has been 
given to every manufacturer in the Dominion of Canada, 
irrespective of politics, race, or nationality, or anything of 
the kind, to furnish them. The name of every gentleman 
that is sent in from each community, together with the com- 
194 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

modities that he can supply, is entered in a list by the Director 
of Contracts, who has charge of the matter. As far as the 
purchase of trucks and wagons is concerned, I have secured 
the services of Mr. Russell, of the Russell Motor Car Company, 
Toronto, who is looking into that, and I understand that he 
is distributing his purchases practically from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific, buying wherever he can get these articles. In 
the early stages tenders were called for under the ordinary 
contract forms, but even the supplying of articles that we 
already had under contract is being distributed, and I do not 
think there is any ground for complaint in regard to the dis- 
tribution that has been made. 

MR. A. K. MACLEAN : What is the system with regard 
to forage and food supplies ? 

MR. SAM. HUGHES : We have asked for forage all over the 
country. I am asking every member of Parliament and 
every buyer to send in the names of persons who can supply 
forage. We are sending out instructions to communicate 
the names of persons who have horses to sell to General 
Benson. 

MR. E. M. MACDONALD : I would ask the Minister of Militia 
to make a statement of authoritative character in regard to the 
destination of the troops who are now gathering at Valcartier. 
There seems to be in some portions of Canada some misunder- 
standing as to the nature of that gathering. It has been 
stated that the first 20,000 men are to go direct to Belgium, 
to enter immediately into active service, and that my hon. 
friend has so communicated to the War Office. I do not 
want to get any information which might in any way conflict 
with the very proper secrecy of military operations, but from 
the standpoint of volunteering, and from that of those who 
are interested in the volunteers who are offering their services, 
I think the Minister ought, so far as he possibly can, to take 
the House and the country into his confidence, so that we 
would know exactly what the position is in regard to these 
men who are volunteering to go to the war. 

MR. SAM. HUGHES : The hon. gentleman will observe that 
by the Order in Council and by the reports from the other 
side, which I believe have been laid before the House, and 
published, that the British authorities have accepted the [See 
offer of assistance. 1 p. 9-3 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

When we asked what the nature of that assistance should 
be, they stated they would like a Division. We are simply 
preparing to send a Division forward. We have nothing 
whatever to say as to the destination of the troops once they 
cross the water, nor have we been informed as to what their 
destination may be. A great many troops will always be 
required, not in the immediate fighting line but leading up to 
it, and I presume that in due time our boys will take their 
turn with the rest of them. We have no information on the 
subject whatever. 

MR. MACDONALD: I assume that the Division which is 
being sent will comprise about 20,000 men. Does the Minister 
intend to mobilise any additional force at Valcartier or at 
any other place in Canada, by way of preparation ? A large 
number of men have already volunteered ; and I have no 
doubt that as the war goes on many more will volunteer. 
Does the Government intend to prepare for the training of 
these men in any definite way, so that, if their services are 
required, they will be all the better trained for utilisation ? 

SIR ROBERT BORDEN : I answered a few moments ago 
practically the question which my hon. friend has addressed 
to the Government, when I said that, in addition to the force 
that is to be sent overseas, there would be a certain number 
of the active Militia on active service for the defence of Canada 
at Atlantic, Pacific, and other points, but that beyond that 
we would not go at the present time, and that our course in 
the future with regard to the subject which my hon. friend 
has brought up would have to be determined by contingencies 
which we cannot foresee at present. 

MR. MACDONALD : Would the Minister say what special 
use is being made of the permanent force at Halifax and other 
points ? Are the officers of the permanent force to be sent 
on this contingent, or is it to be confined entirely to volunteers ? 

SIR ROBERT BORDEN : I would like my hon. friend not 
to press that question just at present. There are some con- 
fidential communications which are not ready to be made 
public at the moment, and which make it undesirable for me 
to say anything on that subject at the present time. Did 
my hon. friend inquire as to the disposition of the officers ? 

MR. MACDONALD : What I was asking more particularly 
was whether the force to be sent over was to be selected, so 
196 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

far as the officers and men were concerned, wholly from the 
volunteers, or whether any of the officers attached to the 
permanent force were to be attached to the force that is being 
sent. 

SIR ROBERT BORDEN : One regiment of cavalry and two 
batteries of horse artillery are to go from the permanent 
force. 

MR. MACDONALD : Has anything been done in the way 
of providing an engineering corps ? The Minister has doubt- 
less had offers of service from engineers. Has anything been 
done by which their services can be utilised ? 

MR. SAM. HUGHES : An engineering corps is going, and 
we are utilising a number of the permanent corps as in- 
structors. We are sifting out the best engineers we canfind 
in this way to form an engineering corps. In addition to 
that, the Canadian General Electric Company of Toronto, 
under the direction of Mr. Nicholls, has offered twenty-five 
men, not for service abroad, but for service in Canada. Sir 
John Jackson has offered his entire engineering staff to the 
service of the Government. In fact, offers of service are 
coming in splendidly from every part of the country. 

MR. MACDONALD : Under subsection (c), under which this 
money vote is to be utilised by the Government for ' promoting 
the continuance of trade, industry and business communica- 
tions, whether by means of insurance or indemnity against war 
risk or otherwise/ I would like to call the attention of the 
Minister of Railways, if he were here, to a situation which 
exists in connection with the coal trade at Halifax. Every 
hon. gentleman was pleased to hear of the offer made by the 
Province of Nova Scotia to furnish 100,000 tons of coal for the 
use of the British Government. 1 As the war goes on, the port i [See 
of Halifax will naturally be one to which vessels flying the p. 16.] 
British flag will resort for coaling purposes to a greater degree 
than perhaps ever before. At the present time the Inter- 
colonial Railway has no facilities whatever at the port of 
Halifax for delivering at the wharves, or in any way in which 
it can be transported to vessels, naval or otherwise, the coal 
which would come over the Intercolonial Railway. In the 
past, the bunker coal trade of the port has been handled by the 
vessels which communicate with the coal mines of Cape Breton. 
It is desirable and absolutely necessary that the Intercolonial 

197 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Railway should be put in a position to handle coal from the 
mainland collieries, and I understand that the attention of 
some of the members of the Government has been called to the 
situation. I am speaking on behalf of the people of my own 
constituency and that of Cumberland, who would like to be put 
in a position to deliver at the port of Halifax coal from their 
mines. At the present time, on account of lack of facilities 
on the Intercolonial, they cannot do so. I am informed that 
the defect could be obviated, at no very great expense, by the 
building of a siding into the dockyard, and also that the 
matter was submitted to the Imperial authorities some years 
ago with a plan providing for such a siding. It may seem a 
small matter, but we are looking ahead to the welfare of our 
province, and when we consider the position which Halifax 
will occupy as a shipping port, especially during the winter 
months, we should take steps to have an ample supply of coal 
for all purposes at that port. I notice that the Minister of 
Railways is not in his place ; but I would ask the Prime 
Minister to call his attention to this matter, because it is a 
suggestion which I am offering solely in the best interests of 
the country in the present situation. 

What has been settled in regard to the pay of the troops 
who have volunteered for service abroad ? A question arose 
in the South African war as to the difference in pay. 

SIR ROBERT BORDEN : I understand that it is to be the 
same as if the men were on active service in Canada. 

I appreciate the importance of the observations made by 
my hon. friend. Personally I am not in a position to speak 
with accuracy as to the facilities which exist at Halifax at the 
present time. It is possible that the Minister of Railways may 
already have had this under consideration, as I know he had 
the general manager of the Intercolonial here a few days ago to 
confer with him about some matters of importance. I have no 
doubt that that matter was taken up if it had been previously 
brought to his attention. I shall be very glad to direct his 
attention to my hon. friend's observations. 

MR. PUGSLEY : I would like to know why it is that, while 
the country furnishes uniforms for the men, the officers all 
have to buy their own uniforms. 

MR. SAM. HUGHES : We are giving them a grant of $140. 

MR. PUGSLEY : I suppose that is because they are going 
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PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

to the front ; but, speaking ordinarily, why is it that young 
men, who are willing when the necessity arises to go to the front 
and sacrifice their lives if need be for their country, should be 
obliged to pay for their uniforms ? I know of quite a number 
of cases of young men who have been offered lieutenancies or 
captaincies, but who, by reason of the fact that they have 
mothers or sisters to support, have felt unable to go to the 
expense of $100 or so to provide the necessary uniform. I 
think that ought to be taken into consideration. 

MR. SAM. HUGHES : I am obliged to leave in a moment, and 
I trust the hon. gentleman will not think I am interrupting if 
I ask leave to say a word now. The Department has decided, 
subject to the approval of Council, to act in accordance with 
the suggestion the hon. gentleman has made. I think it is the 
only sensible view to be taken. There is no reason why an 
officer should be put to personal expense for uniform, that is, 
for necessary service uniform, when he goes to the front. 

MR. PUGSLEY : There is just one other thing. The 
Minister of Marine and Fisheries (Mr. Hazen) knows that a very 
fine armoury has been erected in St. John. But I am told that 
the Department of Militia have declined to provide furniture 
for that armoury, and the officers have had to put their hands 
into their pockets to purchase the furniture necessary. I 
think that if the country can afford to build a magnificent 
armoury, it can afford to purchase the furniture reasonably 
required for that armoury. 

MR. SAM. HUGHES : So we do. 

MR. PUGSLEY : The Department has not done it in St. 
John. 

MR. SAM. HUGHES : I am not sure for the moment of the 
details as to that. 

MR. PUGSLEY : The officers have been obliged to procure 
furniture at their own expense. 

MR. J. J. HUGHES : I understand that the money required 
for the purchase of the one million bags of flour may be taken 
out of the vote now under consideration ? 

SIR ROBERT BORDEN : I am advised to that effect by the 
Minister. 

MR. J. J. HUGHES : I believe that this action on the 
part of . the Government has met with the approval of 
every person in Canada. The other gifts of food products 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

to be sent to the old land will, I am sure, also be 
approved by all the people of Canada. I understand that 
British Columbia is making a gift of one hundred thousand 
barrels of apples, and that the Government of Quebec con- 
tributes four million pounds of cheese. But there are other 
food products of this country which the Governments in their 
judgment might, perhaps, deem it advisable to send to the old 
land. I understand that Germany has for many years produced 
immense quantities of potatoes, having a surplus which was 
exported as occasion arose to Great Britain or even to America. 
Of course, that trade is cut off entirely. In Canada we produce 
large quantities of potatoes. This year the prospects are that 
in the Maritime Provinces we shall have an abundant crop, 
more than we can at all use. The Province of Prince Edward 
Island has prospects of an immense crop of this useful article of 
food. I merely suggest to the Government that they might 
think it wise to send to Great Britain a quantity of potatoes. 
If prospects are realised, I believe that Prince Edward Island 
alone could furnish at least one million bushels. The crop in 
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia also being good, it is not im- 
probable that we shall find no market for them. The crop 
might be rotting in the fields or in the cellars of the farmers. 
If people in the old land were short of food and we had an 
abundance on this side that did not reach them, we should have 
a condition of things in which something would clearly be 
wrong. 

I am quite satisfied that the traders in Prince Edward 
Island will give their services in this work free of charge. I 
can speak for myself and guarantee to supply the Government 
from ten thousand to twelve thousand sacks of potatoes equal 
to 30,000 bushels, which will not cost them one cent for my 
services, and I know of others who will do the same. 

In connection with this, there is a matter which may be 
a little foreign to the terms of the measure under considera- 
tion. But if the Government is looking after the interests of 
the people as this is a time when the hearts of all the English- 
speaking people of the world beat in accord, a time when we 
have the sympathy of the English-speaking people of all 
America, this might be a proper time for the Government 
to approach the Government of the United States to see if 
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PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

they would not remove the embargo upon potatoes entering 
their country from Canada. There is no other thing that 
the Government could do that would be of such advantage 
to the farmers of the Maritime Provinces, but particularly 
Prince Edward Island, and I think it would be of consider- 
able advantage also to poor people in the cities and towns of the 
New England States. If the Government thought this the 
time to take some action in regard to this matter I believe 
it would be very wise for them to do so. 

The Government or the Department of Militia sent in- 
quiries to people in Prince Edward Island for quotations on 
butter and hay. I do not wish to say one word that jpould 
have the appearance of party politics ; but I think these 
inquiries were sent only to friends of the Government that 
is my information. They may have sent to some officials 
there, and the officials may not have circulated these inquiries 
generally. However, I am quite satisfied of this, that if the 
people of Prince Edward Island are afforded the privilege of 
supplying anything asked for at this time they will supply 
it free of commission, free of middlemen's charges. I would 
suggest that the Government, in making purchases, should 
extend to the whole of the people the privilege of offering 
the supplies that they have on hand. 

SIR ROBERT BORDEN : The question how to utilise the 
resources of the whole Empire in the best interests of all 
portions of the Empire is, of course, a very important one. 
We shall give the best consideration we can to the suggestions 
of my hon. friend, and take such action as may seem proper 
and reasonable under the circumstances. 



August 22, 

IN CANADIAN SENATE 
VACANCIES IN THE SENATE 

HON. H. J. CLORAN : My idea of the constitution from a Canadian 
legal point of view is that the session must count, and I go Hansard. 
so far as to say that, to preserve the seat of Hon. Senator 
De Boucherville, the patriarch of the Senate, we must go to 
the Imperial Parliament. Supposing another session is 
called within fifty days, and these gentlemen do not attend, 

201 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

they are debarred. I would not like to have the seats of the 

Hon. Messrs. De Boucherville, Shehyn, Thompson, and Dom- 

1 [Senator ville declared vacant. The hon. gentleman from Rothesay 1 

J: D< ? m ~ is a guest of the Emperor of Germany, and cannot get here 

any way. Or perhaps he is held as a hostage. The seats of 

five or six senators are in a similar condition. 

THE NATURALISATION LAWS 

HON. N. A. BELCOURT : Would my hon. friend allow 
me to make a suggestion with reference to the Naturalisa- 
tion Act ? I am informed that many who have been 
living in Canada for a number of years are not British sub- 
jects. Some of them are Frenchmen. I saw one of them 
this morning, who is engaged in very meritorious work, organ- 
ising a brigade of artillery of which he is to be placed in 
command. He is not yet a British subject, but I believe he 
must be in order to get the commission which will entitle him 
to take command of this brigade of guns, and he wants to 
become naturalised. I do not know whether it would be 
possible for my hon. friend to include in the Bill a provision 
which would make naturalisation possible within a day or so. 
I am taking this case merely to illustrate the point, but it is 
by no means an isolated one ; I believe there are quite a 
number of cases of that kind. The gentleman in question 
is to be given the rank of major, but he must become a British 
subject. Under the Act as it is at present, I think that could 
not be done within the time required. It takes a month. If 
that case can be met, I think it would cover a number of 
similar cases. 

HON. MR. CLORAN : I wish to call the attention of the 
leader of the Government to a fact which came to my notice 
yesterday afternoon, that foreigners who have been earning a 
good living in Canada for a number of years have returned to 
Austria and Germany respectively to take up arms against the 
British Empire, leaving their wives and children behind. 
While nobody can object to these men having gone, once they 
have gone they should be treated as enemies. When foreigners 
leave this country to go to Germany and Austria to take up 
arms against the British Empire, their wives and children are 
liable to become a burden on the community. This country 
should not in any way suppqrt those defenceless women and 
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PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

children, and I think a part of the fifty millions would be well 
spent in kindly and charitably deporting women and children 
of that kind to wherever they belong, and not leave them in 
Canada to become objects of charity, and to have our good 
money spent on them. 

HON. W. DENNIS : How would you do it ? 

HON. MR. CLORAN : Simply by buying their passage and 
putting them on board ship and sending them over. 

HON. MR. DENNIS : Sending them where ? 

HON. MR. CLORAN : To their own country. 

HON. P. C. MURPHY : How would you get them there ? 

HON. MR. CLORAN : Buy the ticket and send them. We 
are not bound to look after the women and children of men 
who are fighting the British Empire. 

An HON. MEMBER : Shoot them. 

HON. MR. CLORAN : No, we will be more generous than the 
Germans, and send them home as comfortably as possible. 
Canada should not be called upon to spend a dollar on the 
support of these women and children. If the proposition is 
brought to the attention of the Minister of Justice, he will say 
that the money should not be spent in that direction. I 
understand that a large number of Austrians and Germans have 
abandoned their work in the mills, factories, and mines, leaving 
their families to be taken care of by Canada. We should have 
regard to the old proverb, ' Charity begins at home/ 



IN CANADIAN HOUSE OF COMMONS 
NATURALISATION ACT AMENDMENT 

HON. C. J. DOHERTY (MINISTER OF JUSTICE) moved second Canadian 
reading of Bill No. 8, to amend the Naturalisation Act, I9I4- 1 Hansard - 
He said : When we passed the Naturalisation Act last session, 1 t See PP- 
adopting the British Nationality and Naturalisation Act, it 22 4~5-3 
was done before the home Parliament had passed their legisla- 
tion. We adopted it as it then stood. The Parliament of the 
United Kingdom have since made two amendments in their 
Act ; and it is desirable, as our Bill was intended to adopt their 
Act, and moreover as I think the amendments themselves will 
improve the Bill, that we should adopt those amendments. A 
message has been received from the home Government express- 
ing their desire that we should adopt those amendments at this 

203 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

session. They have regard to the status of married women as 
affected by their marriage. 

The first amendment provides that, where a woman who 
was a British subject previous to her marriage loses her nation- 
ality by marrying an alien, and the marriage is subsequently 
dissolved, either by the death of her husband or otherwise, in 
order to recover her original nationality, the widow or woman 
concerned shall not be required to fulfil the period of residence ; 
that is to say, she may again become a British subject without 
putting in the five years' residence. This amendment brings 
her position in this respect back to what it was under our law 
before it was amended. 

The other amendment is also with regard to the status of 
married women. While it does not affect the rule that a 
woman by her marriage assumes the nationality of her husband, 
it protects her against changes in nationality which her husband 
may make during the marriage. Where a woman marries a 
British subject, and that British subject after the marriage 
changes his nationality, she shall be entitled to retain her 
nationality by declaring her intention so to do. This last 
amendment required the insertion in the paragraph about re- 
gulations the word ' retention ' of British nationality. 

HON. W. PUGSLEY : I am very glad indeed that the Minister 
of Justice has introduced this Bill. At the last session of Par- 
liament, when the Naturalisation Act was passed, I urged as 
strongly as possible that a woman should have certain freedom 
as to her naturalisation. I am pleased to observe that by 
section 2 it is provided that where the husband becomes an 
alien the wife shall not necessarily become an alien also, but 
that she may file a declaration and preserve her British 
nationality. At the last session my hon. friend quoted with 
great satisfaction to himself that old Scripture saying : ' Thy 
people shall be my people and thy God my God/ and the 
Minister of Justice therefore urged most strongly that the 
nationality of the wife should be that of the husband. My 
hon. friend has received important education upon the subject 
of the status of married women during the recess. The 
Government has been receiving education along other lines as 
well during the last few months. I need not go into details, 
but the education they have received will be of value to the 
people of this country. 
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PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

HON. A. MEIGHEN : Along what lines ? 

MR. PUGSLEY : It is along the lines of knowing how to 
defend the ports of Canada and the trade routes of Canada. I 
am glad to observe now that the Minister of Justice is disposed 
rather to abandon the old saying which he quoted last session 
and to recognise the growing movement of the present day in 
behalf of the emancipation of married women. 

MR. DOHERTY : I have not abandoned the principle that 
the people of the husband should be the people of the wife. 
The second amendment is only to entitle the wife to retain 
that position as belonging to the people of her husband even 
when he wants to abandon that people. She is not called upon 
to follow him in the abandonment of his people ; she may 
retain the nationality that originally came to her by her 
marriage. I am glad, however, that the hon. member finds 
such gratification in the modification, and I am quite free to 
say that the modification is fairer to the woman than was the 
original law. We on this side of the House are not of the class 
of people who can neither forget anything nor learn anything. 
We are willing to say that we have learned something, and hope 
to learn more. 

THE CANADIAN MOBILISATION 

HON. SAM. HUGHES: A number of the members have 
expressed a very natural desire to visit the camp at Valcartier. 
The camp is rapidly approaching completion. The water 
was turned on the day before yesterday, five thousand troops 
moved in yesterday, and another five thousand are coming 
in to-day. They have yet to be outfitted ; we have to shoe 
them and get them into field uniforms. However, I feel safe 
in promising that the camp will be ready for inspection about 
the ist of September, and we shall then be pleased to see any 
member of Parliament or any senator, and we shall endeavour 
to make them as comfortable as possible. We would like 
them to see just how things are going. We are not ashamed 
of anything we have to show, nor do I think there will be 
reason to be ashamed of anything either here or wherever 
the boys may go on active service. 

HON. R. LEMIEUX : Do I understand that there is a direct 
rail by the Canadian Northern from Ottawa to the camp ? 

MR. SAM. HUGHES : Yes, and also over the Canadian 

205 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Pacific Railway. I may say that Ottawa is sending upwards 
of 1200 men. Two contingents, the 43rd and the Guards, are 
leaving about 4.35 this afternoon from the Central Station, 
and I am sure the officers will be glad to see any members or 
senators who wish to be present. 

MR. A. K. MACLEAN : In the event of further Canadian 
troops going to the front, will the system of volunteering be 
continued, or will the militia be asked to go in a body ? 

MR. SAM. HUGHES : I might point out that upwards of 
100,000 men have already volunteered, but we are only able 
to take 22,000, although I am told 27,000 have got on the 
trains. They simply climbed on, and we couldn't keep them 
off. So far as my own personal views are concerned, I am 
absolutely opposed to anything that is not voluntary in every 
sense, and I do not read in the law that I have any authority 
to ask Parliament to allow troops other than volunteers to 
leave the country. 

MR. A. K. MACLEAN : About the beginning of the war it 
was stated in the press that probably our Minister of Militia 
would go to Europe in command of the Canadian volunteers. 
I should like to hear whether that is the intention of the 
Minister. 

MR. SAM. HUGHES : I may not express my personal views 
on the matter, but I think I am safe in saying that whoever 
commands the volunteers will have the confidence of the 
volunteers and also of myself. 

MR. MICHAEL CLARK : . . . I should like to say as a 
humble member of the Opposition that I feel we are met on 
an epochal day in the history of the British Empire and in 
the history of the world, on this last day of this short session. 

I should like to say still further, speaking purely for myself 
as a member of the Opposition, that it is a matter of pride to 
me, having been born in the old land and having lived for a 
good many years now in this country, to be able to say that 
in my judgment the measures taken by the Canadian Govern- 
ment up to the present moment in this crisis have been charac- 
terised by energy, wisdom and effectiveness. I have the best 
reasons for believing that the action of the Opposition is 
fully appreciated as having been the most patriotic possible 
under the circumstances, because it was patent to everybody 
on the first day of this session that the Prime Minister of this 
206 



PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

country went fifty per cent, further than he need have done 
in recognising that Canadians were acting to-day as one man. 

There is no part of the Government's action which has 
met with my humble and enthusiastic approval more than a 
declaration which the Minister of Militia made before the 
House met, and which he has repeated here to-day, that every 
man who goes from Canada goes as a free volunteer. There 
is a statement of fact which goes to the root of the differences 
which are dividing the two sides of this campaign. Every 
man in the British Empire feels that he is fighting for the 
Empire and for the flag. But he is fighting for more than 
that. He is fighting for the principles that are at the root 
of the highest civilisation ; he is fighting for human freedom. 
I should be guilty if I said a word in the way of contrasting 
that with what is the case on the part of our chief opponents 
in this struggle. I am delighted, as all Canadians will be, 
to hear the statement of the Minister of Militia about the 
splendid spirit of our people not only the splendid spirit 
of the Canadian people, but the spirit which prevails through- 
out the whole British Empire to-day. I am sure that we are 
enlisting to see the struggle to a finish, and that every man 
of British blood or under British institutions is animated by 
this spirit. 

I do not know whether the Government would think it 
necessary in a single sentence by any of its members to tell 
us that this spirit which is animating the men who are climb- 
ing on the trains in their eagerness to go, animates to the 
fullest extent every man in the country, and that every one 
of them is anxious to go. I know that that is the spirit of 
the country, but I just think at this moment an assurance 
from some member of the Cabinet to that effect would give 
our people heart, and would be an answer to a question which 
was put, I think by the hon. member for Pictou (Mr. Mac- 
donald), the other day as to what would happen in the matter 
of recruiting and sending further forces after one expeditionary 
force had gone, if this great fight for civilisation were not 
yet ended. I want to reiterate a belief in what is certain to 
be the end. I hope I shall with all Britishers caution entrance 
into a quarrel, and I am certainly old enough not to have 
forgotten the Scripture text which says : ' Let not him that 
girdeth on his harness boast himself as he that putteth it 

307 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

off.' But in the last moments of the session I would like to 
proclaim my opinion once more that in this fight there can 
be no let-up, and to it there can be but one termination 
victory for what we believe to be the right. 

MR. SAM. HUGHES : I want personally to thank the hon. 
member for Red Deer (Mr. Michael Clark) for his very kind 
words. They come from the heart. It is not generally 
known to the House that one of his sons is in the con- 
tingent. 

SIR ROBERT BORDEN : I also desire to express my appre- 
ciation of the words which have fallen from the hon. member 
for Red Deer, and of the spirit in which the members of the 
Opposition have co-operated with us in dealing with this 
difficult and trying situation. The responsibilities of the 
Government, under the conditions that arose so suddenly, 
were very grave, and I need not assure the House and the 
country that the seriousness of those responsibilities impressed 
itself very deeply upon my colleagues and myself. The hon. 
member for Red Deer has expressed the opinion that the 
measures which we took have been characterised up to the 
present time by wisdom and effectiveness. In regard to that, 
I can only remark that whatever the opinion may be on this 
subject, all the steps which we took received the best of the 
ability, the energy and the sense of duty that were in us, and 
that we took them in the clear belief that they were such as 
the necessity of the hour demanded. 

I would like to voice, if I may be permitted to do so, 
the very earnest appreciation of this House, and I am sure of 
this country as well, of the heroic sacrifices which have been 
made by an ally of Great Britain in this contest the people 
of Belgium. It is impossible for any of us in a country such 
as Canada, which has not experienced the devastating effects 
of war, to realise the courage, the earnestness, the fortitude, 
which must have been possessed by the Belgian people to 
make the fight which they have made so bravely up to the 
present, and which they are continuing to make. I received 
a telegram only to-day from Mr. Perky, stating that the 
wonderful resistance made by the Belgian people, who up 
to the present time have borne the awful brunt of this war, 
has excited the greatest admiration in the United Kingdom. 
The feeling which prevails in the mother country in that 
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PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

regard is equally shared by the people of Canada. I hope 
that the message may be permitted to go forth that the heroic 
sacrifices that these people have made, and the bravery and 
fortitude which they have displayed, are realised to the full 
by this Parliament and by the people of this country. 

We are sending to the front a contingent of nearly 25,000 
of the flower of the youth of Canada. We send them in the 
full confidence that if they are called upon, as doubtless they 
will be called upon, to undergo the ordeal of battle, they will 
prove themselves worthy of their country in the highest sense, 
and come through the trial with the same distinction as that 
which has crowned the soldiers of Belgium in this conflict. 

HON. GEO. P. GRAHAM : I have not, up to the present time, 
made any observations concerning the seriousness of the 
session which is now being closed. I assure you, Sir, it has 
not been because I have not appreciated the situation or been 
in entire sympathy and hearty accord with everything that 
has been done, but rather my silence has been due to the fact 
that time waslhe essence of the contract at this meeting of the 
House. We are under conditions and in a situation never 
before experienced in the history of our young country and 
possibly never expected by most of us. That Canada has 
risen to the occasion we are all glad to know, but nothing else 
was anticipated by us or by the Empire, if it was perhaps by 
other nations of the world. The history of Canada is not long, 
but its pages are covered with the record of the bravery of our 
sons and of their stalwart adherence to British traditions, 
British usages, and British constitutional principles, in cloudy 
weather as well as in fair weather. 

What we, the young sons of Britain, have done in the years 
gone by, we will do again on the present occasion. I have a 
personal regret that circumstances are such and they are very 
serious circumstances to me that I shall not have a personal 
representative in this contingent, as I otherwise would have 
had. Had Providence dealt with me otherwise I would have 
had a son in this contingent. I believe I speak for all Canadians 
when I say that we are not doing this solely as a matter of duty. 
It is a privilege that we have as British subjects, to show that 
we are not only loyal and devoted to British institutions, but 
that we are ready to defend them when attacked. We deem 
it a privilege to be able to stand shoulder to shoulder with those 

OVERSEAS I. O 209 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

of the motherland who, we believe, in this case, are fighting 
for a wider extension of that freedom which we enjoy. 

We may have our differences, we have had them, all free 
people have them, but it has gone forth to the world, Sir, to our 
enemies as well as to our friends, that in the hour of danger, in 
sight of the foe, Britons are all one from whatever part of the 
world they come. This is the strength of the British Empire. 
We cease for the moment to be Irish, to be French, to be 
Canadians, to be South Africans, to be Australians, to be New 
Zealanders. We are all these, but we are more : we are one 
united people, and we stand together as British subjects ready 
to fight for what we believe to be right and in the interests of 
humanity. 

I just wanted to say these few words, and also to add, in 
the momentary absence of my right hon. friend the leader of 
the Opposition (Sir Wilfrid Laurier), on behalf of those on this 
side of the House, that we are in full accord with what the 
right hon. the Prime Minister (Sir Robert Borden) has said in 
recognising the valour and bravery of the sons of Belgium. 
Here is a comparatively small country, the neutrality of which 
was guaranteed by the most solemn obligations, her territory 
invaded without warning, and her sons urging to the last 
moment that the neutrality which had been guaranteed should 
be observed. But when it became apparent that that was not 
to be, Belgium stood true not only to herself, but to those 
surrounding her ; and to-day I think it is a proud thing for our 
young Canadians to go and fight side by side with the Belgians. 
As our sons gave a good account of themselves in South Africa, 
I believe that when the record of the present war comes to be 
written, the names of Canadians will shine bright on its pages 
as those who knew their duty and did it. 

SIR GEORGE FOSTER (Minister of Trade and Commerce) : 
I do not feel that I am capable of saying what I would like to 
say. I feel at the present time a great deal more than I have 
the power to express. I feel the solemnity of this hour. We 
are meeting as a band of Canadians of different races and 
nationalities and languages ; but never in the history of 
Canada have we met feeling that we were one in the same sense 
as at this hour of our history. That generosity which some- 
times lies more or less concealed in partisan and racial disputes 
has burst all those ignoble bonds, and a feeling of pure patriot- 
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PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

ism, love of country and devotion to what the flag symbolises, 
has come to the front disfigured by no mean or petty purpose. 
The last four days of this session of Parliament have vindicated 
Canadian public life and parliamentary life for all time to come. 
They have shown that it is possible for us to forget all mean 
and petty things when our country and its highest liberties are 
at stake. We leave these rooms to-day, and we may meet 
again in some months ; but what will have happened in that 
intervening time ? The issues of war are never certain until 
they are settled. It does not always happen that the right 
triumphs in the one battle or the one campaign. In this war 
nearly twenty millions of armed men will probably be face to 
face or within range of each other before the finality of the 
contest is determined. What will happen ? Will the right 
and true prevail this time, or must there be more sacrifice and 
many years before they ultimately prevail ? The one solemn 
thing for us to remember to-day is that there is more to war 
than the first march out of the troops, the first blare of the 
trumpet and the first flaunting of the flag. What there is 
more to war has been demonstrated in Belgium in these last 
thirteen or fourteen days, when their homes have gone up in 
flames, when their wives and their children have been given over 
to hardship and death, and when their own bodies, as strong 
and valiant as ours, have been shattered by the grim weapons 
of war. We have not had that experience. But it may yet be 
ours, and my word to this House and to this country to-day is 
to put on the full armour of courage and confidence, not to be 
daunted by a temporary reverse or by a series of reverses, but 
to feel sure that justice will burn forth bright and strong in 
proportion to our readiness to make the necessary sacrifice, 
and, as the fires of this sacrifice, burn away what is selfish and 
base in our country, our people and ourselves. 

Some of our companions and colleagues march .out to-day 
and will go forward to the front. Let us remember with our 
best wishes and follow with our deepest prayers those of our 
comrades who are about to take the sword in defence of liberty 
and the right. 

I cannot say more, and I should have been sorry to have 
said less. The time of trial is upon this country and the 
Empire. It will do us good in the end. God and the right 
will finally triumph. 

211 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

PROROGATION 

The following Bills were assented to, in His Majesty's 
name, by His Royal Highness the Governor-General, viz. : 

An Act to conserve the Commercial and Financial interests of 
Canada. 

An Act to confer certain powers upon the Governor in Council and 
to amend the Immigration Act. 

An Act respecting Dominion Notes. 

An Act to amend the Customs Tariff, 1907. 

An Act to amend the Inland Revenue Act. 

An Act to amend the Naturalisation Act. 

An Act to incorporate the Canadian Patriotic Fund. 

An Act for granting to His Majesty aid for military and naval 
defence. 

To these Bills the Royal Assent was pronounced by the 
Clerk of the Senate in the following words : 

In His Majesty's name, His Royal Highness the Governor-General 
doth assent to these Bills. 

After which His Royal Highness the Governor-General was 
pleased to close the Fourth Session of the Twelfth Parliament 
of the Dominion of Canada with the following : 

SPEECH FROM THE THRONE 

Honourable Gentlemen of the Senate : Gentlemen of the House 
of Commons : 

I thank you for the prompt and effective consideration 
which you have given to measures necessary for assuring the 
defence of the country, for conserving the interests of our 
people and for maintaining the integrity of the Empire in 
the present emergency. It is my fervent hope and my con- 
fident anticipation that these measures will prove adequate 
in every way for the great purposes which they are designed 
to fulfil. 

Gentlemen of the House of Commons : 

I thank you in His Majesty's name for the liberal pro- 
vision which you have made for the needs of the country in 
the grave conditions which have arisen through the outbreak 
of war. 

212 



E4 PROCEEDINGS IN CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

Honourable Gentlemen of the Senate : Gentlemen of the House of 
Commons : 

In relieving you for the time being from the important 
and responsible duties to which you were summoned so 
suddenly and unexpectedly, I commend to the Divine pro- 
tection the people of this Dominion, in the firm trust that the 
future will continually grow brighter and that there will be 
a favourable and honourable issue from the war in which the 
Empire is now involved. 



213 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



ACTS OF CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

August 22, 

AN ACT FOR GRANTING TO His MAJESTY AID FOR 
MILITARY AND NAVAL DEFENCE l 

[Assented to 22nd August 1914.] 

Preamble. WHEREAS a state of war exists between His Majesty and the 

Emperors of Germany and of Austria-Hungary ; and whereas 
it is necessary that measures be taken for the common defence 
and security, and to this end it is expedient that aid as herein- 
after provided be rendered to His Majesty : Therefore His 
Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate 
and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows : 

1. This Act may be cited as the War Appropriation Act, 
1914. 

2. From and out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund there 
may be paid and applied beyond the ordinary grants of 
Parliament a sum not exceeding fifty million dollars towards 
defraying any expenses that may be incurred by or under 
the authority of the Governor in Council during the year 
ending the thirty-first day of March, 1915, for 

(a) the defence and security of Canada ; 

(b) the conduct of naval and military operations in or 

beyond Canada ; 

(c) promoting the continuance of trade, industry, and 

business communications whether by means of insur- 
ance or indemnity against war risk or otherwise ; and 

(d) the carrying out of any measures deemed necessary or 

advisable by the Governor in Council in consequence 

of the existence of a state of war. 

Regulations. 3. The Governor in Council in addition to any regula- 
tions deemed necessary to give effect to the provisions of 
this Act shall make all such regulations as to the rates of 
pay and allowances of officers and men payable out of the 



Short title. 



Payment of 
fifty million 
dollars may 
be made. 



Purposes. 



214 



1 5 George V., Chapter i. 



ACTS OF CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

moneys provided under this Act as may by the Governor in 
Council be deemed proper. 

4. The Governor in Council may, in addition to the sums Loan 
now remaining unborrowed and negotiable of the loans authorised - 
authorised by any Act of Parliament heretofore passed, raise 
by way of loan, temporary or otherwise, upon such form of 
security and upon such terms and conditions as the Governor 
in Council may approve, such sum or sums of money as are 
required for the purpose of making any payment authorised 
by this Act, and the sums so raised shall form part of the 
Consolidated Revenue Fund of Canada. 



AN ACT TO CONFER CERTAIN POWERS UPON THE GOVERNOR IN 
COUNCIL AND TO AMEND THE IMMIGRATION Acr. 1 

[Assented to 22nd August 1914.] 

His MAJESTY, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows : 

1. This Act may be cited as the War Measures Act, Short title. 
1914. 

2. All acts and things done or omitted to be done prior Ratification 
to the passing of this Act and on or after the first day of 
August, A.D. 1914, by or under the authority of or ratified 

by, 

(a) His Majesty the King in Council ; 

(b) Any Minister or officer of His Majesty's Imperial 

Government ; 

(c) The Governor in Council ; 

(d) Any Minister or officer of the Government of Canada ; 

(e) Any other authority or person ; 

which had they been done or omitted after the passing of 
this Act, would have been authorised by this Act or by 
orders or regulations hereunder, shall be deemed to have 
been done or omitted. under the authority of this Act, and 
are hereby declared to have been lawfully done or omitted. 

3. The provisions of sections 6, 10, n, and 14 of this Act Limiting 
shall only be in force during war, invasion, or insurrection, 6^0^ 
real or apprehended. 14. 

1 5 George V., Chapter 2. 

215 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Special 
powers of 
Governor in 
Council. 



Evidence of 4. The issue of a proclamation by His Majesty, or under 
war, etc. t ke au thority of the fcovernor in Council shall be conclusive 
evidence that war, invasion, or insurrection, real or appre- 
hended, exists and has existed for any period of time therein 
stated and of its continuance, until by the issue of a further 
proclamation it is declared that the war invasion or insurrec- 
tion no longer exists. 

War existing 5. It is hereby declared that war has continuously existed 
smce Aug. 4. s j nce the fourth day of August, 1914, and shall be deemed 
to exist until the Governor in Council by proclamation pub- 
lished in the Canada Gazette declares that it no longer exists ; 
but any and all proceedings instituted or commenced by or 
under the authority of the Governor in Council before the 
issue of such last mentioned proclamation, the continuance of 
which he may authorise, may be carried on and concluded as 
if the said proclamation had not issued. 

6. The Governor in Council shall have power to do and 
authorise such acts and things, and to make from time to 
time such orders and regulations as he may by reason of the 
existence of real or apprehended war, invasion or insurrection 
deem necessary or advisable for the security, defence, peace, 
order and welfare of Canada ; and for greater certainty, but 
not so as to restrict the generality of the foregoing terms, 
it is hereby declared that the powers of the Governor in 
Council shall extend to all matters coming within the classes 
of subjects hereinafter enumerated, that is to say : 

(a) censorship and the control and suppression of publica- 

tions, writings, maps, plans, photographs, communica- 
tions and means of communication ; 

(b) arrest, detention, exclusion and deportation ; 

(c) control of the harbours, ports and territorial waters 

of Canada and the movements of vessels ; 

(d) transportation by land, air, or water and the control 

of the transport of persons and things ; 

(e) trading, exportation, importation, production and 

manufacture ; 

(/) appropriation, control, forfeiture and disposition of 
property and of the use thereof. 

(ii) All orders and regulations made under this section 
shall have the force of law and shall be enforced in such 
216 



ACTS OF CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

manner and by such courts, officers and authorities as the 
Governor in Council may prescribe, and may be varied, ex- 
tended or revoked by any subsequent order or regulation ; 
but if any order or regulation is varied, extended or revoked, 
neither the previous operation thereof nor anything duly 
done thereunder, shall be affected thereby, nor shall any 
right, privilege, obligation or liability acquired, accrued, 
accruing or incurred thereunder be affected by such variation, 
extension, or revocation. 

7. Whenever any property or the use thereof has been Fixing 
appropriated by His Majesty under the provisions of this ^ pensa " 
Act, or any order in council, order or regulation made there- 
unde% and compensation is to be made therefor and has not 

been agreed upon, the claim shall be referred by the Minister 
of Justice to the Exchequer Court or to a Superior or County 
Court of the province within which the claim arises, or to a 
judge of any such court. 

8. Any ship or vessel used or moved, or any goods, wares Forfeitures, 
or merchandise dealt with, contrary to any order or regula- 
tion made under this Act may be seized and detained and 

shall be liable to forfeiture at the instance of the Minister of 
Justice upon proceedings in the Exchequer Court of Canada 
or in any Superior Court. 

9. Every court mentioned in the two preceding sections Procedure, 
shall have power to make rules governing the procedure upon 

any reference made to, or proceedings taken before, such 
court or a judge thereof under the said sections. 

10. The Governor in Council may prescribe the penalties fmposing 
that may be imposed for violations of orders and regulations P enalties - 
made under this Act, but no such penalty shall exceed a 

fine of five thousand dollars or imprisonment for any term 
not exceeding five years or both fine and imprisonment, and 
may also prescribe whether such penalty be imposed upon 
summary conviction or upon indictment. 

11. No person who is held for deportation under this Act Release of 
or under any regulation made thereunder or is under arrest j^f ed 
or detention as an alien enemy, or upon suspicion that he is forbidden. 
an alien enemy, or to prevent his departure from Canada, 

shall be released upon bail or otherwise discharged or tried, 
without the consent of the Minister of Justice. 

12. Section 3 of the Immigration Act, chapter 27 of the 

217 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Deportation, 
etc., of resi- 
dents leaving 
Canada 
to assist 
enemy. 



Increasing 

Royal 

North-West 

Mounted 

Police. 



statutes of 1910, is amended by adding thereto the following 
subsection, 

' (ii) No resident of Canada, whether he is a Canadian 
citizen or not, and whether he has a Canadian domicile or 
not, who leaves Canada to perform any military or other 
service for any country then at war with His Majesty, or 
for the purpose of aiding or abetting in any way His Majesty's 
enemies, shall be permitted to land in Canada, or remain 
therein, except with the permission of the Minister. If any 
such person is also prosecuted for any offence of which he 
may have been guilty he shall be liable to undergo any punish- 
ment imposed upon him under such prosecution before he is 
deported/ 

13. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 8 of the 
Royal North-West Mounted Police Act, Revised Statutes, 1906, 
chapter 91, the Governor in Council may from time to time 
authorise the appointment of such number of constables, 
scouts and boys, in addition to the numbers limited by the 
said section, as he thinks necessary. 



AN ACT TO CONSERVE THE COMMERCIAL AND FINANCIAL 
INTERESTS OF CANADA 1 

[Assented to 22nd August 1914.] 

Preamble. WHEREAS, for the purposes set forth in an order in council 

1 [See of the third day of August, I9I4, 1 advances to the chartered 
p. 59.] banks in the form of an issue of Dominion notes were autho- 
rised to be made against deposits by the banks with the 
Minister of Finance of such securities as might be approved 
by the Minister, such advances to be repayable not later than 
the first day of May, 1915, with interest at a rate, to be 
approved by the Minister, not less than five per cent, per 
annum ; and whereas under the authority of an order in 
council of the same date, the chartered banks were authorised 
to make payment in bank notes instead of gold or Dominion 
notes until further official announcement in that behalf, and 
were also authorised to issue from the date of the said order 
in council, and until further announcement, excess circula- 



218 



1 5 George V., Chapter 3. 



ACTS OF CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

tion to amounts not exceeding fifteen per cent, of the com- 
bined unimpaired capital and rest or reserve fund of the 
respective banks, as stated in their respective statutory 
monthly returns to the Minister for the month immediately 
preceding that in which the additional amount is issued ; 
and whereas under authority of an order in council dated 
the tenth day of August, A.D. IQI4, 1 the redeeming in specie i [See 
of Dominion notes was suspended ; and whereas it is expedient p. 86.] 
that the said orders in council be confirmed : Therefore His 
Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate 
and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows : 

1. This Act may be cited as the Finance Act, 1914. short title. 

2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, Definition 

(a) ' Minister ' means the Minister of Finance ; IJSSS?* 

(b) ' excess circulation ' means the amount of the notes of circulation.' 
a bank in circulation in excess of the amount of the notes 

of that bank which may be issued pursuant to subsections 
i and 3 of section 61 of the Bank Act. 

3. The issue of Dominion notes, and all things done Confirma- 
under the provisions of the orders in council cited in the {j^o^-} 61 " 8 
preamble are hereby confirmed and shall be deemed to have dteaMn 01 
been duly authorised, and the said orders in council shall preamble, 
continue in force until the fifteenth day of September, 1914 : 
Provided always that the Governor in Council may at any 

time by a proclamation published in the Canada Gazette 
revoke the said orders in council, or any of them, or any of 
the provisions in the said orders contained, but such revoca- 
tion shall not affect the previous operation of any such order 
or anything duly done thereunder, or affect any right, privilege, 
obligation or liability acquired, accrued, accruing or incurred 
thereunder. 

4. In case of war, invasion, riot or insurrection, real or Power to 
apprehended, and in case of any real or apprehended financial i! j su ^ v?- . 
crisis, the Governor in Council may, by proclamation pub- emergency" 
lished in the Canada Gazette, 

(a) Authorise the making of advances to the chartered Advances 
banks and to the savings banks to which the Quebec Savings ^Vminton 
Banks Act, 1913, applies, by the issue of Dominion notes upon notes 
the pledge of securities, deposited with the Minister, of such authorised. 
kind and amount as may be approved by the Treasury Board ; 
such advances to be repayable at such times as the Board 

219 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Payment 
in notes 
by Banks. 



Issue 
of excess 
circulation 
by Banks. 



Redemption 
of Dominion 
notes. 
Moratorium. 



Securities 
according to 
Dominion 
Notes Act. 

Tender. 



Payment. 



Excess 
circulation 



may determine with interest at a rate likewise determined 
by the Board of not less than five per cent, per annum ; 

(b) Authorise the chartered banks to make payments 
in the bank notes issued by such banks instead of in gold or 
Dominion notes, but the total amount of the notes of any 
chartered bank in circulation at any time shall not exceed 
the amount of its notes issuable under the provisions of the 
Bank Act and of clause (c) of this subsection ; 

(c) Authorise the several chartered banks to issue excess 
circulation, from and including the first day of March in any 
year, to and including the last day of August next ensuing, 
or during any part of such period, to amounts not exceeding 
fifteen per cent, of the combined unimpaired capital and rest 
or reserve fund of the respective banks, as stated in their 
respective statutory monthly returns to the Minister for the 
month immediately preceding that in which the additional 
amount is issued ; 

(d) Suspend the redemption in gold of Dominion notes ; 
and; 

(e) Authorise, in so far as the same may be within the 
legislative authority of the Parliament of Canada, the post- 
ponement of the payment of all or any debts, liabilities and 
obligations however arising, to such extent, for such time and 
upon and subject to such terms, conditions, limitations and 
provisions as may be specified in the proclamation. 

(ii) The securities deposited with the Minister under this 
section shall, as respects the Dominion notes issued here- 
under, be deemed to be the security required to be held by 
the Minister under section 5 of the Dominion Notes Act, 1914. 

(iii) A tender by a bank of its notes in payment of any of its 
liabilities when a proclamation made under clause (b) of the 
first subsection of this section is in force shall be a sufficient 
and valid tender, and the payment at such time by a bank 
of any of its liabilities with its notes shall be as sufficient and 
valid a payment as if the same had been made in specie or 
Dominion notes ; Provided in either case the total amount 
of the notes of the bank in circulation at that time, including 
in case of tender the amount tendered, does not exceed the 
amount of notes of the bank issuable under the provisions of 
the Bank Act and of clause (c) of said subsection. 

(iv) Subsection 16 of section 61 of the Bank Act shall apply 



220 



ACTS OF CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

to the excess circulation issued under the authority of this 
section, and interest shall accordingly be payable thereon as 
if such excess circulation had been excess circulation issued 
under the authority of said section 61. 

(v) No proclamation issued under the provisions of this Duration oi 
section shall continue in force for more than thirty days after f i o < J 1 cIama ~ 
the beginning of the first session of Parliament held after the 
issue thereof, unless it is approved by resolution passed by 
both Houses of Parliament. 

(vi) Any proclamation made under the provisions of this Varying, 
section may be varied, extended or revoked by any sub- ^drevokin 
sequent proclamation, and separate proclamations may be prodama- mg 
made dealing with separate subjects ; but if any proclama- tions - 
tion is varied, extended or revoked neither the previous 
operation thereof nor anything duly done thereunder shall 
be affected thereby, nor shall any right, privilege, obligation 
or liability acquired, accrued, accruing or incurred there- 
under be affected by such variation, extension or revocation. 

5. The Governor in Council may make regulations, not Regulations. 
inconsistent with this Act, with regard to advances to the 
chartered banks, and to the said savings banks, the terms and 
conditions affecting the deposit of securities, and all other 
matters necessary to give effect to the provisions of this Act. 

6. The part of section 135 of the Bank Act immediately Amendment 
preceding clause (a) is repealed and the following is substituted Bank Act - 
therefor : 

' 135. If the total amount of the notes of the bank in 
circulation at any time exceeds the amount authorised by 
this Act and by the Finance Act, 1914, the bank shall ' 



AN ACT RESPECTING DOMINION NOTES l 

[Assented to 22nd August 1914.] 

His MAJESTY, by and with the advice and consent of the R.S., c. 27, 
Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows : i98, c. 23. 

Short Title 

i. This Act may be cited as the Dominion Notes Act, 1914. Short title. 
1 5 George V., Chapter 4. 

221 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Definitions. 



Gold.' 



Minister.' 



Interpretation 

2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, 

(a) ' Dominion notes ' means notes of the Dominion of 
Canada issued and outstanding under the authority 
of this Act ; 

(d) l gold ' means,- 

(i.) gold coins which are a legal tender in Canada, and, 
(ii.) gold bullion in bars, each bar bearing either the 
stamp of the Royal Mint of the United Kingdom 
or of the branch thereof in Canada or of one of the 
branches thereof in Australia or of one of the coinage 
mints of the United States or of the Assay Office 
of the United States at New York certifying its 
weight and fineness, at a valuation of one dollar 
in the currency of Canada for every 23.22 grains 
of fine gold content ; 
(c) ' Minister ' means the Minister of Finance. 



Issue of 

Dominion 

notes. 



Denomina- 
tion and 
form. 



Signatures. 



Redemption 
in gold. 



Issue and Redemption 

3. Dominion notes may be issued and outstanding at 
any time to any amount, and such notes shall be a legal 
tender in every part of Canada except at the offices at which 
they are redeemable. 

4. Dominion notes shall be of such denominational value 
as the Governor in Council determines, and shall be in such 
form, and signed by such persons, two in number, as the 
Minister directs. 

(ii) By direction of the Minister, there may be substituted 
for signatures in the proper handwriting of one or both of 
the persons authorised to sign under the provisions of the 
last preceding subsection facsimiles thereof printed from 
engraving : Provided that if both of .the signatures are printed, 
then a distinguishing device and serial number shall be printed 
from engraving on each note after the notes have been 
delivered by the printer and engraver to the Minister and 
while the notes are in the custody and control of the officers 
of the Department of Finance. 

(iii) Dominion notes shall be redeemable in gold on pre- 
sentation at branch offices established or at banks with which 
222 



ACTS OF CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

arrangements are made for the redemption thereof as herein- 
after provided. 

Security 



5. The Minister of Finance shall always hold as security Amount held 
for the redemption of Dominion notes up to and including as security 
fifty million dollars, issued and outstanding at any one time, [fJiT^" 115 
an amount equal to not less than twenty-five per centum of 

the amount of such notes in gold. 

2. As security for the redemption of Dominion notes Notes in 
issued in excess of fifty million dollars, the Minister shall hold | xcess of 
an amount in gold equal to such excess. $50,000,000. 

6. In case the amount held in accordance with the pro- Loan may be 
visions of this Act as security for the redemption of Dominion raised if 
notes is not sufficient to pay the Dominion notes presented security hf 
for redemption, or in case the amount so held is reduced below insufficient, 
the amount required by this Act to be held, the Governor in 
Council may raise, by way of loan, temporary or otherwise, 

upon such form of security and upon such terms and condi- 
tions as the Governor in Council may approve, such sums 
of money as are necessary to pay such notes or to provide 
the amount required to be held as security for the redemp- 
tion of Dominion notes issued and outstanding. 

Proceeds and Expenses 

7. The proceeds of Dominion notes so issued shall form Proceeds of 
part of the Consolidated Revenue Fund of Canada, and all 
expenses incurred or required to be paid in connection with 

the engraving, printing or preparation of such notes, or the 
signing, issue or redemption thereof, shall be paid out of the 
said fund. 

Monthly Statement 

8. The Minister of Finance shall publish monthly in the Monthly 
Canada Gazette a statement of the amount of Dominion notes j^S? - n by 
outstanding on the last day of the preceding month, and of Canada" 
the gold then held by him for securing the redemption thereof. Gazette. 

Agencies for Redemption 

9. The Governor in Council may establish branch offices officers of 
of the Department of Finance at Toronto, Montreal, Halifax, agencies for 

redemption. 



Redemption 
of notes of 
old province 
of Canada. 



Repeal. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

St. John, Winnipeg, Victoria, Charlottetown, Regina and 
Calgary, for the redemption of Dominion notes, or may make 
arrangements with a chartered bank at any of the said places 
for the redemption thereof. 

(ii) The Governor in Council shall appoint a suitable person 
to be in charge of the respective offices so established, and 
such officer shall be called an assistant receiver general, and 
shall be an agent for the issue and redemption of Dominion 
notes. 

Notes of Late Province of Canada 

no. Provincial notes under the Act of the late province 
o f c ana d a ^ passed in the session held in the twenty-ninth 
and thirtieth years of Her late Majesty Queen Victoria's 
reign, chapter ten, intituled An Act to provide for the Issue 
of Provincial Notes', shall be held to be notes of the Dominion 
of Canada, and shall be redeemable in gold on presentation 
at Toronto, Montreal, Halifax, or St. John, according as 
the same are respectively made payable, and shall be legal 
tender except at the offices at which they are respectively 
made payable. 

n. Chapter 27 of the Revised Statutes, An Act respecting 
Dominion Notes, is repealed. 



AN ACT TO AMEND THE NATURALISATION ACT, 1914 1 

[Assented to 22nd August 1914.] 

Preamble. WHEREAS by the Naturalisation Act, 1914, the Dominion 

of Canada adopted Part II. of the British Nationality and 
Status of Aliens Act, 1914, passed by the Parliament of the 
United Kingdom, which was before the said Parliament at 
the time of the passing of the Naturalisation Act, 1914, and 
which received the assent of His Majesty on the seventh day 
of August, one thousand nine hundred and fourteen ; and 
whereas amendments were made in Parts II. and III. of the 
said Act while it was being passed by the Parliament of the 
United Kingdom, which are not contained in the Naturalisa- 
tion Act, 1914, and it is desirable that corresponding amend- 



224 



1 5 George V., Chapter 7. 



i 



ACTS OF CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

ments be made in the Naturalisation Act, 1914 : Therefore 
His Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate and House of Commons, enacts as follows : 

1. Subsection 5 of section 2 of the Naturalisation Act, widows 
1914, chapter 44 of the statutes of 1914, is repealed and the J^werc 
following is substituted therefor : British 

'5. In the case of a woman who was a British subject sub Jects. 
previously to her marriage to an alien and whose husband 
has died, or whose marriage has been dissolved, the require- 
ments of this section as to residence shall not apply, and the 
Secretary of State may, in any other special case, if he thinks 
fit, grant a certificate of naturalisation, although the four 
years' residence or five years' service has not been within 
the last eight years before the application/ 

2. Section 10 of the said Act is amended by adding thereto 
the following proviso : 

' Provided that where a man ceases during the continu- Married 
ance of his marriage to be a British subject, it shall be lawful women - 
for his wife to make a declaration that she desires to retain 
British nationality, and thereupon she shall be deemed to 
remain a British subject/ 

3. Paragraph (b) of section 25 of the said Act is repealed Regulations, 
and the following is enacted in lieu thereof : 

' (b) The form and registration of declarations of alienage 
and declarations of resumption or retention of British 
Nationality/ 



AN ACT TO INCORPORATE THE CANADIAN PATRIOTIC FUND x 

[Assented to 22nd August 1914.] 

WHEREAS it is desirable to provide a fund for the assist- Preamble, 
ance, in case of need, of the wives, children and dependent 
relatives of officers and men, residents of Canada, who, during 
the present war, may be on active service with the naval and 
military forces of the British Empire and Great Britain's 
allies ; and whereas money is now being raised for the said 
purpose, and it is desirable to provide for the administra- 
tion of the same : Therefore His Majesty, by and with the 

1 5 George V., Chapter 8. 

OVERSEAS I. p 225 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Short title. 



Incorpora- 
tion. 



advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of 
Canada, enacts as follows : 

1. This Act may be cited as the Canadian Patriotic Fund 
Act, 1914. 

2. His Royal Highness The Governor - General, His 
Honour Sir J. M. Gibson, K.C.M.G., Lieutenant-Governor 
of Ontario, His Honour Sir Francois Langelier, K.C.M.G., 
Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec, His Honour Josiah Wood, 
Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick, His Honour D. C. 
Cameron, Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba, His Honour 
Thomas W. Paterson, Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia, 
His Honour James D. M c Gregor, Lieutenant-Governor of 
Nova Scotia, His Honour B. Rogers, Lieutenant-Governor 
of Prince Edward Island, His Honour Geo. E. Brown, Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Saskatchewan, His Honour G. H. V. 
Bulyea, Lieutenant-Governor of Alberta, The Right Honour- 
able Sir Robert Borden, P.C., G.C.M.G., The Honourable Sir 
George E. Foster, K.C.M.G., The Honourable George H. 
Perley, The Honourable Robert Rogers, The Honourable W. 
T. White, The Honourable L. P. Pelletier, The Honourable 
J. D. Hazen, Colonel The Honourable Samuel Hughes, 
The Right Honourable Sir Wilfrid Laurier, P.C., G.C.M.G., 
The Honourable Sir James Whitney, K.C.M.G., The Honour- 
able Sir Lomer Gouin, K.C.M.G., The Honourable J. K. 
Flemming, The Honourable G. H. Murray, The Honourable 
J. A. Matheson, The Honourable Walter Scott, The Honour- 
able A. L. Sifton, The Honourable Sir R. P. Roblin, K.C.M.G., 
The Honourable Sir Richard M c Bride, K.C.M.G., The 
Honourable George Black, Sir Hugh Graham, The Honour- 
able T. Berthiaume, E. R. Wood, Esq., The Honourable Sir 
William Mulock, K.C.M.G., J. K. L. Ross, Esq., The Honour- 
able Robert Jaffray, Sir Thomas Shaughnessy, K.C.V.O., Sir 
William Mackenzie, E. J. Chamberlin, Esq., The Right 
Honourable Chief Justice Sir Charles Fitzpatrick, G.C.M.G., 
The Honourable C. Sifton, H. B. Ames, Esq., M.P., F. S. 
Barnard, Esq., George Burn, Esq., T. C. Casgrain, Esq., K.C., 
The Honourable R. Dandurand, Sir Henry K. Egan, J. B. 
Fraser, Esq., Herbert S. Holt, Esq., The Honourable Sir 
Melvin Jones, The Honourable A. E. Kemp, The Honourable 
W. L. M c Kenzie King, The Honourable R. Lemieux, A. M. 
Nanton, Esq., Lieutenant-Colonel R. W. Patterson, William 
226 



H* ] ACTS OF CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

Price, Esq., A. F. Sladen, Esq., C.M.G., Sir Byron Edmund 
Walker, C.V.O., E. C. Whitney, Esq., and Lieutenant-Colonel 
D. R. Wilkie are incorporated under the name of ' The 
Canadian Patriotic Fund ' (hereinafter called the ' Corpora- 
tion '). 

3. The objects of the Corporation shall be to collect, Objects, 
administer and distribute the fund hereinbefore mentioned 

for the assistance in case of need of the wives, children and 
dependent relatives of officers and men, residents of -Canada, 
who, during the present war, may be on active service with 
the naval and military forces of the British Empire and Great 
Britain's allies. 

4. There shall vest in the Corporation, Property 

(a) Any moneys, securities and other property which corporation, 
are now the property of the Canadian Patriotic Fund Associa- 
tion, incorporated by chapter 92 of the statutes of 1901, and 

which the Association may agree to transfer ; 

(b) All moneys at any time contributed to be expended or 
distributed by or through the Corporation hereby created. 

5. Upon the transfer of the funds, securities and other Liabilities 
property of the Canadian Patriotic Fund Association to the assumed - 
Corporation, the Corporation shall be subject to the obli- 
gations, debts and liabilities of the said Association up to 

the amount so received. 

6. The affairs of the Corporation shall be administered Executive 
by an executive committee, consisting of a president and committee - 
such other officers and members as the corporation may from 

time to time determine. 

(ii.) The persons whose names are mentioned in section 2 
shall constitute the provisional executive committee, and 
provided that ten of the said persons are present at the 
meeting, the Corporation may be organised and the executive 
committee may be elected by them. Until otherwise provided 
by by-law or regulation made by the executive committee, 
ten members of the executive committee shall be a quorum. 

7. The Corporation shall, subject to the provisions of 

this Act, pay, apply, or distribute to the best of its judg- Distribution 
ment, in such manner among the 'persons entitled to share offunds - 
therein, and in such amounts, as in the absolute and uncon- 
trolled discretion of the Corporation seems proper or advisable ; 
and the Corporation shall take such means as it thinks necessary 

227 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Branches. 



Investments. 



Audit 



Liability of 
Corporation 
for its 

officers. 



Ex-officio 
members. 



or advisable to ascertain who are entitled to share in the said 
fund, and to what extent and in what manner the persons 
entitled will be relieved by the Corporation. 

8. The Corporation shall have the power to establish 
branches or local organisations throughout Canada, and to 
co-operate with any association or organisation established 
in any place in Canada, for purposes similar to those of the 
Corporation, upon such terms and conditions as the Corpora- 
tion may by by-law determine. 

9. Pending the final distribution of the fund, the Cor- 
poration may, 

(a) invest it in the public consols, stocks, bonds, deben- 
tures or other securities of the United Kingdom, or of any 
Dominion or dependency thereof, or in the debentures, bonds, 
stocks, or other public securities of Canada, or of any pro- 
vince of Canada, or of any municipal or public school cor- 
poration in Canada ; or 

(b) deposit it with any chartered bank in Canada. 

10. On and from the thirty-first day of December, one 
thousand nine hundred and fourteen, the accounts of the 
Corporation shall be audited by the Auditor-General of 
Canada, and a report of such audit, with such further state- 
ment as seems proper, shall be published as the Corporation 
directs ; and the said auditor, or his successor in office, shall 
be the auditor of the Corporation. 

11. Except as provided for by the next preceding section, 
and except as to any fraudulent act or fraudulent omission 
of the Corporation, the Corporation shall not, nor shall any 
of its members, be liable or in any way answerable for any 
of the acts, errors, or omissions of the Corporation or of any 
of its officers, members, employees or agents, with respect 
to the receipt, expenditure or distribution of the said moneys, 
or of any portion thereof, or in any other respect in carrying 
out the objects of this Act. 

12. Until the Corporation is dissolved as hereinafter pro- 
vided, the successor or successors in office of the Governor- 
General, and of the Lieutenant-Governors of Ontario, Quebec, 
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Manitoba, British Columbia, 
Prince Edward Island, Saskatchewan and Alberta, and the 
Commissioner of the Yukon shall be members of the Cor- 
poration. 

228 




ACTS OF CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

13. The office of the Corporation shall be in the City of Head office. 
Ottawa. 

14. Subject to the provisions of this Act, the Corporation By-laws and 
may make by-laws, rules and regulations as to the holding reflations, 
of its meetings, the admission of additional members to the 
Corporation, the appointment and duties of its officers and 
employees, the appointment of members to fill vacancies, 

the quorum at meetings, and generally the internal govern- 
ment of the Corporation and the carrying out of the objects 
of this Act. 

15. The Corporation may, out of the moneys vested in it, Payment of 
pay all expenses it thinks necessary or proper to incur, or ex P enses - 
which it considers have been properly incurred by the said 
Corporation, or on its behalf, in connection with the carrying 

out of the objects of this Act or of the work of the said Cor- 
poration or of the committees thereof. 

16. When the purposes for which the Corporation is Dissolution 
created have been fully carried out, completed and finished, 

the corporate powers of the Corporation shall be deemed to 
have ceased and the Corporation to be dissolved. 



229 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



[JUL 



The 

Ukrainian 

Voice, 

quoted by 

Manitoba 

Free Press, 

Julyso/14. 

1 [See Dip- 
lomatic, i, 
p. 468.] 



OTHER SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, AND 
PUBLIC NOTICES 

July 26, 1914. 
AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MOBILISATION ORDER 

Announcement 

In Austria-Hungary His Imperial Majesty has proclaimed 
partial mobilisation. 1 

Those who are belonging to ' the call to arms reserve ' are 
being notified of the fact by announcement cards. 

Those called to the arms will have returned to them the 
travelling expenses. 

Those who do not have sufficient funds for the voyage will 
call on the nearest Imperial and Royal representative, pre- 
senting their call to arms cards, and the travelling expenses 
will be advanced. 

All others will have the money spent in travelling to join 
their colours returned later. 

His Imperial and Royal Majesty is proclaiming a full 
amnesty to all those who will immediately return home. 
This embraces those who are considered as deserters, and who 
did not show up for conscription. 

Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Consulate 

,in Winnipeg, 
M. P. LUCAS, Imperial and Royal Council. 

Winnipeg, 26/7/14. 

[The above proclamation appeared on July 29 in two 
German papers of Winnipeg, in the seven Ruthenian and in 
the one Hungarian paper of the West of Canada.] 



230 






SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

July 27, IQI4. 1 

PASTORAL LETTER OF BISHOP N. BUDKA, BISHOP 
OF CATHOLIC RUTHENIANS (UKRAINIANS) IN 
CANADA 

To all the clergy and all the faithful of the Canadian Manitoba 
Ukraine. Free Press, 

Since a number of years great calamities are befalling Au &- 4 >J 4- 
our old Motherland. It is not only the wants which in the 
past years caused a common famine, which is responsible for 
thousands of our brothers being scattered the world over, 
but also a moral necessity, i.e. the demoralisation of our 
brothers in Galicia and Hungary by a crowd of spies, agents, 
pamphlets and papers, paid for by the moneys of our neighbour 
Russia, either directly from that country or via Serbia, America, 
or Canada. 

For quite a number of years the war cloud has hung over 
our country, which however did not realise it, and it was held 
off by the efforts of the peace-loving Emperor, Franz Joseph I. 
Then happened an incident which would exhaust the patience 
of the most patient. On June 28, there was assassinated in 
Sarajevo by the bullet of a Serbian student, together with his 
wife, Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austrian throne, a man 
of great hopes in the present difficult situation of Austria. 
This loss was greatly felt by the old monarch and all nation- 
alities of Austria, and especially by Ruthenians, who held 
great and deserved hopes in him. The enemies of Austria, 
and especially the enemies of the Ruthenian Ukrainians, do 
not conceal their satisfaction on account of this tragic loss. 
The Canadian Ruthenian Ukrainians sympathise with the 
sorrow of our old Motherland, and gave proof of it by special 
services in the churches for those assassinated, and in prayers 
for the welfare of the maternal country. 

1 [The date of this letter is not given by the Manitoba Free Press ; from 
the report of the Ukrainian Protest Meeting on August 16, in the Edmon- 
ton Daily Bulletin of August 19 (see p. 251), it appears to have been July 
27, 1914. The Canadian Annual Review, 1914, gives the date as August 3. 
According to the Canadian Annual Review, Bishop Budka on August 6 
issued a second Pastoral, explaining that his first one referred only to 
conditions existing before Britain became involved (see p. 244).] 

231 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

At the present time the situation is very bad. To all 
the calamities there is added one more a war with Serbia 
at the present moment, and possibly in a short time with 
Russia also. A war of incalculable consequences which can 
change not only the structure of Austria, but also of the 
whole of Europe. A war which may affect especially us 
Ruthenians. 

The old Emperor could not pass his life peacefully. He 
commenced to rule in 1848, and at the end of his long life the 
Almighty has not spared him from this tremendous calamity 
now befalling his subjects, and he plunges into war. An 
official announcement reached Canada calling the Austrian 
subjects to return home, and to be ready for the defence of the 
Empire. God knows what may happen. It is possible that 
Galicia will have to be defended from the greed of Russia. 
It is possible that it will be necessary to defend our parents, 
wives, children, brothers, and our country from the never 
satisfied enemy. 

It is possible that after the war we shall remain in Austria 
just as we are now, or, maybe, we will be reinforced by the 
millions of our brothers who are now under Russian Govern- 
ment, but it is also possible that we may find ourselves under 
the iron hand of the Muscovite despot. All this is in the hands 
of the Lord ; we cannot foresee what the result will be. Any- 
how all the Austrian subjects ought to be at home in a position 
to defend our native country, our dear brothers and sisters, 
our nation. Whoever will get a call to join the colours ought 
to immediately go to defend the endangered Fatherland. 
All the deserters and those who did not show up for con- 
scription are being pardoned by the Emperor, and will be free 
from any penalties providing they will immediately call on 
the Austrian Consul, and will go to defend the Fatherland. 
Those who have decided to spend the rest of their lives in their 
adopted land, however, and are partly bound to their old 
country, ought to as well take part in the present situation of 
Austria and our brothers. Our sympathy should not finish 
with the reading of papers to know the war situation, but we 
ought to help our old Motherland. N. BUDKA. 



232 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

July 30, 1914. 

RESOLUTIONS OF UKRAINIANS (RUTHENIANS) 
OF EDMONTON, ALBERTA 

1. We, the Ukrainians of the city of Edmonton, the Edmonton 
Canadian citizens and the subjects of Great Britain, emphati- *\? . 
cally ask Great Britain not to be implicated into the Austro- f |f ^ >' 
Russian conflict : (a) because our brothers are living in 
Austria as well as in Russia ; (b) because Russia is a despotic 
Empire, where our thirty million Ukrainians as well as other 
nationalities are in slavery, and Great Britain, as one of the 

most cultured Empires, should not support slavery in Russia. 

2. We ask the Dominion of Canada to be neutral in this 
crisis, and not to interfere into, the European conflict, because 
such interference would be a cause of misunderstanding among 
the Slav and non-Slav Canadians. 

3. We call all the Ukrainians in Canada, United States, and 
Brazil to do their best with their brothers in Austria and Russia 
to promote conditions so as not to give Ukrainia, our Father- 
land, to Russia or Austria, but to make our Ukrainia an 
independent republic. 

4. To do that we all should give what is required from us 
to see our Ukrainia in freedom and liberty. 

W. MOYSA, Chairman. 
N. ROSTOCKY, Secretary. 

[' About 500 persons ' were present at the meeting which 
' adopted unanimously ' the above resolutions.] 



July 31, 1914. 

CANADIAN PREMIER AND MINISTER OF 
MILITIA ON THE SITUATION 

That the present European situation is very critical and Toronto 
the most serious that Great Britain ever has had to face, was World, 
the assertion last night of Sir Robert Borden, Premier of Au &- J 
Canada, who spent several hours in Toronto en route from 
Muskoka to Ottawa, where he was summoned to confer with 
Government officials regarding the Dominion's attitude should 
a general European war be declared. 

Although the Premier declined to discuss the situation to 

233 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

any extent, he was of the opinion that the crisis would be 
reached to-day in a declaration of war. ' It is doubtful if 
Europe ever has faced as serious a time as the present/ said 
Sir Robert. ' I do not know what the outcome of my conference 
at Ottawa will be, but we expect a note from the British 
Government, Saturday, asking us what attitude Canada 
would take in the event of a general declaration of war by 
Great Britain in the present trouble. 

What our answer will be I cannot state, but its considera- 
tion was of such importance as to necessitate my presence 
before the communication was received/ 

Manitoba Honourable Sam. Hughes was to-night the guest of the 

Free Press, Bracebridge Board of Trade at a banquet. In the course of 

Aug. 1/14. his address, referring to the present crisis, he said, speaking as 

a private citizen and not as a Minister of the Crown, he had 

no doubt that Canada would rally to the defence of the old 

flag, and there would be as keen a readiness to fight for that 

flag as there was in the Boer War. 



BRITISH WAR OFFICE AND CANADIAN WHEAT 

Toronto . . . The War Office to-day [July 31] cable the Canadian 

World, ^ Government to know how much wheat Canada would be able 

Aug. i, 14. ^ Q sen( j t o Britain this year. The Russian wheat crop cannot 

be depended on by the old country this year if the war goes on. 



August i, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF PREMIER OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 

Times, Sir Richard McBride, Premier of British Columbia, has 

Aug. 3, '14. made the following statement : 

In view of the grave developments in the international 
situation in Europe I am of the opinion that the time is oppor- 
tune for some consideration to be given by the people of 
British Columbia to the expediency of organising volunteer 
forces to be placed at the service of the Motherland. Should 
it unfortunately develop that Great Britain is compelled to 
engage in hostilities, Canada will automatically be at war also. 
That Canada will do her full duty goes without saying ; but 
if we can now, by a demonstration of our loyal determination 
234 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

to stand by her side, strengthen the position of Great Britain, 
I am sure there will be a universal desire to adopt that course. 
With Britain supreme in command of the seas the Imperial 
Government can conceivably in less than a month land in 
England upwards of 100,000 fresh troops from her far-flung 
Colonial possessions. These troops might easily be of vital 
service to the Motherland ; and that they will be offered from 
all parts of the Empire, if the need be as great as our informa- 
tion would lead us to believe, hardly requires to be stated. 



August 2, 1914. 
ROYAL NAVAL RESERVES CALLED OUT 

Public notice is hereby given that His Royal Highness A. No. i. 
the Governor-General has received a telegraphic despatch 
from the Secretary of State for the Colonies, announcing that 
His Majesty the King has by Royal Proclamation called out 
the Royal Naval Reserves. Attention is directed to the fact 
that by this proclamation men serving abroad, whether on 
shore or in merchant vessels, are required to report themselves 
to the first British Naval Consular or Colonial Officer they 
meet, or failing that, to the nearest Registrar on arrival in the 
United Kingdom. 

Of which all persons concerned are required to take notice 
and to govern themselves accordingly. By Command, 

R. L. BORDEN, 
Secretary of State for External Affairs. 

Ottawa, 2nd August 1914. 



MANITOBA CABINET'S DECISION 

Premier [Sir Rodmond] Roblin reached Winnipeg late last Manitoba 
night [August 2] from Minaki, having been recalled by wire Free Press, 
from a week-end visit to that place, and hurried direct to Au S-3/i4- 
Government House, where a Council was held, Sir Douglas 
Cameron [Lieut. -Governor] and Lieut. -Colonel Steele being 
present. 

Soon after midnight he handed out the following for 
publication : 

* At a meeting at Government House to-night [August 2] 

235 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

it was decided, in the event of the Mother Country becoming 
involved in actual hostilities, to organise and equip a battalion 
of infantry one thousand strong, and offer it through the 
proper channels at Ottawa to the home authorities as a slight 
evidence of Manitoba's appreciation of being a part of the 
British Empire/ 

August 3, 1914. 

MESSAGES OF PREMIERS OF SASKATCHEWAN, 
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND, NEW BRUNSWICK, 
AND BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Montreal Canada should act on the principle that when England is 

Daily Star, a t war Canada is at war, and the actions should be as instan- 
Aug. 4/14. taneous as is possible in such matters. 

WALTER SCOTT 
(Premier, Saskatchewan) . 

ibid. I can venture no opinion as to the mode of procedure, 

but assuredly when Britain is at war Canada is at war, and 
Canada's duty is to do everything within her power to aid the 
Empire. J. A. MATHIESON 

(Premier, Prince Edward Island). 

ibid. Canada should retrieve the mistake made when the Naval 

Aid Bill was defeated, by offering a strong contingent, sum- 
moning Parliament, if necessary, to vote the money. The 
world must know that Canada will stand firm and determined 
by the Motherland until success is won and "peace restored. 

J. K. FLEMMING 
(Premier, New Brunswick). 

August 4, 1914. 

tbid. With regard to the present grave emergency, I have no 

doubt Prime Minister Borden will render every possible 
assistance to the Motherland both in men and means, should 
she become involved, and that he will have behind him the 
entire Canadian people. 

[SiR] RICHARD MCBRIDE 
(Premier, British Columbia). 

236 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

ANNOUNCEMENT OF WAR 

His Royal Highness the Governor-General received a A. No. 10. 
telegraphic despatch from the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies at 8.45 this evening, announcing that war has broken 
out with Germany. 



STATEMENT OF CANADIAN LEADER OF 
OPPOSITION 

Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Leader of the Opposition, who curtailed Ottawa 
his holiday stay at Athabaskaville and returned to his office 
at the capital on account of the present war crisis, gave Aug - 4 
out the following statement to the press at noon to-day 
[August 4] : 

' It appears that up to the present time England is not 
yet engaged in war. We still hope and pray that the efforts 
of Sir Edward Grey may yet be successful in persuading the 
nations of the Continent to the restoration of peace. I 
confess that the prospects are very doubtful. It is probable 
and almost certain that England will have to take her share 
in the conflict, not only for the protection of her own interests 
but for the protection of France and the higher civilisation of 
which these two nations are to-day the noblest expression. 
The policy of the Liberal party under such painful circum- 
stances is well known. I have often declared that if the 
Mother Country were ever in danger, or if danger even threat- 
ened, Canada would render assistance to the full extent of 
her power. In view of the critical nature of the situation, I 
have cancelled all my meetings. Pending such grave news 
there should be a truce of party strife/ 



CANADIAN CLUBS' MESSAGE TO KING GEORGE V 

News of the declaration of war between Great Britain and Vancouver 
Germany was announced at the smoker of the Associated World, ^ 
Canadian Clubs at the Pender Auditorium last night, and was Aug - 5) ' I4 
followed by the singing of ' God Save the King/ and other 
patriotic songs. 

Hon. W. J. Bowser, Attorney-General, made a brief speech, 
upon the request of the chairman. He declared that British 

237 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Halifax 
Herald, 
Aug. 4, '14. 



Columbia was in closer touch and sympathy with the Mother- 
land than other portions of Canada. One fourth of the 
population of the province consisted of people born in the 
Old Country. ' But at this hour of need/ added Mr. Bowser, 
'no comparison of loyalty of the different provinces is necessary. 
Canadians stand as one man in offering men and money to 
Great Britain. Canada must survive and prosper and become 
in time the Empire's most valuable possession/ 

Delegate Papineau, from Quebec, gave assurance that as 
many French as English Canadians would take up arms for 
the Empire. The French-Canadian's love for Canada, he said, 
was intense, and nobody could doubt French-Canadian 
loyalty. 

The following message was sent to London : 
' His Majesty King George v., London. The Association 
of Canadian Clubs in annual convention assembled at Van- 
couver, British Columbia, assure His Majesty King George, in 
the present crisis in the affairs of the Empire, of the utmost 
loyalty and affection of the Canadian people to the Crown, and 
their readiness to make all sacrifices for the maintenance of 
the integrity of the Empire and the ultimate hope of a lasting 
peace. (Signed) ' JOHN MAC KAY, Pres. 

' J. R. V. DUNLOP, Sec.' 



NOTICE TO FRENCH SUBJECTS 

All French subjects liable for service are required to report 
to the office of the Consular Agent for France within twenty- 

G. E. FRANKLYN, 

Consular Agent for France, 

77 Upper Water Street. 



four 



SPEECH OF MR. A. SEVIGNY, M.P., AT QUEBEC 

Toronto Mr. Sevigny recalled how France had gone down before the 

World, arms of Germany in 1870. The great question which French- 

Aug. 5, '14. Canadians had been asking during the past few days, he said, 

had been : ' What will England do ? ' Had France been left 

alone her arms might not have met with fortune. Now they 

had received the happy news that the entente cordiale was 

233 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

no idle word. England had risen to the occasion. What- 
ever the result might be, they would go into the war with a 
united front, and he was sure that Providence would smile 
upon them in this struggle of giants. All, he said, realised 
the ambitions of Germany, and knew that she had her eyes 
on the English colonies, including Canada. In France all 
the parties were as one. In England, too, all political differ- 
ences had been set aside in the face of the common foe. 
After describing what the victory of Germany might mean 
to the Dominion, Mr. Sevigny said he had never seen such 
unity in Canada as upon this war question. They had the 
example of the entente cordiale before them between the 
original Motherland and the Motherland which had adopted 
them. 



MESSAGE OF PREMIER OF ONTARIO 

I have been asked to express an opinion upon Canada's Montreal 
duty towards the Empire at this juncture. The momentous Daily Star, 
crisis we now face makes plain what Canada's course must be. Au - 5> '*4- 
That course is to exert her whole strength and power at once 
in behalf of our Empire. 

We are part of the Empire in the fullest sense, and we share 
in its obligations as well as its privileges. We have enjoyed 
under British rule the blessings of peace, liberty, and pro- 
tection, and now that we have an opportunity of repaying in 
some measure the heavy debt we owe the Mother Country 
we will do so with cheerfulness and courage. 

I know my fellow Canadians too well to doubt that they 
will respond with enthusiastic loyalty to the appeal. Sir 
Robert Borden has all Canada behind him in the steps that 
must be taken to join in fighting the Empire's battles, because 
the contest forced upon Great Britain is our contest as much 
as hers, and upon the issue of events depends our national 
existence. 

Never before in our history has the call of duty and of 
honour been so clear and imperative, and Canada will neither 
quail nor falter at the last.. The British Government has done 
everything possible to avoid war, and has sought peace with 
an earnestness worthy of responsible statesmen. But a dis- 
honourable peace would prove disastrous to the Empire and 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

we would be unworthy of the blood that runs in our veins 
if we sought to avoid an inevitable conflict. 

I rejoice at the evidences of Imperial unity displayed on 
all sides, and as our cause is to preserve liberty and resist an 
unjust aggression, it will evoke all that is best and noblest 
in the Canadian character. [SiR] J. P. WHITNEY. 



August 5, 1914. 

HON. MARTIN BURRELL, MINISTER OF AGRICUL- 
TURE, AT DOMINION HALL, VANCOUVER 

Vancouver With regard to the present war crisis in which all Europe 
World, ^ is involved, the speaker stated that we were all aware that 
Aug. 6, '14. E n gi an d passionately desired peace, and he was sure that there 
was no man or woman present who would subscribe to the 
doctrine that peace should be got at any price. This war will 
have an awful toll of death, and the appalling suddenness with 
which the war came on is unique in history, added the speaker. 
Canada will face the situation with the same spirit as did those 
in the earlier days, and the living should dedicate themselves to 
the work so honourably advanced by those who did not die 
in vain. The speaker laid emphasis on the way in which all 
Britons laid aside home troubles, and turned swords jointly 
to the common foe in this supreme moment. He stated that 
three things held the Empire together, and they were a 
common throne, a flag, and the fleet of the Empire. He 
believed that the men now at the wheel would uphold the 
honour of the flag as did Drake and Nelson. 



Dw Nord- 
western, 
Aug. 5, '14, 
quoted by 
Manitoba 
Free Press, 
Aug. 8, '14. 



NOTICE OF GERMAN CONSUL AT WINNIPEG 

The Imperial German Consulate at Winnipeg announces 
the following : 

' Although, up to the present, official notice of the mobilis- 
ing of Germany has not been received, newspaper reports 
leave no doubt open that the German Empire is in a state of 
war. 

' For this reason all under the obligation to perform military 
duty, and all members of the army and navy on leave who are 
240 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

now abroad, are summoned to return to Germany as quickly 
as possible, and report to the nearest authority. 

' As soon as the last reserves (Landsturm) are called out 
by Imperial decree, those members of it living abroad are also 
summoned to return to Germany as soon as possible. 

' There will thus be issued on the part of the Imperial 
Consulate no special summons to the individual to return to 
Germany, and in the circumstances it will not be possible to 
arrange for a considerable number to return together. On 
the contrary, it will be left to the individual to undertake the 
return journey as best he can, the best way being certainly 
via New York. 

' To what extent requests for the advancing of travelling 
expenses will be granted cannot be stated at the moment. 
On the other hand, those who undertake the journey at their 
own expense can depend that they will be compensated 
eventually by the home authorities. 

' Those who are prevented from returning promptly to 
Germany, whether from lack of shipping facilities or from lack 
of means, must secure a consular certificate to this effect if 
punishment for neglect to return is to be avoided/ 



THE MAYOR OF WINNIPEG AND LIEUTENANT- 
GOVERNOR OF MANITOBA AT WINNIPEG 

MAYOR T. R. DEACON : 'Every intelligent man of the Anglo- Manitoba 
Saxon race must concede that one of the greatest events in Free Press, 
history was the War of Independence, won by the people of the Au S- 6 ' ' I 4- 
United States. No person now denies that the Government 
of Great Britain made a grave mistake at that time, but that 
great revolution was the starting of the development of the 
whole human race, I might say. Whatever hard feelings were 
generated at that time, they do not exist now, with one 
hundred years of peace behind us. Canada is united in its at- 
tachment at this time of trouble to the Motherland/ exclaimed 
his Worship, and the entire assemblage was on its feet. 

' We do not know what may be the outcome of this gigantic 
struggle, but we feel that the fleets of this Empire will sweep 
the seas as they have for the last thousand years. If the 

OVERSEAS I. Q 24! 



' DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

clouds grow darker and the fortunes of war go against us, the 
condition might arise in which these two flags ' * . . . (Applause.) 
SIR DOUGLAS CAMERON : ' We are on the threshold of the 
greatest war which the world has ever known. It is difficult 
for us to understand that good will come of it, but in the past 
the liberties of the people have been bought and paid for by 
the sword. We believe we cannot fail, but good will come 
whether we fail or whether we win/ 



August 6, 1914. 
NOTICE TO MARINERS 

(Atlantic No. 39.) (Pacific No. 21.) 

CANADA 

Information and Regulations relating to War Conditions 
Warnings to Mariners 

A. No. 21. Mariners are notified that, in consequence of declaration 
of war against Germany by Great Britain, British and 
Canadian vessels on the high seas are subject to capture by 
vessels of war of the enemy. 

Owners and masters are therefore warned of existing con- 
ditions, and are advised not to leave any Canadian port 
without reference to the Department of the Naval Service. 

Mariners are further specially warned that in consequence 
of the state of war in Europe, they are apt to find war condi- 
tions prevalent in any or all countries on the Atlantic sea- 
board, and that they must acquaint themselves with local 
conditions before venturing to approach any coast. 

Mariners are further notified that the ports of Halifax, 
Quebec, and Esquimault may be closed, and the examination 
service is being enforced under the provisions detailed in 
Notice to Mariners No. 8 of 1914. 

Notice has been received by cable from the Royal Ministry 
of Marine of Denmark, to the effect that submarine mines 
have been laid in the Sound, Copenhagen, in the entrance of 
Kongedybet, Hollaenderdybet, and Drogden, and that the 

1 [The Union Jack and the Stars and Stripes.] 
242 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

passage is temporarily limited to the Flint erenden, and that 
pilotage is compulsory at Copenhagen. 

A. JOHNSTON, Deputy Minister. 

Department of Marine and Fisheries. 



RESOLUTION OF NANAIMO LOCAL (No. 2155) 
UNITED MINEWORKERS OF AMERICA 

Whereas the British Empire, of which we are an integral Vancouver 
part, now faces the greatest crisis of its history in the struggle World ^ 
in which it is at present engaged ; and Aug - ' I4> 

Whereas we, as loyal British subjects, have no desire to . 
embarrass the Government of the Empire, or any part thereof 
in this its day of trial : 

Therefore be it resolved that we, the striking mineworkers 
of Nanaimo, assure the Government and the public that we 
will use our influence to promote the peace and welfare of the 
community and maintain order, thereby relieving the military 
forces, whose presence here is entirely unnecessary and un- 
called for, to the service of the country ; 

And be it therefore resolved that we protest against the 
filling of our places in the mines by men drawn from the very 
countries with which the Empire is at war to-day ; and we 
also protest against the maintenance of an armed force in our 
midst such as has been stationed here, taking the view that 
their presence is more needed in other places. And we 
further protest against the employment of specials and armed 
thugs, whose presence only serves to irritate the men on strike 
and increases friction and disorder. 

And be it further resolved that we, as mineworkers, would 
petition the Government to endeavour to bring about a con- 
ference between the two parties to this strike with a view to 
bringing about a satisfactory adjustment of this local trouble, 
which would enable us all as British subjects to act as a unit 
at this critical time. 

Adopted by Nanaimo Local Union, No. 2155, United 
Mineworkers of America, August 6, 1914. 

J. RATHLEY, President. 
WM. WATSON, Secretary. 

243 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



1 [Extract, 

s^e 

Canadian 

Annual 

Review, 

1914, cf. 

also p. 



BISHOP BUDKA'S SECOND PASTORAL 1 

We to-day, as faithful citizens of this part of the British 
Empire, the Canadian-Ruthenians, have before us a great 
and solemn duty, to flock to the flag of our new land, and 
under this standard to give our blood and lives to its defence. 
Ruthenians, Canadian citizens ! it is our first duty to defend 
Canada, for it is the land that not only received us and gave 
us shelter under the Constitution of the Great Empire, but 
more than that, it gives us liberty to follow the dictates of 
our conscience. . . . We order the clergy to read this present 
letter before their sermons in all their parishes, and impress 
upon Ruthenians generally their solemn duty to the great 
British Empire. 



Manitoba 
Free Press, 
Aug. 8, '14. 



August 7, 1914. 

PREMIER AND LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR OF 
MANITOBA AT WINNIPEG 

SIR RODMOND ROBLIN : ' When the Mother Country is at 
war, Canada is at war too. There is a great duty resting upon 
us all, and we are ready and able to discharge it. The sword 
has been unsheathed by no desire of Great Britain, and it 
shall never be sheathed until it has been honoured with greater 
victories than the past has known. A new Caesar has arisen 
in these modern times, and I trust he will meet the same fate as 
the other one, though not in the same way. I trust he will be 
crushed by the united forces of Christendom, and in that work 
Canada will bear its part, and Winnipeg will respond nobly. 
Great Britain has been forced into this war by the madman 
of Europe, and she will not cease until her enemies are humbled/ 
Sir Rodmond went on to express his confidence in Lord 
Kitchener as leader of the army, and then declared that 
Canadians would make any sacrifice in blood and treasure to 
help the Motherland. Finally he said, ' I am confident that 
as you have done your duty in the past you will do it in the 
future/ (Cries of ' We will, we will/) ' May the God of 
battles bless us with victory in this great fight, where we are 
fighting for the interests of peace and liberty, and for the best 
in human civilisation/ 
244 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

SIR DOUGLAS CAMERON : ' This is perhaps the greatest 
occasion the world has ever seen, and may come to mean more 
to the world than any event that has ever taken place in 
human history. You men must go forth, and God will give 
us the victory. We are acting in the interests "of peace, 
and it behoves every man in the Empire to rally to the call. 
In spite of Britain's efforts for peace, she is called upon to 
defend herself, and I am one of those who believe that the 
people of the Empire will rally and the old-time spirit of love 
and loyalty will prevail. I ask every man among you to 
volunteer, if necessary, to maintain the supremacy of our 
flag and Empire/ 



August 8, 1914. 
JAPANESE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 

The latest news from Japan concerning the present war Quoted 
crisis in Europe is that Great Britain has informed Japan of from the 
the declaration of war against Germany, and Japan, as an local 
ally of Britain, stands prepared to engage in the war. In Q^^The 
response to this there comes a statement of Count Okuma, Canadian 
Prime Minister, saying that Japan is fully ready to protect News, 
British interests in the Far East at any moment the German by the 
fleet may imperil such. 1 In fact, Japan is always ready to Vancouver 
take a hand with her 700,000 tons of navy and 2,000,000 men ^ j > 
should Germany take an aggressive hand in the Orient. The - ' . 
moment the German navy assumes its activity in the Far i^ tw 
Eastern waters is the time they will be annihilated, and all p . 295.] 
established and pending interests of Germany, both on sea 
and land in the Orient, abolished and uprooted. It is only 
a matter of hours to see this done pending the possible activity 
of the German fleet now in Tien-tsin, North China. 

While there is no doubt the British home fleet is over- 
whelming German squadrons in the North Sea, and that 
there will be British supremacy on the sea established in 
European waters, the greatest struggle for Britain will be 
when she lands her army on the Continent and fights 

against the huge German force Now it is time for 

us [Japanese] to cast aside all differences and feelings and 
join the volunteer army now organised in Canada, with the 

245 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

prospect to go to the front on short notice. The fact that we 
are living in Canada is reason enough to enlist in the army. 
No indignation can be allowed against British Columbians 
in such a state of crisis. So, men, try to join the army for the 
honour of the Japanese colony in Canada, and if the authorities 
do not accept your enlistment, try to raise a corps of Japanese 
volunteers. 

August 9, 1914. 

' [See next CANADIAN HOSPITAL SHIP 1 

page and y^e s ecre t a ry of the Admiralty announces that the follow- 

. ing telegrams have passed between Her Royal Highness the 

'14. Duchess of Connaught and the First Lord of the Admiralty : 

* Women of Canada anxious to offer Hospital Ship to British 
Navy. Before starting fund, anxious to know whether such 
offer would be acceptable. 

' LOUISE MARGARET, DUCHESS OF CONNAUGHT/ 

' Board of Admiralty respectfully thank Your Royal High- 
ness for gracious message, and beg that their deep appreciation 
of the offer made by the women of Canada, which they grate- 
fully accept, may be made known. 

' WINSTON CHURCHILL/ 



CLOSING OF GERMAN CLUB IN VANCOUVER 

To the Editor, ' Vancouver World ' 

Vancouver I have been requested by the Directors of the German 
World, ^ Club of Vancouver, B.C., to inform the newspapers of the 
Aug.io, 14. c j tv ^at at a mee ti n g h^d on August 8, 1914, it was resolved 
that in view of the regrettable fact that war has broken out 
between the British and the German Empires, the members of 
the German Club, although only part of them are subjects of 
the German Empire while many are naturalised Canadians, 
Americans, etc., do not consider it proper to continue the 
activities of the club while the state of war exists, and that 
consequently the localities of the Club at 770 Granville Street 
will remain closed. 

Please give this the publicity of your esteemed paper, 
and oblige Yours very truly, DR. KARL WEISS. 

246 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

August 10, 1914. 

PROJECT OF THE NATIONAL CHAPTER, DAUGHTERS 
OF THE EMPIRE, TO PRESENT A HOSPITAL 
SHIP TO THE ADMIRALTY 1 

SPEECH OF H.R.H. THE DUCHESS OF CONNAUGHT 
AT OTTAWA 

I desire to express my grateful thanks to all those present Ottawa 
here to-day for coming to take part in offering what help we, Free Pre t ss > 
as women of Canada, may to alleviate the suffering which will Au g- I:c > X 4 
come to those fighting for our Empire. The movement has * P?e P re ~ 
my fullest and most heartfelt sympathy, and is one which I 
appreciate most deeply, both personally and as the wife of 
your Governor-General. We are here to meet together to ask 
all present to help in raising funds for this splendid purpose, 
the relief of our suffering soldiers and sailors. I feel con- 
vinced that the patriotism and loyalty of all Canadian women 
will make this an easy task. 



August n, 1914. 
SLAVS IN VANCOUVER 

To the Editor, ' Vancouver World ' 

MR. EDITOR, Having seen by the papers that ninety Vancouver 
Austrians have been discharged from their work because they World, 
were Austrians, I write to correct the impression that all Aug.i2,'i4. 
Austrians are against Great Britain and her allies. Most of 
the so-called Austrians in Canada are really Croatians and 
Serbians, although they may have been born in Austria. My 
friends and myself were born in Austria, yet our sympathies 
are not with Austria and Germany, but with Serbia, because 
we have the same history and language. There are eight 
millions of persons in the southern part of Austria like our- 
selves, and the only reason that our homes remain in Austrian 
territory is that the country is held as Austrian territory 
by force of arms. The people of Croatia or Slavonia, Bosnia, 
and Dalmatia have been several times promised their freedom 
and a separate government and king by Franz Josef, but his 
promises have never been fulfilled. They have latterly been 

247 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

looking for Russia to obtain their liberty for them and set 
them up as a separate kingdom or kingdoms. 

In the present war the free Croatians and Slavonians will 
do all in their power to help Russia and her allies, although 
they have been so kept in subjection by the northern Austrians 
that their force will not be great at first. In the three provinces 
of Austria above mentioned, only about 10 per cent, of the 
people there are Austrians proper, the other 90 per cent, being 
of the same origin as the people of Serbia and Montenegro. 
In the province of Austria known as Bohemia, in Istria, 
Carinthia (Krain), Moravia, Styria, and Galicia, live nearly 
20,000,000 people of Slavonic origin, and they sympathise 
with Russia and look to her and her allies to free them from 
Franz Josef and his boss, the Kaiser. In America it is hard to 
find Austrians who are willing to fight for Austria and Germany, 
because most of the persons here left Austria to escape the 
tyranny of the Germans. So, Mr. Editor, I ask your readers 
to go slow before condemning any Austrians for sympathising 
with Germany and Franz Josef. Franz Josef, by his policies, 
drove us Austrians out of Austria, and we do not intend to 
return and help him try to crush our kindred, the Serbians, 
and the Russians and their allies. 

At 8 P.M. this evening, the nth inst., the Slavs of this 
city are holding a meeting in the O'Brien Hall to protest 
against the actions of Germany and Austria. If any Canadians 
or others desire to address the meeting they will be welcome. 

JOHN GEO. UBOJCICH, 
Rep. Croatian-Serbian Newspaper. 



RESOLUTION OF COUNCIL OF BLOOD INDIANS 

Manitoba The loyalty of Blood Indians to the Empire was fully 

Free Press, shown when ' Shot-Both-Sides/ chief of the Blood Indians 

Aug. 12, '14. an d one of the minor chiefs of the reserve, held a council of 

war on the Blood reserve at which the present war question 

was fully discussed 

A unanimous resolution expressing loyalty to the Empire 
was passed, and it was also decided to offer to the King the 
sum of $1000 to be used for equipment purposes. The 
Council also intimated that if men were required the members 
248 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

of the Blood Indian tribe would welcome a chance to offer 
their services to the Empire. 



August 12, 1914. 
WAR WITH AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 

His Royal Highness the Governor-General received a A. No. 27. 
telegraphic despatch from the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies at 9 o'clock this evening announcing that war had 
broken out with Austria-Hungary. 



August 13, 1914. 

APPEAL OF HON. T. W. CROTHERS, CANADIAN 
MINISTER OF LABOUR 

At this time when the Empire demands our full physical Ottawa 
and moral strength, I invite all employers and workmen alike FreeP 
to avoid all labour disturbances, that none of our industrial Aug>13 
or commercial force may be dissipated. Relying upon the 
patriotism of both classes, I am sure that they will readily 
respond to this appeal. At present I am glad to say that there 
are no labour troubles in Canada. Further, I request that in 
so far as possible all employers continue their operations that 
there may be at least no increase in unemployment. 



ANNOUNCEMENT BY DOMINION COUNCIL OF 
CANADIAN BOY SCOUTS 

All over Canada within the past two weeks Boy Scouts Montreal 
have been proffering their services in aid of both the civil and DailyMail, 
military authorities in the present emergency. At this stage Aug - I 4- J 4- 
it does not seem wise for the Dominion Council to advise as 
to the exact form or forms in which the organisation, as a 
whole, can best take its part in the existing struggle. There 
is, however, so much to be done quickly in every locality, that 
all Boy Scouts who are desirous of helping will find plenty of 
opportunities of doing so. In the British Isles their brother 
scouts are assisting in the maintenance of the police, coast- 

249 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

guard and post-office services, in guarding telegraph lines, as 
messengers for the Red Cross Society, and in various other 
ways. The Dominion Council is assured that Canadian 
Scouts will be found willing and prepared to lend a hand in 
the vast war preparations now under way by doing whatever 
it may reasonably be in their power to do. 



August 14, 1914. 
GERMAN RAIDS FROM U.S.A. 

Ottawa A despatch received here [Quebec] from Maine says that 

Free Press, Governor Haines of that State yesterday received the following 
Aug. 15, '14. w j re f rom Secretary Bryan : 

' Washington, D.C. August 14. Hon William T. Haines, 
Governor of Maine : 

' The British Embassy advises this Department of rumours 
that a man named Seligman is instigating certain German 
subjects to join in raids from the Maine and Vermont woods 
upon the Dominion of Canada. The Department would be 
^ glad if you would make inquiries as to the truth of these 
rumours, in order that proper steps may be taken to prevent 
the use of United States territory for these purposes. 

(Signed) WILLIAM J. BRYAN, 
Secretary of State. 



August 15, 1914. 

AMENDMENT TO RADIOTELEGRAPH 
REGULATIONS 

OPERATIONS OF THE SHIP STATIONS WITHIN THE TERRI- 
TORIAL WATERS AND HARBOURS OF CANADA 

A. No. 55. Regulations Numbers 103 and 104 of the Minister's 
regulations, issued 8th June 1914, are hereby cancelled and 
the following substituted therefor : 

103. Ship Stations in Territorial Waters : The radio- 
telegraph stations on board ships (other than H.M. ships of 
war or Canadian Government vessels) shall not be worked 
while such ships are within the territorial waters of Canada, 
unless specific permission is granted therefor by the con- 
250 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

trolling Canadian coast station for the locality, and then only 
provided such working does not interfere with the operation 
of any' coast station established in Canada, and that the 
provisions of the Radiotelegraph Convention of London, 1912, 
and the Service Regulations annexed thereto, are strictly 
observed. 

104. Ship Stations in Harbours : The radiotelegraph 
stations on board ships (other than H.M. ships of war or 
Canadian Government vessels) shall not be worked whilst 
such ships are within a harbour of the Dominion of Canada. 

Department of Naval Service, 
Ottawa, i$th August 1914. 



August 16, 1914. 

RESOLUTION OF UKRAINIANS (RUTHENIANS) 
IN ALBERTA 

(a) We, the Ukrainian-speaking citizens of the City of Edmonton 
Edmonton and elsewhere, in mass meeting this i6th day of 
August inst., express our disdain towards Bishop Budka, 1 who 

dared to suggest the mobilising of Austrian Ukrainians in 
Canada under the Austrian colours. 

(b) We also state that the facts published in Edmonton 
capital of August 8, under the title ' Ukrainian protest arouses 
ire Slav population here ' are falsified by ' Catzaps Provo- 
cators/ For we, the Ukrainians, are a separate nation of 
Russians and once had our own culture, but it is destroyed by 
the Russian Tsarism. 

(c) And we further express that instead of Russian culture 
in our Mother Country, we desire to see British Constitution, 
which stands for freedom and liberty of every nation. 

AL-EX. KRAKIWSKY, 
Chairman. 

August 18, 1914. 
PREMIER OF QUEBEC'S STATEMENT 

Quebec will not be behind the other Provinces of the Quebec 
Dominion of Canada, in doing her duty towards the Mother- Daily 
land. I and my colleagues propose taking up the matter at Telegraph, 

251 Aug. 10, 14. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

once, and determining upon what will be the most efficient 
way of aiding the Imperial Authorities in the present European 
war. 1 



August 20, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF PREMIER OF ONTARIO 

Toronto SIR JAMES WHITNEY gave out the following statement 

World, ^ yesterday : ' The present is a supreme testing time for the 
Aug.2i, 14. p e0 p} e O f th e province ; and calmness, courage, and fortitude 
should be displayed by governments, corporations, and 
individuals. The Ontario Government has been carefully 
studying the situation since the outbreak of the war with a 
view to rendering aid in the most effective manner possible 
at the time when such aid shall be of the greatest benefit to 
the mother land. With this object in view the Government 
is in communication with the Dominion Government at 
Ottawa, so as to ascertain the views of the Imperial Govern- 
ment, and when the proper time comes the people of Ontario 
can rely on the Government of the Province doing its full 
duty and aiding the Empire in the most effective manner 
possible. Whether that aid should be given now or later, and 
whether directly or in co-operation with the Dominion Govern- 
ment remains to be determined/ 



DUKE OF CONNAUGHT TO REMAIN IN CANADA 



Times, ^ jhe King has been pleased to consent to the Duke of 

Aug.22, 14. c onnau ght remaining in Canada as Governor-General during 
[See pp. fa e continuance of the war. 
180-1.] 



August 27, 1914. 

H.R.H. THE DUKE OF CONNAUGHT AND THE 
PATRIOTIC FUND 

Ottawa In response to urgent appeals from many parts of the 

Free Press, Dominion, I inaugurated the Canadian Patriotic Fund, the 
/i4. 

P Sir Lomer Gouin had been in Europe at the opening of the war, and 
had just returned to Quebec.] 
252 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

object of which is to provide for the needs of the wives, families, 
and dependants of those who go to the front to fight the 
battles of Great Britain and her allies. 1 Unless generous- * [See pp. 
minded citizens come to their aid there will be, during the 22 5-9-I 
coming winter, much hardship in many families, owirig to the 
absence of the bread-winner. I have the greatest confidence 
that those that are in a position to give need but have the 
opportunity of doing so, and that the response will be wide- 
spread and generous. 

During the past few days the Canadian Patriotic Fund 
has been duly organised, a strong executive, representing the 
whole Dominion, has been appointed, and a central bureau 
established at Ottawa. 

I sincerely hope that in every city and town throughout 
the Dominion branches of this organisation may be formed, 
full particulars of which can be had by addressing the honorary 
secretary, H. B. Ames, M.P., Ottawa. 

By co-operating and harmonising benevolent efforts in this 
way, the danger of over-lapping on the one hand, or neglecting 
deserving communities on the other hand, may be met and 
overcome. 

I am convinced that all Canadian hearts will go out to these 
brave fellow-citizens who have gone to the front. A prompt 
and hearty response to this appeal will put all anxiety at rest 
about those near and dear to them, and will afford to those 
who cannot go an opportunity of doing their duty to Canada 
and the Empire. (Signed) ARTHUR, 

President, Canadian Patriotic Fund. 



MAYOR OF WINNIPEG AND CANADIAN POLES 

At a mass meeting at Winnipeg, MAYOR DEACON said : Manitoba 
There are a large number of Poles amongst us, many Free Press, 
of them being our finest citizens. No one can read the Aug.28,'i4. 
history of Poland without having his admiration for that 
gallant people aroused to the highest pitch. Unfortunately, 
they were tramped under foot by three great Powers, and 
their splendid country dismembered. As soldiers, as scien- 
tists, as musicians, the Poles have proved their possession 
of the finest qualities. Their dearest ambition is to obtain 

253 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

autonomy for their country, and this has now been promised 
them. I think they have largely to thank the influence of 
Great Britain for that proclamation, 1 and they may be sure 
the influence of Great Britain will be exerted in the direction 
of seeing that the promise is fulfilled. I hope, therefore, that 
the Poles of Canada will enrol under the British flag and do 
their duty. 

There can be only one result to this war ; Great Britain 
and her Allies will eventually triumph. She will emerge 
greater and grander and nobler than before, from this struggle ; 
because in addition to gaining power, she will have gained the 
respect and esteem of the nations of the earth for the stand she 
has taken in this crisis. 

RESOLUTION OF MASS MEETING 

Moved by Sir N. Macdonald, seconded by A. M. Nanton : 

Whereas the people of the British Empire have been forced 
into an unjust and unprovoked war by a military despotism 
which seeks to impose upon the world a system of government 
based on physical force ; 

And whereas the form of British Government stands for 
democracy and individual freedom ; 

And whereas the people of Canada, as an integral portion 
of the Empire, are determined to do their full part in the 
defence of the Empire : 

Therefore be it resolved by this mass meeting of the people 
of Winnipeg,that in order to have available a sufficient number 
of trained men to meet 

(1) Whatever calls will have to be made for volunteers to 

serve abroad ; 

(2) To perform whatever duties may be necessary for the 

defence of Canada ; 

the Government of Canada to be requested by this meeting, 
in addition to keeping the existing Militia up to full strength, 
including the contingent which has already been mobilised 
with such expedition, to authorise and undertake with as 
little delay as possible the organisation, recruiting, equipping, 

1 [Proclamation of the Grand Duke Nicholas on August 14, 1914, pur- 
porting to re-unite the Poles ' under the sceptre of the Russian Tsar,' and 
promising them freedom. See Military, i, p. 272.] 
254 



4] SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

and training of an additional force of active Militia of 100,000 
men, in order to be enabled to send successive divisions to 
support or augment the army in the field. 

That a copy of this resolution be forwarded to the Honour- 
able the Minister of Militia, and all the cities of Canada, with 
the request for their support. 

Moved by Sir Douglas Cameron, seconded by Bishop 
Grisdale, that the citizens of Winnipeg, at meeting assembled, 
respectfully request the Government of Canada to increase 
the North- West Mounted Police to at least 3000 men for 
service between the Great Lakes and the Pacific. 



Ottawa, August 28 (circa), 1914. 

OFFICIAL MEMORANDUM ON GERMAN 
COMMERCE DESTROYERS 

The German cruiser which tries to do commerce destroy- Manitoba 
ing to-day has a difficult task. The seas swarm with British Free Press, 
cruisers ; many of them are slower than the very fast ships Aug. 29, '14. 
which Germany just now has in the Atlantic and Pacific, 
but 'most of them are larger and carry heavier guns. They 
are carefully placed, so that wherever, on the Atlantic at least, 
the German cruiser goes, she is likely to find waiting for 
her a ship too heavy to fight. Meanwhile, she is burning 
her coal. Hanging over her is the menace of the wireless, that 
long before she is taken for the chase will take time will 
have given notice to every British cruiser within a thousand 
miles of the German's whereabouts, and a ring of enemies 
will be converging upon the corsair before she has clutched 
her prey. The recent brush between the Karlsruhe and two 
British ships excellently illustrates the system. The Suffolk 
found the Karlsruhe coaling and chased her ; the Karlsruhe 
out-steamed her, and in a few hours was out of the Suffolk's 
sight. But the Suffolk had summoned by wireless the Bristol, 
and this ship was lying ahead of the fleeing German, waiting 
to take up the chase. Again the Karlsruhe, which is a very 
swift ship, out-steamed the protector of commerce and got 
away. But apart from any damage done by the British 
shells, there is this fact to consider ; that the Karlsruhe spent 
a day or two steaming at her highest speed, and must have 

255 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

used up at least 400 tons of coal which it will puzzle her 
captain to replace ; and all she carries is 1200 tons. A 
very few weeks of this scientific hustling along, handing her 
over from one commerce defender to another, will see her 
with empty bunkers, a helpless hulk. The war is nearly three 
weeks old, and the German cruisers to the date of writing 
are not known to have captured one merchantman in the 
Atlantic or off the Pacific coast of North America. The 
Karlsruhe, for example, has been too busy running away to 
do much chasing of merchant ships. 

Even if a German ship captures a merchantman her diffi- 
culties will not be over. What will she do with it ? If she 
sinks it she will have to take the crew on board and high- 
speed cruisers have little accommodation for passengers or 
prisoners. If she puts a prize crew on board she will weaken 
her crew the Leipzig, for example, carries fewer than 300 
officers and men and then she will not know where to send 
her prize, which will stand little chance of navigating the 
North Sea into a German port. 

These considerations do not exhaust the difficulties which 
beset the attack upon British commerce of to-day. But they 
indicate this that when conditions have settled down the 
risk of capture will be simply one more seafaring risk, probably 
considerably less than that of colliding with icebergs at 
certain seasons of the year. 



Edmonton 

Daily 

Bulletin 



August 29, 1914. 

LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR OF ALBERTA AT 
EDMONTON 

LiEUT.-GovERNOR BULYEA : Edmonton is proud of the 
large number of men she has sent to the front. We are 
proud that Alberta has given more men in proportion to her 



Free Press, population than any other province in the Dominion. But 



14 



g 00( j wor k cannot stop there. We must be ready to give 
hundreds, or thousands more, as may be required. And we 
are gathered here this evening to take the first steps in the 



formation of an auxiliary police force, a home defence corps, 
a body that shall be trained by our ow 



own ex-military citizens, so 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

that we will be able to assist the Militia Department in any 
way required during the coming weeks and months. 

August 30, 1914. 

LIEUT.-GOVERNOR AND PREMIER OF MANITOBA 
AT WINNIPEG 

SIR DOUGLAS CAMERON expressed his pleasure at being Manitoba 
able to address such a magnificent body of Canadians, the Free Press, 
flower of Winnipeg's young manhood. Men who were going Au g-3i/i4- 
forth to give the greatest service that man can give when 
he buckles on his armour to fight for his home and country. 
In the hour of stress, when the freedom and liberty of the 
British people were threatened, it was to their everlasting 
honour that they were among the first to respond to the call. 
Those who were left behind appreciated fully what they were 
doing. They were going to fight not only against the mighty 
German army, but against its Zeppelins, the vultures of the 
sky. The vultures, however, were satisfied with their carrion, 
but the Emperor was satisfied only with the blood of women 
and children. There was no need to give the regiment inspira- 
tion ; he was confident it would do battle to the credit of Great 
Britain and her traditions. ' May you come back covered with 
glory/ he said in conclusion, 'and may the God of battles be 
with you. Good-bye/ 

Sir Rodmond Roblin referred to the fact that in no place 
in His Majesty's Dominions has there been greater response 
to the call to arms than right here in Winnipeg. Whether it 
was a long or a short war, there was certain and ultimate 
victory in sight for the Allies, for God and the right were 
behind them. He expressed the pride that Winnipeg felt for 
the 34th. 1 They were, as Sir Douglas Cameron had* said, the l [Fort 
very flower of Winnipeg. Sons of very many prominent S arry -. 
citizens were among them, and his own blood, too, went out 
to fight. [Sir Rodmond referred to James P. Roblin, the 
son of his brother, D. W. Roblin of Carman.] The regiment 
was of the right calibre, and would add brilliancy to the records 
of British history. Sir Rodmond urged the men to write 
frequently to their relatives, many of whom would be left 
with breaking hearts. He wished them God-speed and success. 

OVERSEAS I. R 257 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

August 31, 1914. 

LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR OF ONTARIO AT 
TORONTO 

Toronto Sm JOHN GIBSON referred to the struggle in Europe 

World, ^ upon which all eyes were focused. He spoke of the 
" importance of the existing war, and referred to the fact that 
the most modern scientific devices were being employed for 
the destruction of men. ' It has been said that when Great 
Britain is at war, Canada is at war/ Continuing, he said : 
' Canada has already contributed a contingent. Another 
must be prepared at once, and then another and another until, 
if that is necessary, 100,000 Canadians have answered the call. 
The young manhood of Canada is on its trial. Shall it be 
said that there was any backwardness on the part of Canadian- 
born men to go to the front ? From the cradle we have been 
singing our national anthem. Shall there be any hesitancy 
on the part of the young fighting manhood of Canada to take 
their place ? Proud I am of the spirit shown by the people 
of Canada, and of the disposition shown by large institutions. 
I am also proud of the prompt patriotic efforts of the women 
of Canada/ The speaker suggested that the young men of 
between 18 and 30 years of age should fill up the ranks made 
vacant by those who had gone to the front. 



September 2, 1914. 
NOTICE TO ALIEN ENEMIES 

A, No. 49. TO ALL WHOM IT MAY CONCERN : 

It has come to the attention of the Government that many 
persons of German and Austro-Hungarian nationality who are 
residents of Canada are apprehensive for their safety at the 
present time. In particular, the suggestion seems to be that 
they fear some action on the part of the Government which 
might deprive them of their freedom to hold property or to 
carry on business. These apprehensions, if they exist, are 
quite unfounded. 

The policy of the Government is embodied in a Proclama- 
1 [See tion published in the Canadian Gazette on I5th August. 1 In 
P 95-] accordance with this Proclamation restrictive measures will 
258 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

be taken only in cases where officers, soldiers, or reservists of 
the German Empire or of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy 
attempt to leave Canada, or where subjects of such nationalities 
engage or attempt to engage in espionage or acts of a hostile 
nature, or to give information to or otherwise assist the'King's 
enemies. E-ven where persons are arrested or detained on the 
grounds indicated, they may be released on signing an under- 
taking to abstain from acts injurious to the Dominion or the 
Empire. 

The Proclamation, after stating that 'there are many 
persons of German and Austro-Hungarian nationality quietly 
pursuing their usual avocations in various parts of Canada, 
and that it is desirable that such persons should be allowed to 
continue in such avocations without interruption/ directs as 
follows : ' That all persons in Canada of German or Austro- 
Hungarian nationality, so long as they quietly pursue their 
ordinary avocations be allowed to continue to enjoy the pro- 
tection of the law and be accorded the respect and considera- 
tion due to peaceful and law-abiding citizens ; and that they 
be not arrested, detained, or interfered with, unless there is 
reasonable ground to believe that they are engaged in espion- 
age, or engaging or attempting to engage in acts of a hostile 
nature, or are giving or attempting to give information to the 
enemy, or unless they otherwise contravene any law, order in 
council, or proclamation/ Thus all such persons, so long as 
they respect the law, are entitled to its protection and have 
nothing to fear. JOSEPH POPE, 

Under Secretary of State for 
External Affairs. 



September 5, 1914. 
NOTICE RESPECTING FOREIGN CONSULS 

His Majesty the King has been pleased to order that any A. No. 54. 
person being a subject of the German Empire or of the Dual 
Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, and now being a Consular 
representative of any other foreign power within His Majesty's 
Dominions or Protectorates or within places subject to His 
Majesty's occupation or control, shall henceforth no longer 
be recognised as such Consular representative or permitted to 

259 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

perform any duties or act in any respect as such Consular 
representative within His Majesty's Dominions or Protectorate 
or within places subject to His Majesty's occupation or con- 
trol, and His Majesty hereby withdraws accordingly all and 
singular the exequaturs and exequatur heretofore granted 
to any of such persons. 



September 7, 1914. 

STATEMENT OF SIR GEORGE FOSTER, MINISTER 
OF TRADE AND COMMERCE 

Vancouver For the British Empire, home and overseas, the instant 

World, pressing duty is to possess itself of a generous share of the 

e P 7- J 4- production and trade lost to Germany, and so to reap the 

advantages of a great industrial and commercial victory 

which shall in some measure compensate the country for the 

sacrifice of war. Not only should we fill to the greatest 

possible extent the void thus created, but we should make our 

position so strong in these markets as to secure ourselves 

from being ousted by Germany hereafter. 

Whilst a comparatively small number of our manhood 
fights the battle for imperial existence and control of our 
ocean highways, those who remain should with spirit and 
energy throw themselves into the task of taking possession 
of the markets from which our enemies have been driven, 
and supply them with the products of our own fields and 
factories. Here is a peaceful field of operation in which we 
can carry out a bloodless but most effective and profitable 
warfare. 

First, let us fill as far as possible the call for the $16,000,000 
worth of goods with which Germany and Austria provided us 
last year, and which will this year be absolutely debarred, and, 
secondly, what we cannot supply ourselves let us purchase 
from Great Britain and the other parts of the Empire. Let us 
covenant together to buy goods ' made in Canada/ ' made in 
Britain/ and ' made in the Empire/ and thus shall we give 
employment and the profits of production to the Empire's 
home-workers. 



260 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

September 7, 1914. 

MR. W. F. MACLEAN, M.P., AND THE VICE-PRESIDENT 
OF THE TRADES AND LABOUR COUNCIL OF 
CANADA ON LABOUR DAY AT TORONTO 

MR. W. F. MACLEAN, M.P. : The labour men are doing the Toronto 
very best they can to uphold the Empire. Everybody must World, 
make a sacrifice, and it must begin at home. Every one Sept. 8/14. 
must assume a responsibility, and organised labour must 
take its responsibility. We see the end of Kaiserism in 
Europe, and the effect that it might have in America. 
America will not have a Kaiser, and Europe will not have 
one after this war. We are all waiting to see when the 
British will march into Berlin with some of Toronto's boys 
with them. I have heard some criticism passed on John 
Burns of the British Cabinet because of his peace views. He 
has been identified with organised labour, which stands for 
a policy of peace. He resigned, I believe, in order to stand 
out and give the labour men of Germany a lead. I believe 
organised labour is largely a peace organisation, and if they 
are they must stand for the uplift of humanity. If they are, 
they have to stand with Great Britain in this war. It does 
occur to me that if they are true to the cause they have in 
their heart it is a duty of theirs to stand behind the flag. 
Every working man should do his best in stopping the pur- 
chasing of goods * made in Germany/ There is not a working 
man who will allow one of his dollars to go into the pockets 
of the enemies. 

MR. BANCROFT : . . . Labour has no quarrel with the 
German people. If you had to choose between Socialism 
and Kaiserism, you would choose Socialism. I hope that 
Militarism will be hurled into oblivion, and the German people 
will get a constitutional government of their own. Every 
third person killed in the German army is a Socialist. I have 
some hope that the working men in Germany will do some- 
thing to stop this war. 

When this war is over it will never be in the power of one 
man to declare war and to thrust the working men into the 
throes of war. 

261 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

September 9, 1914. 

THE CHIEF-JUSTICE OF QUEBEC AT OPENING 
OF LAW COURTS AT QUEBEC 

Quebec At Quebec this morning the Bench and the Bar, moved by 

Daily a sentiment of deep faith, raised their souls towards the 

Telegraph, Highest, the source of eternal truth, to beg of Him the inspira- 

' tion required for justly and wisely applying the laws which 

are the foundation of societies and of every government. 

During those few moments of pious cogitation at the foot of 

the altar we could not refrain from supplicating the Supreme 

Being who, according to the poet, 

' Des plus fermes 6tats la chute pouvantable 
Quand il veut n'est qu'un jeu dans sa main redoutable,' 

from supplicating the Almighty to protect and save the 
valorous Allied Nations drawn against their will in a war of 
unprecedented slaughter and vandalism, following the most 
outrageous disregard for honour pledged and solemn treaties 
which a German Chancellor, with brutal cynicism, called 

1 |-s ee rags and scraps of paper. 1 The noble stand and courageous 
Diplomatic, intervention of England in the European conflict to uphold 

1, p. 209.] what her Prime Minister, Mr. Asquith, justly calls ' a vital 

2 [See principle of civilisation throughout the world/ 2 have touched 
Diplomatic, the heartstrings of the nation, blended all hearts into a tre- 

2, p. 428 ] mendous outburst of enthusiasm, and have created from ocean 

to ocean a surging wave of patriotism which manifests itself 
by the remarkable spontaneousness in the devotion, in the 
funds subscribed, and specially in the blood contribution of our 
sons for the greatness and integrity of the British Empire. 
We do hope that our brave soldiers will bring back, blackened 
with the smoke of battles and stained with the blood of the 
oppressors, the colours of Canada. But should Providence 
decide otherwise, if their fate is to fall on the field of honour, 
theirs will be a glorious death, shrouded in the folds of the 
Tricolor and the Union Jack entwined over their heroic 
spoils. 



262 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

September 10, 1914. 

THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF CANADA AT THE 
TORONTO NATIONAL EXHIBITION 

I feel with you that the present war has led us all to Times, 
realise more than ever the unity of the Empire of which the Sep. 12, '14. 
King is the head, as it involves not only the destiny of Great 
Britain, but of all the British Dominions and Dependencies. 
The integrity of the Empire and therefore the future of Canada 
are at stake. The call of duty has brought a splendid response 
from every portion of the Empire. Canada, as you know, is 
sending thousands of her best manhood to the front, and has 
also given magnificent gifts of flour, coal, horses, and cheese ' 
to the Mother Country. These contributions have been most 
gratefully received, and will never be forgotten. 

As regards the Canadian Expeditionary Force, I again 
visited the Valcartier Camp this week. I know you will be 
glad to hear that I was much impressed with what I saw, and 
I consider the appearance of the troops reflected the fine spirit 
that prevails throughout the country. I feel convinced that, 
with the necessary training, they will prove a powerful and 
most welcome addition to our arms now in the field. 



THE LEADER OF THE OPPOSITION AT TORONTO 

In a speech before a great audience of Americans at Times, 
Toronto last night, Sir Wilfrid Laurier said it was the unani- Sep. 11 
mous opinion of the Canadian Parliament that the war in which 
England is engaged is a sacred war. Either the German 
Emperor must be made to redeem his bond, or this was the 
end of civilisation. Even if the German Emperor were ready 
for peace, England was not ready for peace to-day. He 
declared that not only must Belgium be given her freedom, 
but for the treaties violated, cities destroyed, and men 
slaughtered Germany must give compensation. He paid a 
tribute to the people of the United States and to their evident 
sense of justice. ' I am proud to be able to say as a British 
subject/ he added, ' that there are few men in the United 
States to-day, as far as my information goes, whose hearts are 
not with us/ 

263 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

In concluding, the Liberal leader said : ' Lord Kitchener 
tells us he wants more soldiers. If Lord Kitchener wants 
more soldiers from Canada, let him say the word and he shall 
have them. We are behind the Mother Country, and let us 
send them a message that this war must be fought out to a 
finish, and arms must not be laid down until the principle 
for which it has been fought is vindicated and until the day 
has come when right takes the place of might/ 

September n, 1914. 

Toronto SIR WILFRID LAURIER : When this Exhibition started a 

World, week or ten days ago the horizon was dark. We were thinking 

Sep. 13, '14. O f one thing war. The controversy in regard to Ireland 

was in progress. Things did not proceed in a way that was 

cheerful to our hearts. But, I believe, to-day that the back 

of the German invasion is broken. Still, though there is every 

prospect of victory, war is a horrible thing. Even in face of 

all the glamour and the patriotism we cannot keep our minds 

away from the horrors which are found beneath. 

There is the consolation, however, that it teaches us a 
lesson. The first is the power and superiority of the British 
Empire. The British Empire extends over the entire world. 
There are many nationalities. Everywhere the flag flies there 
is behind it the English determination to conquer. We find 
if in Australia, New Zealand, and in India. From India 
soldiers are on the way to take their places in the firing line. 
Patriotism is at this moment keen in South Africa. Fifteen 
years ago they were fighting against Britain, but to-day the 
men are coming to the front. 

What is the reason ? It is not accidental. There is a 
cause. British rule is founded upon two ideas, justice and 
freedom. Who is there of Canadians who can appreciate more 
than I, of French-Canadian birth ? Even a few years ago the 
British Government did not hesitate to bring out to the 
Council of Nations representatives of all the races under the 
British flag. But it is still more remarkable that in South 
Africa, after only four years, the British Government did not 
hesitate to give responsible government. It was an audacious 
policy. No other nation would have attempted it. This is 
the first lesson of the war. The second is and it will not 
surprise any one when 1 say that England was the least military 
264 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

of nations England has never resorted to a policy of con- 
tinental countries, who get men for their armies by law. 
England relies on the patriotism of her sons. Imagine what 
a loss it is to a nation to have the young men lose three years. 
They are consumers during that time and not producers. 
Imagine the expense. Napoleon learned to his cost that when 
the shopkeepers put aside their business and took up the rifle, 
they were splendid soldiers and brought down the colossus at 
Waterloo. England does not want war. She wants com- 
merce, she wants work. I believe that after this war there 
will be a great upheaval in Europe against militarism. Then, 
Sir, we will have an era of peace. The example which has been 
presented to the world by Canada and the United States, 
where the longest frontier of boundary in the world exists 
without fortifications of any kind, will be followed, I believe. 
It inspires me to know that France and England have joined 
in the fight for freedom and peace, and my hope is that they 
will remain joined for ever. But, Sir, the victory is not yet. 
There will be reverses it would be folly for us to think other- 
wise. I have no doubt that the end will see the triumph of 
the cause for England. This is the cause of France and 
Belgium, and it will be a vindication of the principle that 
contracts are made to be observed. But, Sir, let us be 
practical. Let us pray to God and keep the powder dry. 



THE GOVERNOR -GENERAL OF CANADA AND 
HON. RODOLPHE LEMIEUX AT MONTREAL 

That those who are forced to stay at home have as great a Montreal 
duty of patriotism to perform as their fellow-countrymen who DailyMail, 
have gone to fight the battles of the Empire, was the subject Sep. 12, '14. 
of an address given before the Canadian Club yesterday by 
His Royal Highness the Duke of Connaught. Yesterday's 
meeting officially inaugurated the campaign for raising one 
million dollars in Montreal for the Patriotic Fund, of which 
the Duke is patron. His Royal Highness paid high tribute 
to the gallantry of those at the front, and complimented the 
people of Canada on the strength of their nationality and 
patriotism, as shown by the response made to the appeal for 
funds and the call to rally to the flag. 

265 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

The former Postmaster-General (Hon. Rodolphe Lemieux) 
introduced his speech by saying how proud he was, as a French- 
Canadian, to be a British subject. ' Since the events which 
have led up to the most terrible war that is now raging in 
Europe/ he added, ' I am still prouder of that title.' He 
emphasised the fact that the appeal which had been initiated 
by His Royal Highness was made irrespective of race, of 
politics, and of creed it was made to all classes. Mr. 
Lemieux pointed out that the war had united all Canadians 
worthy of the name and worthy of the traditions of the 
Empire. ' There is no more party strife/ he said, ' and I am 
now the good friend of the member for St. Antoine. You all 
know the old proverb, " It is an ill wind that blows nobody 
good/' The present war will in the near future affect all the 
nations of the world, but I believe that this war will bring 
good to Canada by uniting the various elements which com- 
pose our great nation, and it will bring nearer together the 
French - Canadians and the English - Canadians. Let me 
express the hope that my fellow-countrymen will join their 
English-speaking brothers in this time of trial to the Empire. 

' If I had to tell my fellow-countrymen where they might 
find their inspiration, I would say, " Read the speech of John 
Redmond and the speech of General Botha." The minority 
has been happy to join the majority in the present contest/ 
After summing up the privileges enjoyed by those living under 
British rule, the essential one of which was complete liberty, 
the speaker declared that the present war is the living evi- 
dence that in so-called civilised countries, such as Alsace and 
Lorraine, there are men living in a state of bondage. ' There 
are many, I know, at this board/ he continued, ' who hate 
war, its spirit, its ideals, and its purpose ; there are many 
who believe in the settlement of international disputes by 
arbitration. But after the evidence of last month, can we 
dream of peace, or think of arbitration, before we have 
scattered the hosts of Germany to the four winds and silenced 
the man whose madness gave rise to the present strife ? ' 



266 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

September 15, 1914. 
OFFER OF HOSPITAL TO FRANCE 1 i [See 

Honourable G. H. Perley to the Secretary of State for 
the Colonies 

17 Victoria Street, London, S.W., 
i$th September 1914. 

DEAR MR. HARCOURT, Referring to my letter of 2oth E. 2. 
August, stating that the Canadian Government desired to 
offer a hospital in Paris to the Government of the Republic of 
France, I received a few days ago from your Private Secretary 
a copy of the following telegram from the British Ambassador 
to France : ' French Government gratefully accept offer of 
Canadian hospital, but consider, in present circumstances, it 
should not be in Paris, but further removed from zone of 
operations/ 

Since then I have communicated with our Government, 
and have received a reply that, under present conditions, it is 
extremely difficult for us to organise a hospital elsewhere in 
France, and it therefore seems advisable that Canada should 
simply provide the money and have it administered in such 
way as the French Government may think best. 

I therefore now beg to say that the Canadian Government 
is prepared to provide 20,000 for the organisation, equipment, 
and maintenance of a hospital in France, to be known as the 
' Hospice Canadien/ and to be located, managed, and adminis- 
tered by the French Government, or in such way as it con- 
siders most advisable. 

Will you kindly place this suggestion before the French 
Government ? and I sincerely hope that they will honour and 
please the people of Canada by accepting the same. Believe 
me, etc. GEORGE H. PERLEY. 



THE CANADIAN MINISTER OF FINANCE AT 
OTTAWA 

There is no doubt that the Kaiser held in his hand the Ottawa 
opportunity to make either war or peace, if he liked. Great Free Press, 
Britain's hands are clean. Great Britain could not retain Sep. 16/14. 

267 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

her place in history if she had allowed Belgian neutrality to 
be violated. The judgment of neutral nations that is, the 
rest of the world is one of the greatest factors which would 
defeat Germany and Austria. The real issue in the war is 
Prussian militarism versus free institutions. And the Prussian 
people themselves are the victims of Prussian militarism. . . . 
There has never been a greater feat of arms than the retreat 
of the British from Mons. The Britishers fought just as they 
fought in the retreat from Corunna under Sir John Moore. . . . 
Spirit, moral force, rather than guns and ships, would be the 
deciding factor. The thought of Canada and of the world 
cannot be the same after the war as it was before. We will 
never be the same again. This war will be immensely power- 
ful, bringing the countries closer together. . . . There can be 
only one outcome in the scheme of things. God will decide 
the war, and the result will be in favour of the Allies. 



September 16, 1914. 

DEBATE ON THE ADDRESS IN LEGISLATIVE 
ASSEMBLY OF MANITOBA 

Manitoba MR. T. C. NoRRis (Leader of the Opposition) said : 
Free Press, n was the first time yi his experience in connection with the 
Sep. 17, 14. legislature, that it had been necessary to call a war session 
of the Manitoba Parliament, but while they deplored the 
reason for such a session, they had all been ready to make 
business sacrifices and had responded cheerfully to the call. 
They had met for the purpose of uniting in giving some 
donation by way of assisting the Mother Country in her time 
of trial. There was very little of a business nature in the 
Speech from the Throne. But they did not expect to find 
much of a business nature in such a speech on an occasion of 
the kind. However, he was a little disappointed to find 
that there was nothing to indicate that anything in the 
shape of legislation would be passed for the purpose of 
giving some assistance to the Mother Country. He pre- 
sumed, however, that the Government had information 
which it had not disclosed, and he presumed that they 
would hear it later on. They all deplored the fact that Great 
268 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

Britain was at war, but he felt constrained to say that, if ever 
there was a righteous war, it was the present one, so far as 
the action of Great Britain was concerned. The unanimity 
in Great Britain, he spoke of with pleasure, stating that 
nothing but the interests of the Empire were being considered, 
and the preservation of the British institutions that stood for 
democracy and all that was good. He also expressed his 
gratification at the loyalty of the component parts of the 
British Empire, stating that never in the history of the Empire 
had the Mother Country been so unitedly supported. While 
they expected the Dominion Government to take action in a 
matter of this kind for the whole of Canada, it was also to be 
expected that the Provinces would do something independently 
to assist the Mother Country. Some Provinces had already 
given material assistance, and he would be very sorry indeed 
if Manitoba did not see fit to do something along that line. 
It had been credibly reported that the Manitoba Govern- 
ment had offered to make a gift of flour * to the Motherland. l [See 
He had no objection to the gift taking such a form, if it P- 21.] 
were considered the most acceptable, but there might be 
other ways adopted of showing their appreciation of the 
worthiness of the cause for which the Mother Country was 
battling. He was proud of the response that had been 
made by the young men of the Province to the call of 
the flag. Many of the brightest young men had offered 
their services as volunteers, making many great sacrifices in 
their desire to take part in the Mother Country's battles. He 
was never so proud in his life of being a Britisher and a 
Manitoban as when he saw ' the boys ' going away. He 
believed that when they went to the front, they would give 
an even better account of themselves than the Canadian 
troops had done in South Africa. A great duty devolved on 
the people of the Province to see that those left behind did 
not suffer because of the absence of the gallant volunteers, 
and he was sure that duty would be gladly performed. As 
for the contribution by the Manitoban Government, if it 
were not considered advisable to send flour, a gift of another 
kind should be made. He had received information 
lately to the effect that great efforts were being made in 
Canada to purchase horses for the British Army, and he was 
under the impression that if a contribution were offered the 

269 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Mother Country in the shape of 1000 or 2000 horses, it would 
be a most acceptable gift from the Province of Manitoba. 
He believed that in this Province horses were being reared 
that would be suitable as remounts, that arrangements could 
be made for buying them direct from the farmers ; that only 
reasonable prices would be asked for them, and that, while the 
Government would be making Great Britain a useful present, 
it would be doing the farmers of Manitoba a good turn at the 
same time. He would be very disappointed if provision were 
not made at this session for a substantial gift of some kind to 
the Mother Country. ' What will the people of this Province 
think/ Mr. Norris asked, ' if we prorogue this war session 
without having done anything in the way of giving special 
assistance to the Mother Country ? ' Referring to the Bill 
that was to be introduced providing for a sort of moratorium 
in connection with the sale of lands, it was one that required 
very careful consideration, as it was an intricate and far- 
reaching measure. 

SIR RODMOND ROBLIN (Premier), having congratulated 
the proposer and the seconder on their addresses, said he 
was in entire accord with all that the Leader of the Opposition 
had said in the matter of the Province sending some special 
gift to the Mother Country. They had taken the action Mr. 
Norris had suggested long ago, and they did it because they 
believed in the loyalty of the honourable member, and those 
associated with him and believed that the Opposition would 
support "the Government in the action taken when the proper 
time came for asking that support. With regard to the 
question of remounts, he had waited upon the Minister of 
Militia, who had told him that, so far as his knowledge went, 
horses would not be so acceptable as something else. In fact, 
the Minister of Militia had told him that the Fort Garry Horse 
were not to be permitted to take their horses with them, 
because at that time it was considered that remounts were not 
the greatest requirement of the British Army. The idea of 
giving a contribution of horses was, therefore, dismissed, and 
the matter was approached in another way. They were 
led to believe that the most acceptable gift which Manitoba 
could give to the Mother Country would be a gift of flour, and 
through the regular channel the Lieutenant-Governor, an 
offer of 50,000 bags of flour had been made to the Home 
270 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

authorities, and a telegram of acceptance was received some 
three or four days ago. That was where the matter lay at 
present. He might say that earlier still the Provincial 
Government made an oifer to equip a regiment exclusively 
from the Province, but was informed that this was not desir- 
able or necessary. However, the Government was glad to 
receive suggestions, because there was only one purpose to 
serve, and that was the best interest of the Empire. Sir 
Rodmond maintained that the war was not of Great Britain's 
seeking. Great Britain was not in the war for love of con- 
quest, or territorial aggrandisement, or to satisfy the vanity 
and ambition of rulers or monarchs. She was at war in order 
to maintain human liberty, the high standard of civilisation 
for which she has stood in the ages that are past, and around 
her were the Colonies eager to assist her towards the success 
that must come to the Allied Armies. The action of the 
Mother Country was more than justifiable, for if newspaper 
reports were true, a more cruel crusade of vandalism than that 
carried on by the Germans had never disgraced the history of 
the world. Canada, with all the other Colonies and Possessions 
of the Empire, had responded heartily to the call that had 
been sent out for sympathy and help, and that must be 
pleasing, not only to those in power in Canada, but to the 
Motherland herself. It showed that Canada, which for 150 
years had enjoyed the liberty which is guaranteed under the 
British flag, and which had been allowed to work out her own 
destination in her own way, was full of appreciation and 
gratitude. 



September 18, 1914. 

STATEMENT OF MR. CHASE CASGRAIN, EX- 
ATTORNEY-GENERAL OF QUEBEC 

Let us imagine, for the sake of argument, France humiliated, Manitoba 
conquered, trodden beneath the feet. Let us also leave out Free Press, 
of consideration the Continental aspect of the matter, and Sep. 19, '14. 
the blow dealt at our prestige and influence as a race. Eng- 
land, we are told, through her geographical position, would 
still be able to offer resistance and even conquer. We should 
share her triumph. We should gather the fruits of victory. 

271 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

We should throw our hats in the air and shout hurrah without 
having played our part, our important part. We should profit 
by a success to which we had made no contribution. 

Show me the man of spirit who would care to find himself 
in such a dishonourable position, in one so full of humiliation 
and shame. We dwell in the house of our mother, we profit 
by her hospitality, we enjoy everywhere and always her pro- 
tecting strength. Are we parasites, and shall we be satisfied 
to drink and eat at her table without offering our breasts as 
a rampart against those who would assassinate her ? 

We have had to struggle, and we shall have again to 
struggle for the maintenance of our rights. Our enemies will 
not disarm. Let us remember the lesson of history that 
constitutional guarantees do not avail unless a minority 
preserves the goodwill, the respect, the support, and the co- 
operation of the majority. 

This is what the bulk of the French-Canadians well under- 
stand. They do not wish, in the crisis which threatens to 
shake the foundations of the Empire, to stand aloof. Appeal- 
ing as they do incessantly to the deeds of 1775 and 1812, 
they have made clear to themselves that to continue to 
parade the glories of the past will not do unless they show by 
their acts that they possess the same hearts and the same 
minds which animated their heroes of yore. 

Duty, gratitude, and self-interest unite them to the other 
members of the great family in the fight for justice and right, 
and in the struggle to force a people and an Emperor, who 
for too long have threatened the peace of the nations and 
disturbed the economic situation of the earth, into their 
proper place. 



RESOLUTION OF LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF 
MANITOBA 

Manitoba 'That the Legislature of Manitoba, in special session 
Free Press, assembled, desires to put upon record its entire agreement 
Sep. 19, '14. ^th an( j complete endorsation of the attitude assumed by the 
Government of Great Britain, in relation to the recent 
European crisis and the war arising out of the same. 
272 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

' We desire to commend most heartily their earnest and 
unceasing efforts to preserve peace and prevent the horrors 
of conflict ; and we desire to commend no less heartily their 
prompt determination when such efforts were unavailing, 
except at the cost of the abandonment of international honour 
and the desertion of those principles of political freedom for 
which the Empire has ever stood, to do battle for the cause of 
human liberty, justice and right to the full limit of their ability 
and power. 

' And further, that this Legislature desires to express its 
pride that thousands of the sons of this Province are already 
on their way to the front, while many thousands more are 
anxiously awaiting permission to join them. 

' And further, that this Legislature unanimously endorses 
the proposal to make such contribution, or contributions, 
from the resources of the Province to the Government of 
Great Britain for the purposes of the war, as may be deemed 
necessary and within the power of the Province to make. 

' And further, that it be ordered that a copy of this resolu- 
tion be duly forwarded through the proper channels to His 
Royal Highness the Governor-General of Canada, with the 
humble request that the same be conveyed to His Majesty 
King George v., accompanied by an assurance of our attach- 
ment to his throne and person and an expression of our 
confidence in and desire for an early, decisive and final victory 
for the arms of Great Britain and her Allies in the great 
struggle in which they are engaged/ 



September 21, 1914. 
NOTICE TO OFFICERS OF THE ARMY RESERVE 

Officers of the Army Reserve 

Public notice is hereby given that Army Reserve Officers A. No. 60. 
resident in Canada are required to return forthwith to 
England, and on arrival there to report themselves to the War 
Office. JOSEPH POPE, 

Under Secretary of State for 

External Affairs. 
Ottawa, 2ist September 1914. 



OVERSEAS I. S 273 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

CANADIAN MINISTER OF FINANCE AT 
GANANOQUE, ONTARIO 

Montreal Speaking at a public meeting to-night in the Opera House 

DailyMail, O n the subject of the European War, Hon. W. T. White, 
Sep. 22, '14. Minister of Finance, described it as the greatest contest in all 
history, having regard to the number of combatants, material 
resources of the nations engaged and the means of destruction 
at their command. He assigned as its cause the aggressive 
and aggrandising spirit of Prussian militarism, which had 
made all Europe for years past a vast armed camp. This 
spirit had been born of the unparalleled success of German 
arms in 1870, . and had been fostered by the ruling classes of 
Germany, to whom the masses looked for guidance. The 
German people, to whom the world owed so much in litera- 
ture, science, art, and moral and material achievement, were 
themselves unconsciously the victims of this spirit, which had 
fixed its yoke upon their minds as well as upon their necks. 
Out of past successes and the organisation of vast armaments 
by land and sea, there had been bred an intolerable and 
brutal arrogance based upon the theory of force. That the 
most sacred of things human honour, justice and liberty 
might with impunity be trodden under foot by the strongest 
was the mature fruit, the crowning doctrine of modern 
German teaching and policy. It was the gospel of blood and 
iron, of the hammer of Thor, the old barbaric gospel of might. 
In the cold mathematics of the Kaiser and his advisers number 
alone counted the number of men, of battalions, of guns, 
of munitions of war. The forces of spirit, fire, zeal, enthusiasm, 
and patriotism were eliminated as of no weight. And yet in 
the mathematics of God these were the precise factors which 
in all great contests had proved decisive of ultimate victory. 

German militarism was not only the real cause of the war, 
but her Emperor and his advisers had before the tribunal of 
all great neutral nations been adjudged guilty of actually 
precipitating the contest. He had held in his hand the issue 
of peace or war. He stood like the prophet of old between 
the living and the dead. The German autocracy must bear 
for all time the imperishable odium of this monstrous crime 
against civilisation. As for Great Britain, her conscience was 
clear, her hands were clean. She had persevered to the last 
274 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

to preserve peace. Once her overtures were rejected she 
could not have done otherwise than she had done if she 
desired to retain her place among the Great Powers. Had 
she stood by and witnessed the spoliation of Belgium and 
the downfall of France, she would have forfeited all title to 
renown and all claim to the respect and honour of mankind. 
Such perfidy, unthinkable happily in the case of Britain, would 
have sapped the spirit and courage of the Empire, and could 
only have been the forerunner of its doom. 

The Allies had in this contest the sympathy of all great 
neutral nations, and this was of incalculable value. German 
diplomacy had hopelessly failed. It had created a situation 
in which Germany was fighting the moral forces of the world. 
The policy of Germany was the policy of Bismarck, but with- 
out the brains of Bismarck. Would the great Chancellor have 
isolated the Fatherland without a friend among the nations ? 
The true issue in this war was despotism against freedom, 
autocracy against democracy, absolutism against constitutional 
government. Germany must be democratised. This could 
only be accomplished by the overthrow of the Kaiser and his 
system. Not till then would there be an enduring peace. 

Speaking of the progress of the war, the Minister dwelt 
upon the heroic resistance of Belgium. National resistance 
had overthrown Napoleon, and national resistance would 
again triumph. The heart of the Empire had been thrilled 
and stirred by the valiant deeds of Britain's forces on land 
and sea. Up in the North Sea the great fleet, on which 
depended the fate of the Empire, maintained its sleepless 
vigil. Thanks to its might, the seas of the world were open 
to commerce to-day. There had never been a more gallant 
exploit in the history of warfare than the retreat of the British 
forces from Mons, harassed unceasingly for days and nights 
by vastly superior numbers. It recalled the heroism of the 
immortal retreat of Sir John Moore to Corunna. 

The rally of the Dominions of the Empire to the call 
Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and India 
had been among the most inspiring of the great events of 
history, bearing indubitable testimony to the justice and 
liberty which formed the unshakable foundation of British 
dominion. The struggle might be long. No good purpose 
would be served by minimising the danger. The foe was 

275 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

the most formidable ever encountered by the champions of 
human liberty. The issue might be delayed, but could not 
be in doubt. Germany was fighting against truth, justice, 
honour, and chivalry, and consequently was fighting the world. 
The blood of countless thousands, untimely and unjustly 
slain, cried for vengeance against her. 

Out of the vast evil of the war much good might come. 
The thought of Canada, of the world, would never be the same 
after this cataclysm. In times of peace the minds of men were 
turned necessarily to material pursuits. With success came 
love of pleasure and loss of virility. War was an immense 
stimulus to the soul and to the intellectual energy of man. 
Reflection on the dread issues of war purified and sublimated 
the thoughts of men. Because his latent energies were keyed 
to the greatest activity, man's conception of his own powers 
was greatly enlarged by war. The activities of the whole 
nation were ' speeded up ' and would persist to great advan- 
tage, material, spiritual, literary, scientific, and artistic, long 
after the struggle had closed. 

Ax THE GANANOQUE ARMOURIES 

Montreal Honourable W. T. White, Minister of Finance and M.P. 

DailyMail, for Leeds, in his address referred to the change that had come 
Sep. 22, '14. over the face of the world since his visit in January last. At 
that time international money markets were slowly convalesc- 
ing from the effects of the terrible Balkan wars and anarchic 
conditions in Mexico. By midsummer conditions had begun 
to show improvement. Our great railway systems had given 
large orders for material to steel and other industries. Trade 
was increasing, and altogether the outlook had been most 
encouraging. After the long continued liquidation, our 
financial institutions were in an unusually strong position to 
meet the commercial requirements of the community. In the 
twinkling of an eye the whole prospect had been changed. 
War had broken out among the great nations of Europe, 
and international commerce had been almost prostrated by 
the shock. The marvel was that it had been so well sustained. 
Of all the factors entering into the recovery which had so 
far taken place, the most important by far was the silent 
victory of the British Navy, which had kept the seas open to 
276 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

commerce. Had the British Navy failed in this, what would 
have been the financial and commercial condition of Canada 
and the United States to-day ? Financial expedients had 
been promptly adopted by the Canadian and other Govern- 
ments which had acted as efficient shock-absorbers. This was 
the function of such expedients to absorb, cushion, and 
buffer shock. They were not intended as permanent measures. 
In Canada the first effects of the war had been necessarily 
of a serious character. Being a borrowing country, Canada 
had experienced an almost complete cessation of the money 
flow from which her immense capital expenditures, Govern- 
mental, Municipal, and Corporation, had been largely financed. 
Canada, from the sale of Dominion, Provincial, Municipal, and 
Corporation securities in Great Britain and the United States, 
had been in receipt of funds aggregating about 400 million 
dollars a year, or over 30 million dollars a month. All 
great public works, whether by the Dominion, Provincial, or 
Municipal Governments, or by railway or other large corpora- 
tions, had depended for their financing upon the capital so 
raised abroad. The result of the war had inevitably been 
curtailment of programmes on the part of all these public 
and corporate bodies. The instinctive Canadian caution, 
which could always be depended upon in times of crisis, hac ? 
met the situation by prompt contraction, and panic had been 
avoided. He had talked with representatives of provinces, 
municipalities, of railway and other corporations, and they 
were all of the same sound view, not on the one hand to 
close down construction, nor on the other to attempt to carry 
out the full programme they had planned. Either extreme 
course would be most unwise. The sound policy was the 
middle course, and this, he believed, was being generally 
adopted. Construction programmes should be so revised as 
to give the greatest amount of employment for the funds 
available, while international markets were at present 
closed. No doubt borrowing, although on a much reduced 
scale, would be possible later, and increased thrift on the part 
of the public would be a material factor in furnishing new 
capital. The manner in which the Canadian community had 
met the situation was wholly admirable. 

'So far as Canada is concerned/ the Minister said, 'we 
have been passing through a period of dislocation. Readjust- 

277 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

ment is taking place favourably, and the outlook is distinctly 
promising. Many of our industries have suffered, but the 
first and worst effects will gradually wear away. Other 
industries have been greatly quickened and stimulated. 
The higher prices for grains and other agricultural products 
will more than neutralise this year's shortage in amount. 
For the future agricultural production should be immensely 
stimulated, and this for years past has been the great need in 
Canada. This will solve the problem of the high cost of living, 
the overcrowding of cities, and the consequent unemployment. 
It will also enable Canada to greatly increase its exports, 
thus ensuring payment of our interest and other obligations 
abroad, and the preservation of our national credit. With so 
many men offering their lives for the Empire and under- 
going hardships, privation, and suffering at the front, it is the 
duty of every man at home to put forth his utmost effort to 
increase production, to add to the national wealth, so that 
the wastage of war may be repaired and the strength of the 
nation increased to meet whatever of struggle and stress may 
lie before us/ 



September 24, 1914. 

CANADIAN MINISTER OF LABOUR AT THE TRADES 
AND LABOUR CONGRESS AT ST. JOHN, NEW 
BRUNSWICK 

Montreal HON. T. W. CROTHERS : At this time one can scarcely think 

Daily Mail, O r speak of anything but the stupendous issues which are now 

Sep. 25/14. a t s take in Europe. We had nothing to do with bringing on 

this war, but when it came to be a question between sacrificing 

liberty and honour and staying out of the conflict, we decided 

to fight. The Allies will win. There is no one in Canada 

willing to substitute German rule for British rule. I am sure 

the working men of this country are willing to make every 

sacrifice to win this fight, and they are now doing their 

utmost to do so. 



278 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

September 27 (circa), 1914. 

SIR GEORGE FOSTER, CANADIAN MINISTER OF 
TRADE AND COMMERCE, ON GERMAN SCHEMES 

The attention of the Department of Trade and Commerce Montreal 
has been directed to circular letters sent out from New York Daily Mail, 
and other cities outside of Canada in the interests of German Sep. 28, '14. 
firms, either through brokers or receivers. The purpose of 
these circulars is to continue in this indirect way business 
which has been broken off on account of the war, and is a 
clear violation of the proclamation which prohibits trade 
between Canada and people of the enemy country. The 
British Empire is at war with certain countries, and war, to 
be consistent and effectual, must run along certain trade lines 
as well as by military operations. We sincerely trust that no 
Canadians will be misled into affording help and comfort to 
producers of the enemy by this indirect channel. Our mer- 
chants run a great risk in haying anything to do with such 
indirect business as above indicated. At this particular time 
we must all be loyal in supporting first the makers and pro- 
ducers in Canada and the Empire, and thereafter those doing 
business in the countries of our Allies. Parties receiving any 
such circulars will confer a favour by sending them to the 
Department of Trade and Commerce. 



September 28, 1914. 
CANADIAN PATRIOTIC FUND 

SPEECHES OF GOVERNOR-GENERAL, CANADIAN PREMIER, AND 
LEADER OF OPPOSITION, AT OTTAWA, ON INAUGURATION 
OF THE CAMPAIGN OF THE OTTAWA BRANCH 

H.R.H. THE DUKE OF CONNAUGHT : It gives me great Manitoba 
pleasure to be with you to-night. I hope that my attendance; Free Press, 
also that of the Duchess and my daughter, will show you how Se P- 2 9'' I 4- 
thoroughly we are in sympathy with the objects which have 
brought you together on this occasion. Recently I have 
had the pleasure several times to visit Valcartier, and also to 
be present at what is perhaps no longer a secret, the embarka- l [See 
tion of the Canadian troops. 1 I assure you that they are a p. a^-l 

279 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

fine body of loyal patriotic Canadians who are leaving their 
native land to take their part in the great struggle in which 
we are engaged. You have been told that every group and 
every nationality is represented in this undertaking, and you 
may be assured that the money subscribed will be carefully 
devoted to the objects for which it was intended. 

SIR ROBERT BORDEN : It is an honour and pleasure to 
have the privilege of speaking in behalf of the appeal for the 
Canadian Patriotic Fund. Throughout Canada a splendid and 
generous response is being made to that appeal, and we must 
see to it that the capital is well to the fore in the Honour List. 
No one can foresee the duration of the tremendous struggle in 
which our Empire is now engaged, but it is certain that all 
the aid which the generosity and patriotism of the Canadians 
can supply will in all probability be needed. Twice I have 
visited Valcartier Camp. Those of you who have not had 
that opportunity may be assured that the expeditionary force 
which has just embarked comprises as splendid a body of 
men as will be found among the arms of the Empire. Doubt- 
less before they reach the seat of war they will receive addi- 
tional training, and that indeed is necessary for citizens of 
this country, in which no considerable standing army is 
maintained. Their training may be improved, but not their 
spirit or their courage. If pride is in our hearts when we look 
upon the splendid battalions that have just embarked, and 
think of all that they are willing to do and bear for their 
country, what shall we say to the mothers, the wives, and the 
sisters who, with steadfast but tear-dimmed eyes, have sent 
them forth unhesitatingly, conscious of the need, and conscious 
also of the sacrifices ? May Divine support and guidance be 
given to all Canadian homes from which loved ones have just 
gone forth. With no thought of aggression, with no spirit 
of pride, with no boast of our might or of our resources, we 
have engaged in this war as a solemn duty, without which this 
Empire could not have continued to exist, save with dishonour. 
We believe that the course which Canada should follow, the 
course which duty and honour place before her, is absolutely 
plain, and we propose to pursue it. 

Ottawa SIR WILFRID LAURIER : It is a long way to Tipperary, but 

Free Press, we have 3O,ooo Canadian boys marching to Tipperary, and 
Sep. 29, '14. th e y ^11 reacn there in due time. Soon these Canadian boys 
280 



SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, PUBLIC NOTICES 

would be fighting side by side with English, French, and 
Belgian troops, now engaged in fighting for as noble and just 
a cause as man ever fought for. We followed them with 
pride and hope. We were proud of the way they responded 
to the call of duty, and hoped that they would acquit them- 
selves as gallantly as did their ancestors and some of them- 
selves on previous fields. In 1899, when the Canadian boys 
sailed for South Africa, he and many others thought that 
these raw troops might not be equal to the occasion. But 
when a few weeks after they had left we saw where they 
had been considered worthy to take their places, beside the 
Gordoa Highlanders at Paardeberg, where they acquitted 
themselves nobly, we realised that a new star has risen in the 
western world. There were no fears about the troops which 
recently had sailed. They could be depended upon. . . . Those 
of us who remain at home have a duty to perform while 
those at the front are giving the supreme sacrifice of their 
lives. It is our duty to see those who are left behind are not 
destitute. We must keep them in the same circumstances as 
the men who went to the front had done. A soldier's foremost 
thought was to conquer, but with him also was the thought 
of those at home, and he would fight a great deal better if he 
were sure that those dependent upon him were cared for. . . . 
This is a contest of long duration. There can be no peace at 
present. There can be no peace until the German military 
machine has been crushed out, and it will take a great deal of 
pounding before this can be done. . . . The German Emperor 
and his followers ought to know that no great lasting power 
ever was founded on force. Alexander, Charlemagne, and 
even Napoleon had tried it, and failed. England had main- 
tained her power through justice and peace and freedom. 
The giving of freedom of government to India and to South 
Africa, particularly after conquering them, had been strokes 
that no other nation would have attempted, and now the men 
of these nations were in the field fighting for the Empire. 
There are the German ideas on one side and British ideas on 
the other. Can any one doubt what the result will be ? 
Justice, right, and freedom will prevail.' 



281 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN 
CONTINGENT 

PRELIMINARY ARRANGEMENTS 

Ottawa, July 30, 1914. 

Montreal The Militia Council, at a special meeting to-day?, made 

DailyMail, preliminary arrangements for sending a first contingent of 

July3i,'i4. 20,000 or 25,000 men to aid the Imperial Forces in case Britain 

is drawn into the war. The British War Office has also 

been advised that it can rely on quick action by the Canadian 

Militia forces. The Militia Headquarters' Staff have plans for 

mobilisation already prepared, and every official has been 

instructed as to his duties should Canada be asked to send 

a contingent. 

The permanent forces at Halifax, Esquimalt, and other 
points have been ordered to be ready for mobilisation orders, 
and the Halifax garrison has been ordered back from camp 
at Aldershot to their barracks at Halifax. 

Colonel Sam. Hughes, Minister of Militia, says the first 
contingent of 20,000 or 30,000 could be ready to sail in two 
or three weeks* time. It is improbable that he would go 
himself and command the contingent. . . . 



MESSAGES OF CANADIAN OFFICERS 

August 3, 1914. 

[The Montreal Daily Star on August 3, 4, and 5, 1914, 
published a large number of messages from Canadian officers. 
From these are selected the following, which illustrate the 
temper of the Canadian Army immediately before the 
declaration of war between Great Britain and Germany on 



Montreal 

Daily Star, In case Britain is involved in a European war, I think 

Aug. 3,' 14. it is the duty of every Canadian to offer his assistance in any 

282 



DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

possible way to the Mother Country. We, as a regiment, 
have decided to place ourselves at the disposal of the Ottawa 
authorities for service abroad, if called upon. Canada is in 
duty bound to take this course, not only from gratitude for 
the protection we have received in the past, without which 
her development would be impossible, but also from motives 
of self-preservation, as the existence of Canada as a nation 
depends on the continuity of England's prestige. 

SANDFORD F. SMITH, 

Lt.-Col. Commanding the Governor-General's 
Bodyguard. 

There is only one opinion. Should Britain be involved Montreal 
in a European war, not only Canadians but every British Daily Star, 
subject should rally round the flag and perpetuate the glorious Aug - 3> ' X 4- 
traditions of the Empire. God Save the King. 

JAMES W. WOODS, 

Lt.-Col. Commanding the Governor-General 1 s 
Foot Guards. 

If Britain becomes involved in European war, it is the ibid. 
duty of Canada to send an armed force on war footing for 
service as may be required. The sentiment here is unanimous, 
that this should be done. The commanding officers of the 
6th Duke of Connaught's Own Rifles, nth Irish Fusiliers, 
72nd Seaforth Highlanders, and iO4th Westminster Fusiliers, 
which compose my Brigade, have already offered the Militia 
Department the services of special units for that purpose. 
The iQth Company Canadian Army Service Corps have 
already offered their services. 

J. D. STUART, 
Lt.-Col. Commanding 2$rd Infantry Brigade. 

Though deploring the existing grave conditions in Europe, ibid. 
and hopeful, even yet, that resort to force may be avoided, 
the Western Canadian Corps and Western Canadians gene- 
rally, recognising the serious and imperative duty of British 
subjects in the grave peril before them, are unanimous in 
their determination to grasp the privilege of lending all 
available aid to Great Britain in the event of her involve- 

283 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

ment. To this end individual officers and citizens, and even 
whole corps, are awaiting the Minister's commands. 

G. MACDONALD, 
Lt.-Col. Commanding i$th Light Horse. 

Montreal Should Britain become involved in European war, Canada 

Daily Star, an( j Canadians have only one duty, to lend all aid to the 
Aug. 3, 14. E m pi re< England at war means Canada also. All possible 
aid in men and money should go forward after providing 
sufficient means for defence of the coasts. There is no 
question of Canadians; we are all Britishers. Our Militia, 
equipment, and supplies should be placed unreservedly at 
the disposal of the Mother Country. Above all, party differ- 
ences should cease, and Canada present a united front and 
undivided council. ARTHUR C. KEMMIS, 

Lt.-Col. Commanding 2$rd Alberta Rangers. 

ibid. In the event of a general European War involving Great 

Britain, Anglo-Saxon liberty would be endangered. If the 
British power were crushed, the Anglo-Saxon race would be 
adversely affected. British liberty, which has been the envy 
of the world for centuries, would be extinguished, and the 
progress of the world set back. Every Canadian is therefore 
vitally interested. Our duty is plain. The Dominion should 
spontaneously furnish men and supply money. Britannia 
must rule the waves. We are ready to spend money and 
sacrifice life if necessary on behalf of the Empire. The pro- 
posal of Colonel the Hon. Sam. Hughes to send at once a 
substantial military contingent should meet with the approval 
of every Canadian. M. F. MUIR, 

Lt.-Col. Commanding 2$th Brant 
Dragoons. 

ibid. The plain duty of every Canadian, and especially of every 

Militiaman in the present crisis, is to place himself entirely 
at the disposition of the War Office for service, wherever it is 
deemed he can be of most use to our Empire. 

A. C. HANSON, 
Lt.-Col. 26th Stanstead Dragoons. 

ibid- If Great Britain is involved in a European war, Canada 

must assist to the extent of her resources in men and money. 

284 



DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

The loyal province of New Brunswick will be among the 
first to respond to the call to defend the flag and the Empire. 
HUGH H. MCLEAN, M.P., 

Col. Commanding 2&th New Brunswick Dragoons. 

First duty of Canada is self-defence. Make our harbours Montreal 
and coast defences secure, and put our warships into fighting Daily Star, 
form. In view of the general European war in which Great Au S- 3. '14- 
Britain will surely be involved, I consider it advisable that 
a substantial army be called out not less than forty thousand 
men, all arms to get the necessary training to meet well- 
trained foes. In addition, Canada should offer 20,000 men 
as a first division for service at the disposal of the Imperial 
Government, and for volunteers for such service, to be issued 
early. If possible, additional artillery and small arms should 
be purchased in the United States quickly. Canada must be 
prepared to make greater sacrifices for the Empire than at any 
time since the war of 1812. J. A. AIKIN, 

Lt.-Col. Commanding zqth Light Horse. 

Canada, in face of danger to the British Empire from ibid. 
without, has a clear path to duty, namely, a national expres- 
sion of unitedness in loyalty to the Empire, and the backing 
up of such expression by offering a force sufficiently large 
and well equipped to ensure the British Government of depend- 
able support. We share the Empire's protection and should 
gladly share her dangers. Determined support will assuredly 
follow from the young men of Canada if the call to Imperial 
service is sounded. M. S. MERCER, 

Lt.-Col. Commanding 2nd Regt. 
Queen's Own Rifles of Canada. 

The supremacy of the British Empire has enabled her ibid. 
to exert the greatest force for the personal liberty and 
uplift of humanity that the world has ever known. I believe 
that our duty as Canadians, who have enjoyed that protec- 
tion and security so long, if that supremacy is threatened is 
to rally for her support, by being ready for the defence of our 
own part of that Empire, or, if necessary, anywhere that we 
can have the most influence in maintaining it. 

ALEX. WILSON, 
Lt.-CoL Commanding 33^ Huron Regt. 

285 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Montreal In my opinion everything possible should be done to 

Daily Star, retain the Empire intact, and it is the manifest duty of Canada 

Aug. 3, '14. an( j Canadians to send substantial assistance at any time 

to any portion of the Empire that may be in need, particularly 

the Motherland. The present seems to be a most fitting 

occasion for an exhibition of practical loyalty on the part of 

this Dominion. E. G. SHANNON, 

Lt.-Col. Commanding $2nd Regt. 
Prince Albert Volunteers. 

ibid. Should the present crisis involve Great Britain in war, 

which would be the greatest European war that has ever 
taken place, I would consider the situation so grave and the 
necessity of supporting the Empire's forces that they may 
not suffer defeat so urgent, that Parliament should offer all 
the men and resources at our disposal, should the War Office 
so intimate, and it would be the duty of all Canadians to 
assist loyally in carrying out such measures. I do not think 
that the great majority of the people fully realise the results 
that would follow should the arms of the Triple Entente 
meet with reverses, and it appears to me that it would be 
the duty of all leaders to impress the gravity of the situation 
on the public. E. B. CLEGG, 

Lt.-Col. Commanding $jth Regt. 
Peterborough Rangers. 

ibid. It seems to me that Canada's duty lies plain before her. 

She will gladly assume that duty ; if the defence of our own 
shore were the limit of our vision, we had lost sight of the 
meaning of Empire. Our obligation lies wherever the flag 
calls, and Canadian corps should be placed at the disposal 
of the War Office. Of course Canadian service will be volun- 
tary, but I know that in every hamlet, village, and hillside 
of this land there are boys and men going their peaceful 
ways who only need the call to prove that they too are of 
the lion's brood, ready to do their part for the preservation 
of that far-flung land that makes the British Empire. 

H. F. McLEOD, 
Lt.-Col. jist York Regiment. 

ibid. When Great Britain is at war, the Empire is at war, and 

the duty of Canada as part of the British Empire is to furnish 

286 



DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

as many troops as possible, to be under the direction of the 
Imperial Commander-in-Chief. It is the duty of all able- 
bodied Canadians to place themselves at the disposal of the 
Government in order to maintain the integrity of our Empire. 

R. G. E. LECKIE, 

Lt.-Col. Commanding 7%nd Regt. 

Seaforth Highlanders of Canada. 

In my opinion it is the duty of Canadians to show a firm Montreal 
determination to stand by the Mother Country, and should Daily Star, 
Britain be involved in a European war, it is but one of the Au S- 3. '*4- 
ways to show our gratitude for the many years we have 
been permitted to live under the protection of her army and 
navy, that we should assist her, not only by undertaking the 
defence of Canada, but by sending contingents of our best 
troops to show on the field of battle that the Empire 
is not a unit in name only. 

T. A. MULOCK, 
Lt.-Col. Commanding j$th Lunenburg Regt. 

If Britain is involved in European war, Canada should ibid. 
send 20,000 men at once, and more later, if the war is pro- 
longed. When Nova Scotia is called on, the 76th Regiment 
will gladly contribute its proportion. Now is the time for 
Canadians to prove their loyalty and devotion to the Empire. 

C. R. COLEMAN, 

Lt.-Col. Commanding the j6th Colchester and 
Harts Rifles. 

The duty of Canada and the Canadians to Great Britain ibid. 
is beyond argument, and no doubt action will be taken and 
loyally responded to as necessity indicates. As an officer ' 
I do not care to say more. JOHN I. MCLAREN, 

Lt.-Col. Commanding gist Regt. 
Canadian Highlanders. 

The duty of every Canadian irrespective of creed, party ibid. 
or nationality, is to uphold at any cost the dignity and glory 
of the mighty British Empire under whose protection Canada 
has developed and flourished for the last century. 

J. A. LITTLE, 

Lt.-Col. Commanding q6th Lake 
Superior Regt. 

287 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Montreal Canada should not hesitate to use every resource to assist 

Daily Star, in maintaining the integrity of the Empire in this hour of 
Aug. 3/14. danger, if it should happen that the British troops in India 
are required to strengthen strategic points elsewhere, Cana- 
dians should be ready at once to garrison India. In this con- 
nection it would seem wise for the Canadian Government to 
use every effort to efface the ill-feeling caused by the unfor- 
tunate deporting of the Sikhs from Vancouver. Britons 
should stand together. H. E. McKEE, 

Lt.-Col. Commanding qjth Regt. 
Algonquin Rifles. 

ibid. The duty of Canada and Canadians in the event of Britain 

being involved in European war is to assist to the uttermost 
in maintaining the supremacy of the British Empire. Thou- 
sands of men in the West will answer the call to arms. The 
Canadian forces can be depended on in any emergency. 
Sufficient volunteers can be had to form a first contingent 
for immediate service abroad. Sentiment here favours 
Britain giving immediate assistance to France and Russia in 
event of Germany declaring war. There is no question here 
as to the part Canada should play : her duty is to assist the 
Motherland. JAS. KIRKCALDY, 

Major, ggth Manitoba Rangers. 

ibid. Should Britain become involved in European war, Canada 

should at once pledge the Motherland unlimited assistance 
and call for 100,000 trained volunteers as a first contingent, 
more to follow as they become trained. 

J. B. MITCHELL, 
Lt.-Col. looth Winnipeg Grenadiers. 

ibid. The duty of all Canadians is to shed their last drop of 

blood in defence of the dear old Motherland. But why ask 
such a question ? Is there a cur with a drop of British blood 
in his veins who doubts his duty ? As for myself and Rangers, 
we are ready. Only let Colonel Sam. [Hughes] give the word. 
I speak for my men. They know me, and I know them. 

J. R. VICARS, 
Lt.-Col. Commanding I02nd Regt. 

Rocky Mountain Rangers. 
288 



DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

Apart from any question of sentiment, the instinct of Montreal 
self-preservation alone should prompt Canada to render every Daily Star, 
assistance possible. If Canada, a self-governing nation, as Au g-3. '14- 
part of the British Empire, but free and independent, should 
be attacked, what would Great Britain do ? Every one 
knows she would fly to our assistance with all her forces. 
Canada will not do less. Every Canadian should be prepared, 
and I believe is prepared, to stand shoulder to shoulder for 
the unity of the Empire. DAN. MCLEAN, 

Lt.-Col. Commanding io6th Winnipeg 
Light Infantry. 

With over thirty years' service in Militia I have no hesi- ibid. 
tation in saying that the time of Great Britain's peril is 
Canada's opportunity to help the Motherland. Canada's 
army is Britain's army, and, as British soldiers have for centuries 
fought for and protected Canada, now we should, if cause 
arise, offer 20,000 of our best trained officers and men for 
immediate service to garrison overseas or elsewhere, and 
then prepare a second force to despatch later. This will be 
a reply to -those who refused a gift of battleships, belittling 
Canada as a portion of the Overseas Dominions. 

E. T. STURDEE, 
Lt.-Col. Reserve Officers. 

The i6th Light Horse have volunteered for service abroad. Montreal 

There will be no lack of volunteers in the West. Daily Star, 

R. A. CARMAN, Aug. 4 , '14. 
Lt.-Col. Commanding i6th Light Horse. 

The entire strength of the Canadian Militia should be ibid. 
placed at the disposal of Britain if the situation indicates 
that danger threatens the Empire. The best equipped units, 
horse, foot, and artillery, could be rushed to the front, while 
it would also be necessary to retain a reserve within the 
Dominion for its defence. Canadians generally should exert 
their best efforts to avoid panic within the Dominion and do 
their duty to the Empire by following routine occupations, 
conserving and fostering our natural resources, with a view 
to feeding the people of the British Isles. 

C. D. MCPHERSON, 
Lt.-Colonel Commanding iSth Mounted Rifles. 

OVERSEAS I. T 289 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Montreal It is Canada's duty to assist England in the defence of 

Daily Star, the Empire to the fullest extent in her power. In the hour 

Aug. 4, '14. O f k^ p er ji } e t no paltry quibbles be raised, but act at once 

to the fullest extent of our capacity. Let it be under- 

stood in defending the Empire we are defending Canada. 

Myself and officers of my regiment have already offered our 

services wherever required in the defence of our nation and 

the Empire, and are prepared to act at once when called upon. 

H. I. STEVENSON, 
Lt.-Col. Commanding 32nd Manitoba Horse. 

Mid. It is the opinion of myself and officers that Canada should 

in this crisis extend to the Empire any and all assistance in 
her power. My regiment already has volunteered its services. 

R. W. PATTERSON, 

Lt.-Col. Commanding 34^ Fort 

Garry Horse. 

ibid. No better proof of our consistency to this greatest test of 

Empire can be given than contained in our regimental motto : 
' Ready and Willing/ symbolic of the general feeling of 
every officer in the 8th Regiment to-day, and further proof is 
the number of ex-cfficers and men who are volunteering for 
re-enlistment, D. WATSON, 

Lt.-Col. Commanding Sth Regt. 
Royal Rifles. 

Hid. In case the Mother Country is involved in a European 

war, I consider it the duty of Canada and Canadians to 
join the British forces, and help to maintain the British 
Empire. These forces to be supported by Canadian money. 

F. S. FERGUSON, 
Lt.-Col. Commanding Aflih Frontenac Regt. 



ibid. Recognising, as we all must, that the British Empire is 

to-day the greatest factor existing for the preservation of 
peace and the advancement of civilisation throughout the 
world, it is clearly our duty to see that the integrity of that 
Empire is preserved, though in doing so we should be called 
upon to make immeasurable sacrifices. As citizens of an 
integral part of that Empire, let us earnestly and without 
bravado make it known to the world that, in the cause of 
290 



14 DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

righteousness and justice, Canada is ready at any cost to do 
more than her share in maintaining the supremacy of the flag 
under whose protection the blessings of Christianity and 
commerce have been carried to every land. 

S. G. ROBERTSON, 

Major Commanding jSth Pictou 

Highlanders. 

It is certainly the duty of Canadians to stand by Britain Montreal 
if involved in a European war. The Prince Edward Island Daily Star, 
Militia can certainly be relied upon to do their duty. Au S- 4. '*4 

J. R. ALLAN, 

Lt.-Col. Commanding Sznd 

Abegweit Light Infantry Regt. 



STATEMENT OF CANADIAN CABINET 

Ottawa, August 5, 1914. 

The Cabinet meeting ended at eleven o'clock last night, Renter. 
and the following official statement was issued : 

Parliament has been summoned for Tuesday, August 18. 
The session will deal exclusively with matters which will 
necessarily arise by reason of the outbreak of war. 

Portions of the Militia have been called out for active 
service to protect the coast and to safeguard public property. 
The Dominion steamships Margaret and Canada have been 
transferred to the naval service, and all ships available for 
service have been placed on active service. All measures 
prescribed by the scheme of defence have been taken by the 
Departments of the Government. The Naval Volunteer force 
has also been called out. 

There has been a rumour that a steamship, 1 presumably a 
merchant ship, is meditating an attack on one of the Marconi 
stations. The necessary precautions have been taken. 

[' Austrian steamships/ as reported by the Toronto World (August 5, 



291 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



PUBLICATION OF NEWS 

Letter from Colonel Sam. Hughes, Minister of Militia, to 
the Press of Canada 

Ottawa, August 5, 1914. 

Halifax In the grave circumstances with which the Dominion 

Herald, ^ as a part of the British Empire is faced to-day, I venture to 

Aug. 6, '14. a pp ea i to patriotic Canadian newspapers, their proprietors 

and their staff alike, to exercise wise reticence upon matters 

affecting military operations. 

Enormous assistance can be given to a belligerent nation 
by the newspapers of its opponents if those newspapers are 
unguarded ; and conversely great advantages can be gained 
by the armed forces of a nation if its press exercises a patriotic 
restraint. 

In 1870, the French newspapers, with no unpatriotic 
intent, had for the lack of warning published much news which 
was of great service to their country's foes, and which had 
its share in bringing many thousands of Frenchmen to their 
deaths. 

In 1904-5 the Japanese press by its reticence greatly aided 
the Japanese Army and Navy. In the South African war 
the publication of war news caused the unnecessary loss of 
many valuable lives. The responsibilities resting upon the 
Press are very great ; the publication of a single item of news 
might mean the unnecessary death of British subjects, and 
might mean untold damage to our interests. 

I earnestly entreat you to abstain from publishing un- 
authorised statements as to military happenings in Canada, 
such as the assembling or moving of regiments, the purchase 
of remounts, stores or supplies, the erection of fortifications, 
etc. We may be certain that the agents of hostile powers are 
searching your pages eagerly for statements as to the move- 
ments of our military forces, the nature and disposition of our 
defences, and other facts bearing upon the prosecution of war. 
Such information as to steps to be taken by Canada will be 
supplied by the Government Departments concerned, which 
will bear in mind the restraint to which the Press will be 
subjecting itself. 

292 



DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

STATEMENT OF MINISTER OF MILITIA 

Ottawa, August 5, 1914. 

Colonel the Honourable Sam. Hughes has made arrange- Montreal 
ments for the organisation of a Canadian contingent to go to Daily Mail, 
Great Britain, and on arrival there to be despatched wherever Au - 6 > >:[ 4- 
the British War Office chooses to send them to take part in 
the war against Germany. 

From the 100,000 men from all parts of Canada, a full army 
division of 20,000 will be selected. Recruiting will start 
forthwith at any Militia division point, and enlistment will be 
voluntary. The contingent will be Imperial, and will have . 
the same status as the British regulars. 

Colonel Hughes states that mobilisation can take place 
within a week if necessary, but he is not going to hurry 
things unduly. The mobilisation centre will be Valcartier, 
near Quebec City, and there the 20,000 picked men will be 
drilled and given rifle practice before they embark for England. 
For the rifle practice 2000 targets have been purchased. The 
uniform to be worn will be khaki. No aviators will be taken 
with the contingent. Who will be in command has yet to 
be announced. Other details will be announced later. 



STATEMENT OF CANADIAN GOVERNMENT 

Ottawa, August 6, 1914. 
The following official statement was issued to-night : Toronto 

' On his return to Ottawa on Saturday, August i, the A ^ ' 
Prime Minister sent a cable message 1 to the Imperial Govern- x ,- See ' 
ment, informing them that Canada was prepared to send an p ' 5.] 
expeditionary force for service abroad if required. Last 
evening a reply was received accepting this offer, 2 and the 2 [See 
force will be organised at once by voluntary enlistment. p. 9-] 

' Several important Orders in Council were passed to-day. 
An Order in Council was passed providing for an effective 
censorship staff at Ottawa and Halifax, and the several 
cable stations on the Atlantic and on the Pacific. Another 
order was passed calling out for active service such portions 
of the Militia as may from time to time be desired by the 

293 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Governor in Council. A further Order was passed providing 
for raising and organising a force for service abroad and for 
making and perfecting all necessary arrangements to call 
them to enlist and be enrolled in His Majesty's service for 
such period and under such conditions as may be arranged. 
The enlistment and enrolment will be entirely voluntary. It 
is understood that the chief difficulty will arise through the 
enormous number of applications to serve abroad. 

1 Another Order in Council passed to-day prohibits the 
exportation from Canada during the war of arms, munitions, 
warlike equipment, and various other articles which will pro- 
bably be required for defensive purposes, or which might 
be useful to the enemy. 

' There appears to be an impression that owing to the war 
there may be a scarcity of food and fuel supplies in Canada. 

' There is also a fear that prices may be advanced to an 
unreasonable extent. The Hon. T. W. Crothers, Minister of 
Labour, and the Hon. J. D. Reid, acting Minister of Trade 
and Commerce, met to-day and appointed officials of each 
department to investigate the rumours of enhanced prices, 
in order that the Government may take any action necessary 
to prevent an undue advantage of this kind being taken. As 
to supplies of food and fuel the Ministers say there need be 
no cause for alarm in respect to either, as there are ample 
supplies of these commodities available for use in Canada. 

' It is hoped that the Press of Canada will remember 
that the secrecy of military and naval preparations and 
organisation is essential. It is also hoped that care will be 
exercised to refrain from publishing unfounded and disturb- 
ing rumours which would excite unnecessary alarm and 
apprehension.' 

INTENTIONS OF BRITISH WAR OFFICE 

Ottawa, August 7, 1914. 

Quebec Announcement is made by the Militia Department to-day 

Daily that the British War Office has notified the Dominion Govern- 
Telegraph, men t that it is the intention to send the Canadian contingent. 
ug ' 7 ' I4 ' of 18,000 men to the firing line in Europe as soon as they 
arrive in England, which will be in about three or four weeks' 
time. 
294 



DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

In addition to receiving these 18,000, Colonel Sam. Hughes 
proposes to raise 7000 volunteers to be used for garrison duty 
in Canada. . According to present plans the main contingent 
will be mobilised at Quebec some time next week, when they 
will be well drilled for about two weeks, after which they will 
be put under sailing orders. Enlistment began to-day, and 
promises to be general and enthusiastic. 



STATEMENT OF MINISTER OF MILITIA 

Ottawa, August 10, 1914. 

All the troops in British Columbia were ordered to-night Manitoba 
to mobilise at their respective regimental headquarters. Free Press, 
Several thousand men are affected by the order. They will ' 

be kept under arms and in training pending the developments 
of the war. This was one of the important announcements 
made by the Minister of Militia, Colonel Hughes, to the 
Press correspondents to-night. As a further evidence of 
what British Columbia is doing in the way of defence of the 
Pacific coast, Colonel Hughes stated that the two submarines 1 1 [See 
purchased in Seattle from the Chilean Government were PP- 77-8-] 
bought by Sir Richard McBride, acting for the Provincial 
Government. The Premier of British Columbia knew that 
the Federal Government was in communication with the 
Imperial authorities in regard to the matter, but in view of 
the fact that these negotiations could not be concluded before 
war was actually declared, Sir Richard precipitated matters 
by making the purchase through his Government. By this 
prompt action the submarines were secured two or three 
days before the actual outbreak of hostilities. Had there 
been any delay the United States would not have allowed 
them to be taken from an American port in breach of the 
neutrality law. 

The Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, the Strathcona 
Horse of Winnipeg, and the Royal Canadian Dragoons of 
Toronto and St. John's were also ordered out to-night, to 
proceed at once to Valcartier. Altogether there are some 
500 or 600 men in these permanent cavalry units. A cavalry 
squadron of 160 men is to be raised in Western Canada 
by Colonel Jameson and Major Griesbach of Edmonton, 

295 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

under instructions from the Militia Department. They will 

either be sent to Quebec or used in the west for patrol purposes. 

Colonel Hughes announced that the total force in the 

expeditionary army division will be 22,250, exclusive of 

any special regiments that may be raised through private 

1 [See offers. 1 On the mobilisation of the troops at Valcartier, 

p. 84-] the Minister of Militia intends to put them through a strenuous 

course of training under conditions approaching as near as 

possible to active service. Accurate shooting is to be the 

first essential, and no less than 2000 targets are being erected. 

The troops will be required to advance by rushes, shooting 

at the targets at the same time. A record will be kept as fully 

as possible of individual marksmanship, and this record will 

serve in the weeding out process of the men who are finally 

chosen to go abroad. 

Colonel Hughes wishes it definitely understood that no 
officers will be allowed to go unless they are fully qualified 
and show that they know how to lead men under practical 
conditions of warfare. It is also stated that the enrolment 
of volunteers may be done by every unit or company com- 
mander, and the men need not necessarily go to regimental 
headquarters to volunteer. The pay of the force is to be a 
dollar per day for each private, with 10 cents additional 
as field allowance. No married man will be accepted if his 
wife or children dependent upon him object to the proper 
militia authorities. 

Another important announcement made by Colonel 
Hughes to-night was that the Department were receiving 
requests from thousands of Serbians in the United States 
and from French reservists in Canada, to be taken over with 
the Canadian contingent. Similar requests are being re- 
ceived from a number of Russians and Belgians in Canada. 
It is probable that some arrangement will be made to allow 
these Allies of the British forces to cross the Atlantic and 
join in the conflict against the common enemy. 

In regard to the German reservists now in Canada, the 
Militia Department has been advised that a number of arrests 
have been made. Provision is to be made for keeping all 
these men under surveillance, and it is probable that several 
temporary military prisons will be established at Petawawa 
and other points. The Government suggests that all German 
296 



DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

reservists now in the Dominion who wish to avoid summary 
arrest should go to the nearest magistrate or other public 
officer, and file a statement that they wish to be considered 
as peaceful and law-abiding residents in Canada. 

In regard to the report to-day of the destruction of a 
bridge north of Valcartier, presumably by some German or 
Austrian, it is stated that this bridge is 150 miles north 
of the points of mobilisation, and there is nothing to show 
that it was destroyed by design. At the same time Colonel 
Hughes points out that all guards at railway bridges or 
other public works are instructed to ' shoot to kill/ in case 
orders are not obeyed by any one acting in a suspicious 
manner. 

Provision is being made for Canadian Militiamen now in 
the United Kingdom to join the Canadian forces when they 
reach the other side. Among the cables received to-day was 
one from Major George W. Stephens, former chairman of 
the Harbour Commissioners of Montreal, offering his services 
either in the fighting line or in any other place in which he 
might be of use. 

Colonel Hughes pays a special tribute to the Cobourg 
Field Battery, which entrained for Quebec last Wednesday, 
and on Saturday night was ordered from Quebec on a special 
mission at some other point, the name of which is not yet 
disclosed. The Minister says the Battery showed rare 
efficiency, both in mobilising and in handling its guns at 
Quebec. 

August 10 (circa), 1914. 

LETTER OF MINISTER OF MILITIA TO LT.-COLONEL 
L. R. BAKER, PRESIDENT OF CANADIAN VETERANS' 
ASSOCIATION. 

SIR, I have the honour, by direction, to acknowledge Montreal 
Colonel Hughes' receipt of your letter of 8th instant, and to Daily Mail, 
thank you for the offer of services conveyed on behalf of the Aug. 11/14. 
members of your Association. The Minister considers that 
no doubt the majority of your members would be now beyond 
the age for service, but the example given and the splendid 
spirit shown by this offer are very much appreciated. Please 

297 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

convey to your Association the Minister's thanks. I have 
the honour to be your obedient servant, 

CHARLES F. WINTER, Lieutenant-Colonel, 
Military Secretary. 



August ii (circa), 1914. 
MINISTER OF MILITIA AND CITY OF OTTAWA 

Ottawa Determining that the city should do something towards 

Free Press, aiding the cause of Britain, Mayor McVeity consulted Colonel 

Aug.i2,'i4. Hughes, asking what form of contribution would be most 

acceptable. He received from the Minister of Militia a letter 

in reply suggesting the artillery battery consisting of four 

machine-guns, protected and mounted on motor trucks. 

Colonel Hughes wrote to the Mayor as follows : 

' In reply, it is hardly proper that I should make a sug- 
gestion, but could the city see its way clear to furnish a machine- 
gun battery, four guns protected, mounted on rapid motor 
trucks, with steel shields, it would cost in the neighbourhood 
of about $100,000. 

' Permit me to say that this battery of 4 guns, as com- 
pared with 500 men, shows as follows : The machine-guns 
carry 160,000 rounds, 500 men carry 60,000. Normal firing 
capacity of the machine-guns equals 4800 shots per minute, 
while that of 500 men is only about 4000 shots per minute. 1 

' The speed of the machine-gun is about 15 to 25 miles 
per hour, while that of the 500 men is about 3^ miles. 

* Thirty men could man the battery. Its fire would be 
much more accurate than would be that of the 500 men. 

' Thus a great saving in rations, in equipment, and mobility 
would be found in favour of the battery. 

' On behalf of the Prime Minister, my colleagues, as well 
as myself, I have very great pleasure in thanking you for 
your very kind proposition. 

* I do not know whether you can see your way clear to 
accept it or not, but will take the will for the deed. 

' It is splendid to see how every place and every person 

1 [These figures are given as printed in the newspaper ; but they are 
erroneous. The fire rate of the four machine-guns is only 2400 per minute. 
Five hundred infantry carry at least 75,000 rounds, not merely 60,000.] 
298 



DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

is coming to the front in the cause of the old Empire and 
liberty/ 

His Worship approved of this form of gift, and laid the 
matter before the Board of Control yesterday, obtaining its 
assent to a recommendation to City Council. 

1 My opinion is/ said His Worship, ' that this generation 
is to witness or participate in a commotion of world-wide 
extent. It is hard to realise that a calamity of such stupendous 
proportions should be brought upon us. I do not think that 
any liberty-loving people should neglect to take their part 
in repulsing the advances of the ambitious power responsible 
for it, for in my opinion it is caused by Teutonic ambition 
for overlordship. 

' I have been considering what the City of Ottawa should 
do as her share in this common cause. Its patriotism should 
not be expressed in any cheap or paltry way. The gentle- 
men who founded the city set as its motto/ ' City of Ottawa 
Advance/' and the city should live up to its motto/ 



August 14, 1914. 

SPEECH OF MINISTER OF MILITIA TO MONTREAL 

GARRISON 

' I am proud to meet you here to-night. War has been Montreal 
declared in Europe, involving the honour of the British Empire. Daily Mail, 
It has been known for years that the ambitious aims of the Au g- I 5/i4- 
Emperor of Germany mind you, not the people of Germany 
but the ruling force in the land have been directed toward 
the acquiring of the two small adjoining kingdoms of Belgium 
and Holland. Austria has had designs upon the Balkan 
Provinces. It is with the greatest regret that the people of 
Great Britain and of France have realised the aims of these 
rulers, but time has shown the truth/ In reviewing the 
incidents leading up to the war, Colonel Hughes spoke of 
the construction of the Kiel Canal, undertaken for the purpose 
of providing Germany with an outlet to the Baltic. This 
canal had been finished July ist. Before the end of July v 
Germany had pressed on the war. For years Britain had 
been regarded by all nations as the guardian of the freedom 
of the world, whether of France, of the United States, of 

299 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

every other liberty-loving people. 'If/ he said, 'Germany 
succeeds in the present conflict, she will annex Belgium and 
Holland [' and probably Denmark ' ; Vancouver World, August 
15, 1917] ; England will be reduced to a second-rate power ; 
France may be wiped off the map. But we will not put up 
with any such programme tamely. It is not the intention 
of Canadians to be slaves. We all realise that our liberties 
are at stake, and we are ready to do our duty. 

' I called for volunteers/ he continued. ' Mark you, not 
a man leaves unless of his own free will. Not a married man 
will leave, if I know it, without the consent of his wife. 
England has asked for men/ he said, 'and Canada is putting 
a force of upwards of 20,000 men in the field/ Cheers greeted 
his statement that it was the dearest ambition of his life to 
lead them in person, and that he might yet find a way to 
drop politics and do so. 

Many who were going would leave dependants behind 
them. They might rest assured, Colonel Hughes declared, 
that the thousands who could not go would do their duty 
here in looking after them. This aid would take the form of 
a national fund. 

' I have no fear of the result of the war/ declared Colonel 
Hughes. ' If the men now facing the millions of German 
soldiers are driven back, more will support them. I know I 
have the sentiment of the Canadian people with me when I say 
that if necessary we will send ten, even twenty contingents. 
We are determined that the tyrant's heel shall never bring 
down Canada/ 



August 17, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF MINISTER OF MILITIA 

Montreal Colonel the Honourable Sam Hughes, Minister of Militia, 

Daily Mail, issued a statement last night, expressing the hope that the 

Aug.i8,'i4. p U J3ii c W ould recognise the urgent importance of thoroughly 

guarding and protecting at the present time all stores of 

arms, ammunition, and other munitions of war, and the 

necessity of placing a sufficient guard for that purpose at 

all points where attack might be apprehended. 

' It is hoped that the public generally will give considera- 
tion to this necessity/ he said, ' and will not approach except 
300 



DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

by permission, any such place or other place similarly guarded 
for military reasons. 

' Attempts have already been made to destroy or injure 
wireless stations at Port Arthur and Sault Ste. Marie, and the 
Ordnance Stores at London [Ontario]. Such attempts must 
be summarily and sternly dealt with, as serious damage to the 
public interest would otherwise be occasioned. 

' Guards and sentries have been instructed to use every 
care not to injure any innocent person who may through 
inadvertence disregard the regulations/ 



August 28 (circa), 1914. 
REGULATIONS FOR VALCARTIER CAMP 

The following regulations in connection with the Valcartier Quebec 
Camp have been issued by the authorities. Daily 

Telegraph, 
ADMISSION IN CAMP AREA Aug.29/i4. 

1. The public will be permitted to visit the camp on 
Saturdays from 12 noon until 6 P.M., on Sundays from 9 A.M. 
until 6 P.M. 

PASSES 

2. Passes through the camp will be issued at the following 
points under arrangements made by Lt. -Colonel McBain : 

(a) Eastern entrance to camp on the Quebec- Valcartier 
Station Road at a point about one mile west of St. 
Michel Flag Station. . 

(b) At the cross road about six hundred yards west of 
Valcartier Station. 

(c) At the ferry crossing Jacques Cartier River, one half- . 
mile east of St. Gabriel Village. 

(d) At the cross road about i miles south-east of Val- 
cartier Village on the Valcartier Village- Valcartier 
Station Road. 

AUTHORISED ENTRANCE TO CAMP AREA 

3. The public are prohibited from attempting to enter 
Valcartier Camp area by any other routes than the above, 
and if found in camp (except during public hours on Saturday 

301 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

and Sunday) without a pass, will be handed over to the 
Civil Police. 

DOMICILE PASSES 

4. To persons living within the Camp area will be issued 
Domicile Passes authorising them to proceed through the 
Camp. 

TRADING PASSES 

5. Trading passes will be issued to persons doing business 
in camp by authority of the Camp Commandant. 

WORK PASSES 

6. Work passes will be issued to persons employed on 
construction and other work in Camp. 

ISSUE OF PASSES 

7. Passes will be issued at the office of Lt.-Col. McBain, 
on the road near the railway, about six hundred yards north 
of Valcartier Station, between 8 A.M. and 6 P.M. 

PRESS AND PHOTOGRAPHERS 

8. Applications for passes, whether of a permanent or 
temporary nature, by Press correspondents or photographers, 
will be made at the office of Lt.-Col. McBain (vide par. 7), 
where regulations governing press news or photography will 
be obtained. 



August 30, 1914. 
LORD KITCHENER AND CANADIAN AVIATORS 

Valcartier Camp, August 31. 

Montreal Lord Kitchener has cabled to the Militia Department 

Daily Mail, accepting the offer of Canada to supply six expert aviators. 

Sept. i, '14. Th e Department, having received many offers from Canadian 

airmen who hold licences, forwarded an offer to the War 

Office, asking if their services would be accepted. A reply, 

to the effect that a squad of six men would be acceptable, 

was received here to-night by the Minister. No information 

is available at the moment as to the names of the six men 

who will be sent. 

302 



DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

August 31, 1914. 
ADDRESS OF MINISTER OF MILITIA 

Valcartier Camp, September I. 

Colonel Sam. Hughes, Minister of Militia, addressed about Ottawa 
one thousand officers of the mobilisation camp yesterday Free Press, 
afternoon. Sept. 1/14. 

1 It is necessary that we secure competent officers/ said 
Colonel Hughes. ' Many have applied to me for commands, 
but I have refused even some of my personal friends. I 
want men for action. Action that is the word. I want 
cool-headed men, because it is a terrible responsibility. I 
want men who can make quick decisions whether they are 
in charge of a battery or a battalion/ 

He stated that a part of the Canadian force would be used 
to garrison Bermuda and other places, and other regiments 
would be used in Canada as lines of communication or to 
act as a protective force here. Colonel Williams, Camp Com- 
mandant, had been authorised to raise sixteen battalions 
instead of twelve, because of the great number of volunteers. 
He said that the present 29,000 men in camp were the best 
ever gathered in Canada. They had to get down to serious 
business and learn to shoot straight. ' I can excuse a man 
for almost anything if he can pick his man/ said the Colonel. 
' Incompetent officers are worse than baggage, because they 
must be fed/ 



September i, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF MINISTER OF MILITIA 

Ottawa, September I. 

Hon. Sam. Hughes, Minister of Militia, made this state- Vancouver 
ment this morning : World, 

' We want one million men in Canada trained to shoot Se P t - 2 > >I: 4- 
at one thousand yards/ 

This announcement of the Canadian War Department was 
made in reply to a direct query as to what estimate the 
department made regarding the number of men likely to be 
required from Canada during the present war. 

303 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYOVERSEAS 

September 2 November 25, 1914. 
SHELL COMMITTEE REPORT 

C. Report of progress of work in connection with the manu- 
facture of 15 and i8-pr. ammunition for the British War 
Office through the Department of Militia and Defence for 
Canada. 

1. A meeting of manufacturers was called by Colonel the 
Hon. Sam. Hughes, Minister of Militia and Defence, at his 
office on September 2nd, when the Minister explained to those 
present that the British Government had asked for informa- 
tion regarding the position of Canadian manufacturers to 
undertake the manufacture of i8-pr. shrapnel shells. 

After Colonel Lafferty, Superintendent of Dominion 
Arsenal, had explained in detail the process of manufacture, 
etc., and the matter was discussed thoroughly by the manu- 
facturers, it was decided that the shells could be manufac- 
tured in Canada. 

2. On September 8th, the Honourable Minister of Militia 
and Defence held a meeting of the Dominion Arsenal, Quebec, 
and appointed the following Committee : 

COLONEL ALEX. BERTRAM, Chairman. 

MR. THOS. CANTLEY. 

MR. GEO. W. WATTS. 

MR. E. CARNEGIE. 

COLONEL T. BENSON, Master-General of Ordnance. 

Lr.-CoL. C. G. HARSTON, Chief Inspector of Arms and 

Ammunition. 
LT.-COL. F. D. LAFFERTY, Superintendent Dominion 

Arsenal. 

2. (a) On September 23rd, Mr. David Carnegie, M.Inst. C.E., 
was, by authority of the Honourable the Minister of Militia 
and Defence, appointed Ordnance Adviser to the Committee, 
and has rendered invaluable service in connection with the 
work. 

3. On September igth, the Shell Committee, as appointed 
by the Honourable the Minister of Militia and Defence, was 
authorised to proceed with the manufacture of shells to con- 
form to the War Office drawings and specifications. The 
Committee to purchase all the materials (in Canada if avail- 
34 



DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

able) make and execute contracts with manufacturers for 
machine work, assembling, etc. 

The shells supplied by the Committee to be inspected by 
or under the supervision of Chief Inspector of Arms and 
Ammunition, or such other inspector as the War Office may 
designate. 

4. On September 24th, the Shell Committee received 
acceptance from the British War Office of the conditions 
covering the manufacture of shells and boxes for transport 
of same. 

The orders for the first supply were then distributed among 
various manufacturers, but, owing to the delay in the manu- 
facture of master gauges, the work was not well under way 
until November 25th. 



September 2, 1914. 

STATEMENT OF MINISTER OF MILITIA 
AT VALCARTIER CAMP 

COLONEL HUGHES : There are now 35,000 men in camp Manitoba 
at Valcartier, and more are coming. There are at least Free Press, 
6000 men in camp who have never been ordered there. Sept. 3, '14. 
How did they get there ? Well, I asked that question myself 
of the transport officer, and was told that they had just 
come. There was a case of this kind to-day. Some time 
ago we asked Colonel Patterson of the 34th Fort Garry Horse 
of Winnipeg, if his regiment would be willing to take up the 
work of the Strathcona Horse (permanent) who were wanted 
elsewhere than in Winnipeg. We received no reply Until 
this morning, when it came in the form of the 34th Regiment, 
which passed through Ottawa on the way to Valcartier, a 
thousand strong. They are young men from the first families 
in Winnipeg, and, being determined to go to the front, have 
taken the bit in their teeth, chartered two special trains, and 
started. When men show such spirit we cannot very well 
refuse them. I have not encouraged men to go to the front, 
but I do not propose to discourage them. They will get to 
the front eventually. I have just received another offer of a 
regiment, a thousand strong, from the United States. This 

OVERSEAS I; U 305 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

offer comes from a leading man in the Southern States, who 
writes that, if allowed to do so, he will bring up a thousand 
men who are descendants of the best families of English, 
Irish, and Scotch stock in the South. 



September 3, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF MINISTER OF MILITIA 

Quebec A statement was issued by Colonel Hon. Sam. Hughes, 

Daily Minister of Militia and Defence, last night [September 3]. 
Telegraph, The sta tement is as follows : 
Sept. 4, 14. 

Many splendid officers throughout the country are being 

annoyed by contemptible insinuations against the courage 
and zeal of many officers and men in the service who cannot 
get to the front. The British Government, in response to the 
request of Canada to assist, agreed to accept twenty-two 
1 [See p. 9.] thousand five hundred men. 1 The Government of Canada 
transmitted that call to the Militia of the country. The 
Minister of Militia laid down at the very outset : 

(a) That every man must go voluntarily. 

(b) That he, the Minister of Militia, or his officials, would 

not ask, and have not asked, any man to go unless 
he volunteered. 

(c) That no man would go who was not physically well 

qualified. 

(d) That no man would go whose wife or family objected. 

In response to the call for twenty- two thousand five hundred 
men, there are to-day at Valcartier, within three weeks of the 
issue of the call, thirty-two thousand men that is about ten 
thousand more than are wanted or were asked for in the field, 
besides six thousand six hundred men in service, garrisoning 
fortresses, bridges, public works, etc., throughout the Dominion, 
one thousand men in the Princess Patricia's Regiment, and one 
thousand men going to Bermuda, a total under arms to-day of 
forty thousand six hundred men, second to none in the world. 
In addition to all these there are one hundred and fifty thousand 
men at their homes, who have volunteered and who are ready 
to march at a month's notice to the front. 

306 



| DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

September 4, 1914. 

SPEECH OF MINISTER OF MILITIA AT CANADIAN 
NATIONAL EXHIBITION, TORONTO 

COLONEL HUGHES said : The war has not come as a surprise Toronto 
to many. People have predicted it. There were those who World, 
said war was impossible, but prior to the declaration of this Sept. 5/14 
war there have been conflicts for the past thirteen years. I 
shall not enter into the causes of those wars, but will confine 
myself to this one in which we are directly interested. The 
Kiel Canal has been under construction for some years. A 
great many felt that its completion would be the signal for war, 
and it is indeed a strange coincidence that the canal was com- 
pleted during the first of July, and that war was declared 
before the month was out. The ambition of Germany was 
to possess Belgium, Holland, and perhaps Denmark. She 
has made ready to strike. In recent years she has endeavoured 
to so build her navy as to conquer the sea. Her colleague, 
Austria, had ambitions too. Germany has been preparing 
for this war. Her artillery is the best in the world. Her men 
are ready in millions. I cannot conceive how any nation 
could but realise that war was inevitable. However, the war 
is now on. So far the results have been only that which 
was anticipated. The call to arms has met with a splendid 
response. Britain controls the sea, and must continue [to do 
so]. Should she fail she becomes a second-rate power. There 
are no parties [in the Parliament]. All are united. The 
quarrel is not with the German people. It is the underlying 
principle behind the war, namely, the maintenance of 
liberty and the abolition of tyranny and bondage, that has 
caused such a crisis. I have faith in the Allies, because 
of the cause they are fighting for. True, the Allies have 
fallen back, but Germany is only getting ahead at a terrible 
loss. When her loss is considered, it may be the method 
of the Allies to fall back, doing terrific punishment to the 
enemy, and thereby weakening him. I am in a position 
to say that when Canada loyally endorsed the offer of troops 
for the Motherland, England in return asked for a division. 
This consists of 22,500 men. The call was issued three weeks 
ago. To-day there are 32,000 men in camp at Valcartier, 

307 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

They have come from the Atlantic and from the Pacific. 
In addition to these there is the Princess Patricia Regiment, 
1000 men, ready for Bermuda, as well as 7000 men on guard 
duty. In all, 41,000 men are in arms in Canada to-day 
ready to take the field at a moment's notice. 

... I had hoped for a short rest from correspondence 
and so forth, but I am compelled to say that instead of it 
ceasing, it has doubled, and offers continue to come from those 
who would organise regiments for service. 

Every man should prepare himself for the defence of his 
country out of principle. I want to tell you this. You must 
have men trained. War to-day is not what it was in the early 
days. The day of close fighting is past. War to-day is science. 
It is long-distance war. Manoeuvring has a great deal to 
do with successful warfare. Smokeless powder has entered 
into it. It is now a case of mind against matter. I have 
every reason to believe that in this case mind will triumph 
over matter. . . . 

I am glad to say that a good percentage of the Canadian 
boys who have volunteered are of German extraction, and I 
have received an appeal to raise a German regiment from 
Berlin and Waterloo, to go to the front. It is the principle 
of liberty that our boys are fighting for. There is no necessity 
for being alarmed through business depression. Come what 
may, the Empire is united. Canada, Australia, New Zealand, 
and even South Africa are ready to answer the call. Rest 
assured there can be but one outcome the triumph of liberty. 



September 7, 1914. 

STATEMENT OF THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL AFTER 
INSPECTION OF TROOPS AT VALCARTIER CAMP 

Valcartier Camp, September 8, 1914. 

Ottawa The following statement was made by His Royal High- 

Free Press, ness yesterday : 

Sept. 8, '14. < jjis Royal Highness congratulates the Hon. Minister of 
Militia and Defence for Canada on yesterday's well organised 
parade, and was very pleased with the appearance of the 
men under the circumstances, and considers that the parade 
reflected great credit on all ranks. 
308 



DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

' His Royal Highness regrets that, owing to the existing 
conditions of bad weather, the men have been unable to do 
any training to-day, and consequently he has been prevented 
from seeing the troops at their work. He wishes, however, 
to impress upon all ranks the necessity of devoting their 
best energies to training in camp and to the necessity of 
maintaining a high standard of discipline. 

' His Royal Highness leaves the camp with the know- 
ledge that a fine spirit pervades these patriotic Canadians, 
who have come forward so splendidly from all parts of the 
Dominion, to take their share in the defence of the Empire 
at this trying time in her history, and he feels confident that 
their example will be followed by all Canadians capable of 
helping the Motherland in the field should further calls be 
made upon them/ 

September 13, 1914. 
WARNING TO PRESS 

Ottawa, September 13, 1914. 

The authorities would be obliged if Canadian papers made Manitoba 
no reference to the chartering of transports or to their move- Free Press, 
ments, or to the embarkation of troops. Sep. 14, '14. 



September 18, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF MINISTER OF MILITIA 

Valcartier, September 18, 1914. 

The Canadian troops are to preserve their identity in Montreal 
foreign service. This was announced to-night by the Minister Daily Mail, 
of Militia. The various branches of the service will be known Se P- I 9' J 4- 
as No. I Battalion Canada, ist Field Battery, Canada, and 
so on, while the cavalry of the permanent force will retain 
their distinctive names, Royal Canadian Dragoons and 
Lord Strathcona's Horse. The badges used in the South 
African campaign will again be used. The maple leaf will 
be the emblem and the badge ' Canada ' will be worn on the 
shoulder. Colonel Hughes also announced the formation of 
two additional infantry battalions, the I7th l and the i8th, 1 [See 
and that following the departure of the first contingent a P- 3 19-] 

309 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

school of instruction for officers will be established here. The 
Minister said to-night that 25,000 men will leave here to 
form the first contingent. 



September 22, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF PRIME MINISTER 

Ottawa In company with Sir George Foster and Mr. Rogers, I 

Free Press, have spent three days at Valcartier Camp, where we met 

Sep. 23, '14. Colonel Hughes; and had the opportunity of seeing nearly 

25,000 men under review. During the past fortnight the 

men have improved wonderfully in appearance, and I have 

no doubt in efficiency. The organisation of the camp seems 

excellent in every way. Everywhere I found most intense 

anxiety and even impatience to get to the front as soon as 

possible. 

After careful consideration, it was determined yesterday 
to send forward all the fit men in camp, that is all those who 
have passed the necessary medical examination. The Expedi- 
tionary Force, including the Princess Patricia's Light Infantry, 
will number approximately 31,200 and 7500 horses. It will 
comprise II batteries of horse and field artillery of six guns 
each. These are of the most modern type, and are the same 
as those used in the British Army. In addition, four heavy 
guns, known as sixty-pounders, will also go forward, as well 
as a number of machine-guns, many of which have been 
generously donated by patriotic citizens, whose gifts have 
already been acknowledged, and to whom the very sincere 
thanks of the Government and of the people of Canada are 
due. 

The news that the entire force assembled would go forward 
was received with loud demonstrations of the keenest delight 
and satisfaction. Yesterday [Sept. 21] I visited every brigade, 
shook hands with every officer of the force who was available, 
and addressed the assembled officers of each brigade. 

In speaking to the officers I said that Canada was proud 
of the splendid response to the call of duty ; that the Canadian 
people bade them God-speed in the fullest assurance that 
when the Canadian force was called to perform the soldier's 
sternest duty in meeting the foe, we were confident that 
310 



DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

officers and men would so bear themselves as to bring pride 
to the hearts of all Canadians. I said also that while Canada 
was proud of the response that had been evoked by the call 
to arms for the defence of our institutions and liberties, the 
officers and men, inspired by the duty of service to the State, 
should also be proud that the occasion gave them the oppor- 
tunity and privilege of performing that duty. 

The reasons for sending forward the entire force are 
obvious. The men have come forward with great earnest- 
ness and enthusiasm, and have spent some weeks at Val- 
cartier in training and in preparation. The numbers assembled, 
while greatly exceeding the strength of the force at first pro- 
posed to be sent forward, will, to a considerable extent, be 
necessary for the purpose of the reinforcements which from 
time to time will be required. 

The total reinforcements for the first year of a great war 
are estimated at from 60 to 70 per cent. If the reserve depots 
necessary for supplying such reinforcements were established 
in Canada, eight or ten weeks might elapse before they could 
reach the front, through difficulties of transport, convoy, 
etc. If, on the other hand, such reserve depots of men are 
established in Great Britain, the Canadian Expeditionary 
Force can be reinforced to its full strength within four or 
five days. For this reason, as well as others of a like char- 
acter, we deemed it advisable that the reserves should be 
kept on hand in Great Britain, as the force at the front must 
continuously be kept at its full strength, and without the 
slightest unnecessary delay. 

The great demands upon the British Government in 
supplying guns and rifles have made it essential that Canada 
should assist in every possible way. 

Therefore, in addition to the seventy field guns and the 
machine-guns with which the Canadian Expeditionary Force 
is equipped, we are arranging to supply the British Govern- 
ment with the following : 

(1) Forty-seven i8-pounders of the most modern type, 
which had been ordered by the Canadian Government in 
Great Britain before the outbreak of the war, are to be 
handed over to the British Government. 

(2) Fifty-one guns of the same type, which the Department 
of Militia has on hand. These will go forward on the transports. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

(3) Six 6o-pounders, which will also be sent forward at 
the same time. 

(4) About thirty machine-guns ordered by the Canadian 
Government in England before the outbreak of the war. 

All this is being done by the Canadian Government at the 
request of the War Office, in order to assist in equipping the 
great army which is being assembled in the Mother Country. 
It is also expected that a considerable number of rifles will 
be supplied from Canada to the War Office. 

The recent delay in forwarding troops has been altogether 
due to the requirements of the transport, which it is very 
difficult to meet. The force must be under convoy, and 
the steamers, numbering twenty-eight or more, must sail 
at the same time. It will be generally understood that the 
provision of so large a number of steamers, suitably equipped 
for the transportation of men, horses, guns, lorries, field 
transport, and the very numerous articles necessary for the 
equipment of a modern army is no light task. 

The services of Captain Lindsay of the Marine and Fisheries 
Department, who is an expert in such matters, have been 
engaged for many weeks past in assisting the Transport 
Department in this matter. A Committee of prominent 
gentlemen, experienced in transportation across the Atlantic, 
has also volunteered its services to the Government, and 
these gentlemen have been of great assistance, for which 
the thanks of the Government are tendered. 



Ottawa, September 28, 1914. 

'RAISING FRENCH-CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

Ottawa At noon to-day Sir Robert Borden, Colonel Hon. Sam. 

Free Press, Hughes, and Hon. Mr. Coderre received a delegation, headed by 
bep. 28, 14. Hon R d iphe Lemieux, Hon. L. P. Marechal, Senator Belcourt, 
and Mr. M. Tellier, Leader of the Opposition in the Quebec 
House. They asked that the raising of a contingent in the 
Province of Quebec and among French-Canadians in Ontario 
and other parts of the country be immediately undertaken. 
Sir Robert Borden, Colonel Hughes, and Hon. Mr. Coderre ex- 
pressed their approval of the idea; and promised to bring 
it before the Government immediately for official action. 
312 



DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

Dr. Mignault of Montreal put the request before the Govern- 
ment in the first place, saying that there was a widespread 
desire in his province for the opportunity of raising a contingent 
of French-Canadians to serve the King and Empire in the war 
which is being waged in Europe. 

Hon. Rodolphe Lemieux then read a letter from Sir 
Wilfrid Laurier on the subject, as Sir Wilfrid was unable to 
appear in person. The letter was as follows : 

' DEAR SIR ROBERT BORDEN, There is every probability 
that the war will be of long duration, and I understand that 
the Government is already contemplating the organisation 
of a second contingent. 

* May I suggest that as our population is composed of varied 
ethnical elements it might be well to recognise the fact, and 
to allow the formation of units out of these several elements. 

' The War Office at all times has taken full advantage of 
the force of race sentiment in the formation of the army. At 
all times it has counted purely Scotch regiments, as well as 
purely Irish regiments, and we understand that Lord Kitchener 
has just authorised the recruiting of an exclusively Welsh 
force. 

' The aim I have in view is in reference to the formation 
of a French-Canadian regiment. You are probably aware 
that a movement is on foot in Montreal and Quebec for the 
purpose of raising such a regiment. 

' There is every reason to believe that if the formation 
of a French-Canadian unit were authorised, there would be 
a generous response. 

' I offer these observations with the sole object of helping 
in the cause which we have all so much at heart. If you 
think well of my suggestion, I will be happy to assist in any 
way that may be deemed advisable, and I will hold myself 
ready to meet you at your convenience, for a mutual exchange 
of views, both as to the object itself and as to the best means 
of attaining it. Yours very sincerely, WILFRID LAURIER/ 

COLONEL HON. SAM. HUGHES said that there was a large 
number of French-Canadians in the Valcartier force about 
2500, he believed and it had been suggested by him that 
they should be united and formed into one brigade. How- 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [SEP 

ever, when this was suggested to them it was found that 
geography and acquaintance were stronger than race, and 
that the French-Canadian boys from Edmonton, from 
Winnipeg, from New Brunswick, from Ottawa, and else- 
where preferred to stay with the regiments in which they had 
come to camp, and with the friends they knew. He had been 
spoken to in regard to the formation of a French-Canadian 
brigade of four regiments to go forward with a second con- 
tingent, should there be one. He heartily favdured the idea. . . . 

SIR ROBERT BORDEN said that he was delighted with the 
manner in which the whole of the country, including the Pro- 
vince of Quebec, had responded to the call in the great crisis 
of the Empire. When the letter of Sir Wilfrid reached him 
he was indisposed, but on Saturday replied that ' the object 
has my entire sympathy, and I will be glad to confer with 
you on the subject/ It was a fine thing to think that Cana- 
dians of French, German, Scotch, and English extraction 
were willing to fight side by side in the same corps, and it 
was a fine thing too that in Quebec there was a feeling that 
the province should be represented by a special unit. 

He said that there would be opportunity for the raising 
of additional forces, as it was estimated that in the first year 
of the war the Canadian force which had been sent forward 
would have to be supplemented with some 15,000 to 16,000 
additional troops. He promised to bring the request of 
the delegation before the Government, with the recommenda- 
tion that it should be approved. 



FAREWELL MESSAGE OF GOVERNOR-GENERAL 
TO CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

Toronto On the eve of your departure from Canada, I wish to con- 

World, ^ gratulate you on having the privilege of taking part with the 
Oct. 6, '14. O ther Forces of the Crown in fighting for the honour of King 
and Empire. 

You have nobly responded to the call of duty, and Canada 
will know how to appreciate the patriotic spirit that animates 
you. 

I have complete confidence that you will do your duty, 
and that Canada will have every reason to be proud of you. 
You leave these shores with the knowledge that all Canadian 



DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

hearts beat for you, and that our prayers and best wishes will 
ever attend you. May God bless you and bring you back 
victorious. (Signed) ARTHUR, F.M., 

Governor-General of Canada. 



FAREWELL MESSAGE OF MINISTER OF MILITIA 
TO CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

FELLOW SOLDIERS, Six weeks ago, when the call came Quebec 
to arms, inspired by that love of freedom from tyranny domi- Daily 
nant in the British race, actuated by the knowledge that, Telegraph, 
under British Constitutional Responsible Government, you e P-3' I 4- 
enjoyed the utmost of human liberty, you loyally and promptly 
responded in overwhelming numbers to that call. 

Twenty-two thousand men were accepted by the Mother- 
land. To-day upwards of thirty-three thousand are en route 
to do duty on the historic fields of France, Belgium, and 
Germany for the preservation of the British Empire and the 
rights and liberties of humanity. 

Lust of power, the subjugation of inoffensive and law- 
abiding neighbours, autocratic aggrandisement have caused 
this war. In its cause the Allies are guiltless. 

Belgium and Holland have long excited Prussian ambition 
for ownership. Austria has desired extension towards the 
Euxine and ^Egean Seas insane lust of conquest bringing 
ruin, rapine, and misery in its train. 

It had long been predicted that when the Kiel Canal would 
be completed Germany would begin the long-dreaded war. 
The Kiel Canal was completed early in July. War was begun 
before the end of that month. Germany was found absolutely 
ready and waiting. Great Britain, Belgium, and France 
were unprepared. Three weeks elapsed before the regular 
armies of the latter countries could take the field. 

SOLDIERS ! The world regards you as a marvel ! Within 
six weeks you were at your homes, peaceful Canadian citizens. 
Since then your training camp has been secured ; three and 
a half miles of rifle ranges twice as long as any other in 
the world were constructed ; fences were removed ; water 
of the purest quality was laid in miles of pipes ; drainage was 
perfected ; electric light was installed ; crops were harvested ; 
roads and bridges were built ; ordnance and army service 

3*5 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

corps buildings were erected ; railway sidings were laid 
down ; woods were cleared ; sanitation was perfected so 
that illness was practically unknown, and thirty-three thousand 
men were assembled from points some of them upwards of 
four thousand miles apart. You have been perfected in 
rifle-shooting, and to-day are as fine a body officers and 
men as ever faced a foe. The same spirit which accomplished 
that great work is what you will display on the war fields of 
Europe. There will be no faltering, no temporising the 
work must be done. The task before us six weeks ago seemed 
Herculean but it has been successfully accomplished. So, 
following the same indomitable spirit, you will triumph over 
the common enemy of humanity. 

That you will render a splendid account of yourselves for 
King and country is certain. You come of the right breed 
English, Scotch, Irish, French, Welsh, German, and American 
your courage and steadfastness are proverbial. In South 
Africa your presence was a guarantee of success. So in this 
most righteous struggle on the part of Britain, when side 
by side with soldiers from the Motherland stand the freemen 
from the Dominions beyond the seas ; when Australians, 
New Zealanders, South Africans, Hindus, Newfoundlanders, 
and Canadians tread the soil of Europe, then will the Prussian 
autocracy realise the gigantic power of liberty. . . . 

Some may not return and pray God they be few. For 
such, not only will their memory ever be cherished by loved 
ones near and dear, and by a grateful country ; but throughout 
the ages freemen of all lands will revere and honour the 
heroes who sacrificed themselves in preserving unimpaired 
the priceless gem of Liberty. But the soldier going down 
in'the cause of Freedom never dies : Immortality is his. 

What recks he whether his resting place may be bedecked 
with the golden lilies of France or amid the vine-clad hills 
of the Rhine. The principles for which you strive are Eternal. 

May success ever attend you, and when you return rest 
assured a crowning triumph will await you. 

SAM. HUGHES, Colonel, 
Minister of Militia and Defence for Canada. 

[This message was issued in pamphlet form. See Ottawa 
Free Press, Sept. 30, 1914.] 

316 



DESPATCH OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

DEPARTURE FOR ENGLAND OF FIRST 
CANADIAN CONTINGENT * 

Through the darkness and the rain and the mud of the 
night of September 23rd-24th, the guns crawled down the 
sixteen miles of valley that brought them to Quebec at day- 
break, the men drenched, but happy in the knowledge that 
they were at last off to the war. The weather was so bad 
that the infantry, instead of marching, were brought down 
in a long succession of heavy trains. The embarkation of 
horses, men, guns, and wagons was completed in less than 
three days. And so the First Canadian Division, with its 
Reserves, sailed away down the St. Lawrence, in a fleet of 
Atlantic liners such as the mighty gateway of Canada had 
never before borne on her bosom. 

The fleet assembled in Gaspe Basin, on the coast of 
Quebec, where the warships which were to convoy it across 
the Atlantic awaited it. On October 3rd, the transports 
steamed out of Gaspe Bay in three lines ahead, led by His 
Majesty's ships Charybdis, Diana, and Eclipse, with the Glory 
and Suffolk on the flanks, and the Talbot in the rear. Later, 
the Suffolk's place was taken by the battle-cruiser Queen 
Mary. The sealing-ship Florizel, with the Newfoundland 
Regiment aboard, joined the fleet after its departure from 
Gaspe Bay. 

The voyage was uneventful if rather long, the fleet entering 
Plymouth Sound on the evening of October I4th. So strict 
had been the censorship that the arrival of the Canadian 
Armada was quite unexpected by the people of Plymouth 
and Devonport ; but no sooner had the word gone forth that 
the Canadian transports had arrived, than the townsfolk 
flocked to the waterside, to cheer and sing, and cheer again. 

1 [From Canada in Flanders, by Sir Max. Aitken, M.P. (Lord Beaver- 
brook), Canadian Record Officer, pp. 7-8. Another account of the depar- 
ture for England of the First Canadian Contingent, with the names of the 
chief officers and of the transports, will be found on pp. 203-5 of the 
Canadian Annual Review, 1914. Rear-Admiral Rosslyn E. Wemyss, 
C.M.G., D.S.O., was in command of the convoy.] 



317 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYOVERSEAS [SEPT 



[Cf.p.84.] COMPOSITION OF THE FIRST CANADIAN 

CONTINGENT 1 

i. THE IST DIVISION, C.E.F. 

The ist Division, now on service overseas, 2 has been 
organised on the same lines as a Division, of the Regular 
Army ; with the single important exception that it does not 
include a brigade of howitzers. It consists of 

Infantry. 

Three brigades, each of four battalions. 

Divisional Mounted Troops. 

A squadron of cavalry. 
A company of cyclists. 

Divisional Artillery. 

Three field artillery brigades (a). 

A heavy artillery battery (b) with ammunition 

column. 
A divisional ammunition column. 

Divisional Engineers. 

Three field companies (c). 

Signal Service. 

A divisional signal company. 

Supply and Transport. 

A divisional train (d). 

Medical Service. 

Three field ambulances. 

(a) Each field (i8-pr. Q.F.) artillery brigade went out with three 6-gun 
batteries ; but four 4-gun batteries have since been substituted. 

(b) Four guns 6o-pr. B.L. 

(c) The third company was added after the Division reached England. 

(d) Four companies A.S.C. 

318 



COMPOSITION OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

2. ARMY TROOPS AND SURPLUS UNITS 

The following Army Troops embarked with the ist Division : 
The Royal Canadian Dragoons. 
Lord Strathcona's Horse. 
' A ' and ' B ' Batteries R.C.H.A. 
Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry. 
An armoured motor machine-gun brigade. 
Not counting Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry 
(now serving with the 27th Division), seventeen battalions 
were included in the First Contingent. 

Twelve of them form the infantry of the ist Canadian 
Division, and are under orders to vacate their present quarters. 
Of the surplus remaining on Salisbury Plain, the 6th Battalion 
(composed entirely of detachments from mounted corps) is 
to serve as a depot for the purpose of providing cavalry 
reinforcements ; the Qth, nth, and I2th Battalions will 
furnish reinforcements for the infantry ; and the I7th Bat- 
talion forms a general reserve. 

3. LINE OF COMMUNICATION UNITS 

Line of communication units are administrative units 
required for duty on lines of communication in rear of the 
fighting troops. 

Those shown in the following list embarked with, or soon 
after, the ist Division, C.E.F. Units. 

Ammunition Number 

Divisional ammunition park (a) . . . i 

Medical 

Casualty clearing station (b) . . . i 

Stationary hospitals . . . . .2 

General hospitals . . . . .2 

Advanced depot of medical stores . . i 

Transport and Supply 

Divisional supply column (a) . . i 

Reserve park (c) . . . . i 

Railway supply detachment . . . i 

Depot units of supply . . . .4 

Bakery section . . . . i 

(a) Mechanical transport. (b) Formerly called ' clearing hospital/ 

(c) Horse transport. 

319 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Remounts 

Remount depot . . . . . i 

Veterinary 

Mobile veterinary sections . . .2 

Veterinary sections . . . .2 

Base depot of veterinary stores . . . i 

Ordnance 
Ordnance depot .... . i 

Pay 

Base pay depot . . . . . i 

EQUIPMENT SENT WITH IST CANADIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

Subject. Number. Approbate 

Guns and Carriages, Q.F. i8-pr. . . 54 $432,000 oo 

Wagons, Ammunition, Q.F. i8-pr. . . 162 594,ooo oo 

Cartridges, Q.F. i8-pr., Shrapnel fuzed . 81,000 891,000 oo 

Guns and Carriages, Q.F. 13-pr. . 12 90,000 oo 

Wagons, Ammunition, Q.F. 13-pr. . . 24 84,000 oo 

Cartridges, Q.F. 13-pr. Shrapnel fuzed . 18,017 180,170 oo 

Guns and Carriages, B.L. 6o-pr. . . 4 80,000 oo 

Wagons, General Service ... 12 4,800 oo 

Cartridges and Shell, B.L. 6o-pr. . . 6,000 150,000 oo 

Cartridges, Small Arm Ball .3O3-inch . 20,000,000 600,000 oo 

Machine-Guns, .3O3-inch ... 76 53,200 oo 

Pistols, Colts, Automatic, 45-inch . . 2,070 47,613 oo 

Rifles, Long Ross, Mark III . . . 22,100 176,800 oo 

Rifles, Long Ross, Mark II . . . 2,237 61,636 oo 

Rifles, Short Ross, Mark II . . . 1,400 35,ooo oo 

Cartridges, Pistol, Colts, 45-inch . . 300,000 5, 400 oo 
Wagons, Bain 

Heavy and Light (for baggage, stores, 

and supplies) .... 853 ' 85,300 oo 

Motor Cars and Trucks, Ambulances, On 

Water Carts, Telephone Wagons, and War 

Engineer Vehicles .... Scales. 100,000 oo 

Total $3,670,919 oo 



320 



COMPOSITION OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

CONTRACTS FOR CLOTHING, EQUIPMENT, ETC., 
OF EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

September 22, 1914. 
To His Royal Highness the Governor -General in Council. 

The undersigned has the honour to submit, for the infor- 
mation and approval of Your Royal Highness in Council, the 
following papers relative to the making of contracts for 
supplies for the Canadian Expeditionary Force : 

1. General statement of conditions under which contracts 
for clothing and equipment, etc., were made. This is signed 
by the Quarter-Master-General and the Director of Contracts. 

2. A list of the orders placed and contracts made for 
clothing and necessaries, equipment and warlike stores, etc. ; 
giving contractor's name, contract prices and quantities, and 
the aggregate amount of each contract or order. 

The whole respectfully submitted. 

(Sgd.) R. L. BORDEN, 
Acting Minister of Militia and Defence. 

GENERAL STATEMENT OF CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH CONTRACTS 
FOR CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT, ETC., FOR THE CANADIAN 
EXPEDITIONARY FORCE WERE MADE. 

War was declared on the evening of August 4 last. 

The Canadian Expeditionary Force was authorised by Order 
in Council of August 10, to be despatched as early as possible. 

Before it could be sent clothing, warlike and other stores 
and equipment of all kinds had to be found for a force of 
22,000 to 25,000 men. 

Six weeks from August 10 was the date set for delivery of 
supplies of all kinds. 

The Quarter-Master-General is charged with the responsi- 
bility for storing and issuing to the Militia, clothing, equip- 
ment and stores, and contracts for these are made upon his 
requisition. 

The stocks on hand were, of course, totally inadequate to 
meet the requirements, more especially as the non-payment 
Militia had never been supplied with underwear, shirts, boots, 
or personal necessaries generally ; and drab uniform clothing 
had not been issued to many non-permanent regiments. 
OVERSEAS i. x 321 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

The Quarter-Master-General was, therefore, called upon, 
at very short notice, to provide clothing and necessaries of all 
kinds, equipment, ammunition, harness, saddlery, vehicles, 
tents, food for men, and forage for horses, in quantities which 
could only be estimated approximately ; since the numbers 
of the troops to be called out for the defence of different points 
throughout Canada could not be determined beforehand, and 
the exact numbers to be encamped at Valcartier were also 
uncertain. 

As a matter of fact, the numbers called out locally and 
the total encamped at Valcartier were both considerably in 
excess of the original estimate. 

The first batch of requisitions was made on the loth 
August, for clothing generally, uniforms, etc. These called for 
65,000 pairs ankle boots, 
35,000 caps, 
3,000 cloaks, 
15,000 great coats, 
40,000 jackets, 
33,000 pairs puttees, 

6,500 pairs pantaloons, 
50,000 suits service clothing, 
100,000 suits underclothing, 
100,000 flannel shirts, 
150,000 pairs socks, 

and supplies of more than twenty other different descriptions. 
These quantities may seem large, but a considerable excess 
of the quantities actually required is essential to fill demands 
for sizes. 

Each man requires two suits of underwear, at least three 
pair socks, two flannel shirts, two pairs of boots, and so on. 

In the case of the uniform clothing, underwear, shirts, 
socks, puttees, etc., the wool had to be procured and woven 
before the articles could be made up. 

In the case of the boots, at least ten days or two weeks 
must elapse before the manufacturer could begin the actual 
work of manufacture. 

Another cause of delay was that, owing to the very large 
quantities required, it was necessary to deal with many 
concerns unfamiliar with Militia requirements, and this 
meant considerable loss of time in every case. 
322 



COMPOSITION OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

All these considerations, and especially the very short 
time allowed for delivery, made it absolutely imperative 
to place all orders at the very earliest possible moment. 

These requisitions could not be taken up in turn. They 
were all equally pressing and must therefore be all dealt with 
at once. This made the work immensely harder. 

If an Order in Council had been necessary in each case, 
the difficulty of procuring the supplies in time would have 
been insurmountable. 

Under present circumstances, it has been difficult and in 
some cases impossible to meet all demands as they were made. 
For instance, the boots contracted for were actually delivered 
well within the specified six weeks, but notwithstanding this, 
complaints were received daily that they were not being 
issued fast enough. This applies to the underwear also; 
50,000 suits were soon available, but not early enough to 
forestall complaints. 

Had it been necessary in these and all other cases to refer 
the proposed contracts to Council for authority, presumably 
this would not have been merely for registration there, but 
for serious consideration of the facts ; involving probably 
the furnishing of additional data, answers to inquiries, etc., 
all of which would have resulted in a disastrous loss of 
time. 

The prompt despatch of the contingent depended for the 
most part upon the readiness with which supplies were forth- 
coming, and the date of departure would have been post- 
poned weeks and possibly months by the proposed procedure. 

The longer the contingent remains in Canada, the greater 
the cost of subsistence. 

The batch of requisitions mentioned above covered cloth- 
ing alone and not all of that. Later on, but as quickly as 
they could be prepared by the Q.M.G.'s staff, requisitions 
were made for stores and equipment of all kinds, embracing 
a very wide range of supplies hardware, cutlery, leather 
goods of all kinds, drugs and medicines, surgical instruments 
and appliances, electric supplies, cordage, tents, canvas goods, 
cotton and linen goods, blankets, knit goods, wood and steel 
work, etc., and each item in considerable quantities. 

In many cases these stores were of a highly technical 
character and had hitherto been supplied by the War Office, 

323 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

but had now to be found or improvised in Canada, and this 
entailed additional delay and trouble. 

The time limit for delivery remained the same, namely, six 
weeks from, say, August 10, and as these requisitions were 
submitted later than the first batch, the time allowed to fill 
them was correspondingly shorter and the pressing urgency 
for action more immediate in each succeeding case. 

Unforeseen circumstances delayed other batches of requi- 
sitions still later. 

The patterns of transport wagons and other vehicles were 
under consideration for some time. Until these were settled, 
nothing could be done towards buying. This also delayed 
the contracts for harness, tarpaulins, etc. 

From time to time, even up to the present, changes and 
additions to the establishment were found necessary or 
advisable ; and each of these invariably resulted in a fresh 
batch of requisitions for clothing and stores, supplementary 
to the earlier ones, to meet the new requirements. 

For instance, since August 10 arrangements have been 
made for a postal service and pay office at the base, two 
field hospitals and other services on the line of communica- 
tions ; additional cavalry and artillery, the R.C.D., L.S.H., 
and R.C.H.A. ; the Automobile Gun Brigade ; Princess 
Patricia's Regiment ; each of these additions at different 
times meant supplementary requisitions and contracts for a 
wide variety of supplies, repeated again and again. The 
time set for delivery remained the same on or before Septem- 
ber 21 so that if at first a reference to Council was difficult 
or impracticable, in the later case it was quite obviously 
impossible. 

Some two or three hundred requisitions have been made 
since September 12, requiring delivery without fail before 
September 21, as a consequence of the decision to send two 
field hospitals a decision only very lately reached. 

Certain of the supplies required were procured under 
contracts which are now in force and have been for some 
years past. These cover the supplies of uniform clothing 
of all kinds ; cloths, serges, frieze, and denim for clothing ; 
cordite, rifles, and tents. Such supplies were therefore 
ordered as a matter of routine from the regular departmental 
contractors. 
324 



COMPOSITION OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

In the case of the cloths, serges, etc., the regular con- 
tractors, the Rosamond Woollen Mills, the Paton Mills, 
and the Trent Valley Mills, could not supply us fast enough, 
and hence the Forbes Mills of Hespeler, and the Auburn 
Mill of Peterborough, were given supplementary contracts. 
Other mills were tried, but without success. 

This was a matter of the most extreme urgency, since the 
clothing had to be made after the mill had made up the 
material and all within six weeks time. 

The coffee and tea for the Militia in Quebec Province were 
under contract since April i, with Montreal firms. A sup- 
plementary contract was also found necessary in this case, 
Messrs. S. and H. Ewing and Co., Montreal, being the new 
contractors. 

The food for men and horses was contracted for only 
after competitive tenders had been obtained. Contracts 
went to the lowest tender. 

Contract for vehicles of all kinds were made by an extra- 
departmental agent, Mr. T. A. Russell, Motor Car Company, 
employed by the Minister. Mr. Russell's expert knowledge 
of the subject was of great advantage to the Department, 
and the arrangement was certainly in the public interest. 
All his transactions were authorised by the Minister, in writing, 
-upon Mr. Russell's report ; and orders in writing given the 
contractors by the D. of C. to confirm. 

The procuring of raw material for the manufacture of 
small arm ammunition required the greatest promptitude. 
Large supplies of steel, copper, nickel, lead, spelter, and other 
metals were required ; and the specifications, especially for 
steel and copper, were very exacting and hard to meet. 

It was of the utmost importance to get this material with 
the least possible delay ; not only to speed manufacture but 
to forestall other bids and a certain advance in the market 
price. Moreover, quotations for copper, at least, are always 
subject to immediate acceptance. 

The steel was ordered from the last contractor, the Crucible 
Steel Company probably the only concern available, since 
the British supply was temporarily cut off. 

Tenders for lead and copper were obtained by telegram 
and telephone, and contracts made with the lowest tenderer. 
The spelter was ordered from the last contractor. 

325 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

The nickel had hitherto been procured direct from the 
Mond Nickel Company of England, and, as this source was 
temporarily cut off, much difficulty was experienced in getting 
the necessary supply. Eventually this was procured. 

The prices in all these cases were fair and reasonable, 
taking into account the market rates and the special require- 
ments of the departmental specifications. 

The procedure, followed in the case of all supplies of cloth- 
ing and stores not already specifically dealt with, was to 
obtain tenders if possible ; or give repeat orders at prices 
fixed by competitive tender within the last twelve months ; 
or to fix a price for the contractors' acceptance. In certain 
cases, the contractor submitted his quotations. In every 
case, however, prices were subjected to careful scrutiny by 
experts who have been buying supplies of the kind for years 
past. 

All contracts or orders for supplies of any kind have been 
authorised, in writing, either by the Minister or the Deputy 
Minister excepting in the case of purchases under $100 in 
value. 

The system adopted and followed has resulted in good 
and satisfactory service in respect of deliveries, and at fair 
and reasonable prices throughout. 

D. A. MACDONALD, 
H. W. BROWN, D. of C. Maj.-GenL, Q.M.G. 



PART I 

STATEMENT OF CONTRACTS MADE FOR STORES, CLOTHING, 
ETC., FOR EXPEDITIONARY FORCE, CHARGEABLE TO WAR 
APPROPRIATION 

Recapitulation 

Clothing $2,432,927 54 

Personal and camp equipment . . . 1,057,881 06 
Wagons, carts, motors, etc. . . . 629,832 oo 

Harness, saddlery, and horse equipment . 250,241 65 
Engineer and sundry stores . . . 187,127 25 

Medical equipment stores . . . 217,893 12 



Grand total ..... $4,775,902 62 
326 



fl COMPOSITION OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 



CLOTHING CONTRACTS 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


3. B. McCarthy 


Toronto . . 


Boot laces .... 


100,000 prs. 


2 50 gr. 


1,944 10 


3oyd Caldwell . 


Lanark 


Puttees .... 


"33 OOO 


i 20 


39,600 oo 






Socks 


1,700 doz 


2 54 


4,318 oo 


5tanfields,"Ltd. '. '. 


Truro, N.S.' ! 


Underwear (suits) . 


1,000 


21 oo doz 


21,000 00 


?enmans, Ltd. . 


Paris, Ont. 


,, ,, * 


2,000 


22 00 


44,000 oo 


Mark Workman Co. 


Montreal . . 


Cloaks, drab 


3,000 


13 23 


39,690 oo 


Ames, Holden, McCready 


99 ' ' 


Boots, ankle . . 


20,000 


3 85 


77,000 oo 


Fetrault Shoe Mfg. Co. 




99 99 ' ' 


20,000 


3 85 


77,000 oo 


Cooper Cap Co. . 


Toronto . . 


Braces . . . 


33,000 


3 60 


9,900 oo 


Muir Cap Co. ... 
Hamilton Uniform Cap 


Hamilton . 


Caps, forage, drab . 


2,000 
5,000 


26* 

26* 


2,523 33 
6,308 33 


Co. 












A. Harry Wolfe . . . 
William Scully . . . 


Montreal 


" ;; ;; ; ; 


8,000 
15,000 


26* 

26* 


10,093 33 
18,923 33 


J. M. Garland Son . . 


Ottawa . ! ! 


Shirts, flannel ". . . 


600 


25 


750 00 


The Two Macs . . . 






2,160 


25 


2,700 oo 


Kingston Hosiery Co. . 
T. A. Code .... 


Kingston . 
Perth . . . 


socks ." . : : : 


50,000 
18,000 


2 10 doz 

2 64 


8,750 oo 
3,960 oo 


Burritts Rapids Woollen 


Burritts Rapids 




8,000 


2 64 


1,760 oo 


Mills. 












Boyd Caldwell . . . 


Lanark . 


>f 


20,000 


2 54 


4,233 33 


Scott Bros 


IVfontrf^jil 


Shirts, flannel . . 


6,000 


15 40 ,, 


7,700 oo 


Grant, Holden & Gra- 


Ottawa . . . 




10,000 


i 37 


13,700 oo 


ham. 












MacKenzie, Ltd. . . 


>, 





56,000 


i 37 


48,960 oo 


Smart-Woods, Ltd. . . 








30,000 


i 37 


41,250 oo 


Turnbull Co., Ltd. . . 


Gait ! ! ! 


Underwear (suits) . 


9,000 


i 76 


15,840 oo 


Louis Gauthier Co. . 


Quebec . 


Boots, ankle 


10,000 


3 85 pr. 


38,500 oo 


Stanfields, Ltd. . . . 


Truro . 


Underwear (suits) . 


20,000 


21 oo doz 


35,000 oo 


Penmans, Ltd. . 


Paris, Ont. 





30,000 


22 00 


55,000 oo 


William Scully . 


Montreal . . 


Helmets, Wolseley, com- 


9,000 


2 38J 


21,465 oo 






plete with bags and 












covers 








Tooke Bros 


, 


Shirts, flannel . . . 


150 


15 oo doz. 


2,250 oo 


Hartt Boot & Shoe Co. 


Fredericton 


Boots, ankle . . . 


6,000 prs. 


3 66f 


22,000 oo 


Amherst Boot & Shoe 


Amherst . . 


... 


2,000 


3 80 


7,600 oo 


Co. 












Slater Shoe Co. . . . 


Montreal 





1,000 


3 85 


3,850 oo 


E. H. Pulford (Gault 


Ottawa . ". . 


Shirts, flannel . . . 


840 


I OO 


840 oo 


Bros.). 












W. E. Sanford Mfg. Co. 


Hamilton . 


Drab serge uniforms 


20,000 


9 84 


196,800 oo 


Mark Workman Co. 


Montreal . . 


Great coats, drab . 


15,000 


9 64 


144,600 oo 


Tetrault Shoe Co. . . 





Shoes, canvas . 


16,500 


2 OO 


33,000 oo 


Paton Mfg. Co. . . . 


Sherbrooke . 


Socks 


21,600 


2 50 doz. 


21,600 oo 


A. E. Rea Co., Ltd. 


Dttawa . 


Towels 


437 doz. 


2 77 


1,210 49 


Mark Workman Co. 


Montreal . . 


Drab serge uniforms 


15,000 


9 84 


147,600 oo 


Louis Gauthier Co. . 


Quebec . 


Canvas shoes 


17,000 prs. 


2 00 


34,000 oo 


Ames, Holden, McCready. 


Montreal . . 





16,500 


2 OO 


33,000 oo 


Renfrew Knitting Co. . 


Renfrew 


Socks 


34,000 doz. 


2 75 doz. 


7,820 oo 


Anderson Macbeth . 


Toronto 


ielmets only, Wolseley 


3,000 


i 65 ea. 


4,950 00 


Murphy-Gamble 
A. E. Rea Co., Ltd. . 


Ottawa . . . 


Puggarees .... 


30,000 
25,000 


o 25 
o 25 


7,5oo oo 
6,250 oo 


J. M. Garland Son . . 





. 


5,ooo 


o 27 


1,350 oo 


R. C. Wilkins Co. . . 


Farnham 


shirts 


600 


19 oo doz. 


950 oo 


Schofield Woollen Co. . 


Oshawa 


Winter underwear . 


5,ooo 


21 00 


8,750 oo 


P. W. Ellis & Co. . . 


Toronto . . 


Badges, collar and cap, 


00,000 


o 05 up. 


13,000 oo 






maple leaf 








Walter Blue Co. . . 


Sherbrooke 


Trousers, service . 


15,000 


i 22 pr. 


18,300 oo 


Mark Workman Co. 


Montreal . . 


Breeches, drab cloth . 


6,500 


6 97 


45,305 00 



327 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

CLOTHING CONTRACTS continued 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


J. Macpherson Co. . 


Hamilton , 


Ankle boots , 


6,000 prs. 


3 85 


23,100 oo 


Rosamond Woollen Co. 


Almonte 


Puttees, drab . . . 


1,800 


o 75 


1,350 oo 


Ames, Holden, Mc- 


Montreal . 


Slippers, leather 


600 


i 50 


900 oo 


Cready, Ltd. . . . 












Grant, Holden & Gra- 


Ottawa . 


Coats, lab 


48 


2 25 


1 08 00 


ham. 












Mark Workman Co., Ltd. 
Canadian Consolidated 


Montreal 
,, 


Pantaloons, service 
Jackets and trousers, 


10,000 

48 ea. 


2 05 

i oo ea. 


20,500 oo 
96 oo 


Rubber Co. 




oilskin 








99 99 99 


99 ' 


Boots, w.p., hats, sou'- 


144 


3 50 doz. 


486 96 






wester 








> 


If 


Boots, coats, hats . 


60 pr. Boots 


3 09 pr. 


) 








12 Coats . 


5 45 ea. 


V 268 30 








60 Hats . 


3 50 doz. 


J 


Protestant Industrial 


99 


Flannel shirts . 


2,000 


i 25 ea. 


2,500 oo 


Rooms. 












Christie Grant Co, 


Winnipeg , 


Shirts, flannel . 


5,100 


14 oo doz. 


5,950 00 


George Sweet 


Hamilton . 


Jackets, drab . 


650 


5 7o ea. 


3,705 00 


A. Harry Wolfe . 


Montreal . 


Forage caps 


5,ooo 


I 26J 


5,308 33 


T. Eaton Co., Ltd. 


Toronto 


Pyjamas, suits . 


125 


13 50 doz. 


140 62 


John Macdonald Co. Ltd. 


99 


99 99 * * 


125 


16 50 


171 87 


W. R. Brock Co., Ltd. 




99 99 * ' 


125 


16 50 ,, 


171 87 


J. M. Garland & Son Co. 


Ottawa . 




125 


16 oo 


1 66 66 


John W. Peck Co., Ltd. 


Montreal . . 


Trousers, service 


10,000 


O7i pr. 


10,750 oo 


Smart-Woods, Ltd. . . 


Ottawa . 


Shirts, service . 


25,000 


oo ea. 


25,000 oo 


Williams, Green & Rome 


Berlin . . . 


99 99 * * 


10,000 


oo ,, 


10,000 oo 


Murray- Kay Co. 


Toronto 




3,000 


00 


5,000 oo 


Tooke Bros. . 








oo ,, 


5,000 oo 


John Forsyth Co. 


Berlin . . . 


t 


5,000 


00 


5,000 oo 


Semi- Ready Ltd. 


Montreal . 


Trousers, service 


5,000 prs. 


O7i pr. 


5,375 oo 


R. C. Wilkins Co. 


Farnham . 


99 99 * 


10,000 


07 


10,750 oo 


Ames, Holden, McCready 


Montreal . 


Laces, boot, prs. 


700 gr. 


o 95 gr- 


665 oo 


Can. Consolidated Rub- 


99 


Waterproof coats 


144 


5 45 ea. 


784 oo 


ber Co. 












Penmans, Ltd. . 


Paris . . . 


Socks 


600 prs. 


2 88 


144 oo 


Ames, Holden, McCready 


Montreal 


Slippers 


600 


I SO 


900 oo 


Boyd, Caldwell, Ltd. . 


Lanark 


Puttees 


\S\J\J ,, 

15 ooo 


A J u 

I IO 


16 500 oo 


T. Eaton Co., Ltd. . 


Toronto 


Pyjamas, suits . 


600 


13 50 doz 


675 oo 


Mark Workman Co. 


Montreal . 


Great coats, drab . 


25,000 


9 64 


241,000 oo 






Breeches, drab . 


15,000 


6 97 


104,550 oo 


A. E. Rea Co., Ltd. . 


Ottawa . . . 


Night shirts . . . 


600 


o 77 


462 oo 


Smart-Woods, Ltd. . . 


99 ... 


Shirts, cotton hos. . 


150 


o 85 


127 50 


Cook Fitzgerald Co. . 


London 


Boots, ankle . . . 


3,000 prs. 


3 85 


11,550 oo 


Western Shoe Co. . . 


Berlin . . . 


99 


2,000 


3 85 


7,700 oo 


Smart-Woods, Ltd. . . 


Ottawa . . . 


i s'hirt and i trousers , 






2 07 


John Gault .... 


99 ... 


i jkt. and i trs. 


. , 




24 oo 


Mark Workman Co. 


Montreal . 


i jkt., i trs., i breeches 




. 


16 81 


Valentine & Martin 


Waterloo . . 


Boots, ankle 


2,000 prs. 


3 85 


7,700 oo 


King Suspender Co. 


Toronto . 


Braces 


jO OOO , 


3 60 doz 


3,000 oo 


Relindo Shoe Co. . . 




Boots, ankle 


i 3,000 


3 85 


11,550 oo 


Humphreys Pure Wool 


Moncton 


Shirts, winter . ... 


! 5,ooo 


10 oo doz 


4, 1 66 66 


Company. 












M ,, ,9 


99 ... 


Drawers, winter 


7,5oo 


10 00 


6,250 oo 


Paton Mfg. Co. . 


Sherbrooke 


Socks .... 


1,700 prs 


2 50 doz 


354 J 6 


Crescent Mfg. Co. . . 


Montreal 


Flannel shirts . . . 


5,ooo 


i 34 ea. 


6,700 oo 


Dominion Suspender Co. 


Niagara Falls . 


Braces ..... 


10,000 


3 60 doz 


2,760 oo 


Boyd Caldwell Co. . 


Lanark 


Socks 


10 ooo prs 


2 S4. 


2,108 67 


Renfrew Knitting Co. . 


Renfrew 




zojooo 


* OT 99 
2 76 


2,300 oo 


Penmans, Ltd. . , 


Paris . . . 




15,000 ,, 


2 88 


3,600 oo 


T. A. Code .... 


Perth . . . 


? 


10,000 


2 64 


2,200 oo 



328 



9 4] COMPOSITION OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

CLOTHING CONTRACTS continued 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


Kingston Hosiery Co. 


Kingston 


Socks 


10,000 prs. 


2 10 doz 


1,750 oo 


Burritts Rapids Woollen 


Burritts Rapids 




3,000 


2 64 


660 oo 


Co. 












Dodd's Knitting Co. . 


Orangeville 


Shirts, winter . . . 


5,ooo 


10 40 doz. 


4,333 33 


Almonte Knitting Co. . 


Almonte 


ii ii ... 


5,ooo 


10 50 


4,375 oo 


Gait Knitting Co. . . 


Gait . . . 


ii ii ... 


1,500 


10 50 


1,312 50 


Schofield Knitting Co. . 


Oshawa 




5,ooo 


10 50 ,, 


4,375 oo 


Almonte Knitting Co. . 


Almonte 


Drawers, winter 


7,500 prs. 


10 50 ,, 


6,562 50 


Dodds Knitting Co. 


Orangeville 


ii ii 


7,5oo 


10 40 ,, 


6,500 oo 


Scott Bros .... 


Montreal 


Flannel shirts 


I,IOO 


15 40 ,, 


1,411 57 


Eastern Shirt Co. . . 


Truro 


ii ii ... 


2,000 


16 50 


2,750 oo 


Christie Grant Co. . 


Winnipeg . 




5,000 


14 oo ,, 


5,833 33 


Hudson Bay Knitting Co. 


Montreal . 


ii ii ... 


2,000 


14 82 


2,470 oo 


Smart-Woods, Ltd. . . 


Ottawa . . . 


ii ii ... 


15,000 


i 37i ea. 


20,625 oo 


J. W. Peck Co. . . . 
Goodwins, Ltd. . 


Montreal . 




10,000 

5,000 


14 50 doz. 
15 75 


12,083 33 
6,563 oo 


Deacon Shirt Co. . . 


Belleville ! ! 


ii ii . . 


3,000 


13 00 


3,240 oo 


Bates & Innes . 


Carleton Place 


Shirts, winter . 


3,000 


9 50 


2,375 oo 


Ames, Holden, McCready 


Montreal . 


Canvas shoes 


10,000 prs. 


2 00 


20,000 00 


Tetrault Shoe Co. . . 


i> 


ii n ... 


10,000 


2 OO 


20,000 oo 


Stanfields, Ltd. . . . 


Truro . 


Shirts, winter . 


15,000 


10 50 doz. 


13,125 oo 


Gait Knitting Co. . . 


Gait . . . 


Drawers, winter 


2,250 


10 50 ,, 


1,968 75 


Schofield, Ltd. . . . 


Oshawa . . 


ii ii 


7,5oo 


10 50 ,, 


6,562 50 


Bates & Innes . . 


Carleton Place 




4,5oo 


9 50 


3,562 50 


Stanfield, Ltd. . . . 


Truro . . . 


ii n 


22,500 


10 50 


19,687 50 


Tetrault Shoe Mfg. Co. 


Montreal 


Ankle boots 


11,000 prs. 


3 85 


42,350 oo 


Ames, Holden, McCready 


,, ... 


ii ii ... 


12,000 


3 85 


46,200 oo 


Amherst Boot & Shoe Co. 


Amherst 


n ii ... 


2,000 ,, 


3 85 


7,700 oo 


Ames, Holden, McCready 


Montreal 


Boot laces .... 


7,5oo 


o 95 gr. 


49 48 


Dodds Knitting Co. 


Orangeville 


Shirts, winter . 


5,ooo 


10 40 doz. 


4,334 oo 






Drawers . 


7,500 


10 40 ,, 


6,500 oo 


A/E. Rea Co. ." ! ! 


Ottawa . 


Drawers, flannel 


i,75o 


i 07 ea. 


1,872 50 


Gault Bros. . . . . 


Montreal . 


Buttons, gross . 


78 


i 84 gr. 


136 75 


Monarch Knitting . 


Dunnville . 


Sweater coats . . . 


i, 800 


2 OO 


3,600 oo 


Louis Gauthier Co. . 


Quebec . . . 


Canvas shoes 


5,ooo 


2 00 


10,000 00 


Caulfield, Burns & Gibson 


Toronto . . 


Jackets and trs., white 
" suits 


50 


i 92 suit 


96 oo 


Ames, Holden, McCreadv 


Montreal 


Slippers 


200 prs. 


i 50 


300 oo 


Mitchell Woollen Co. .' 


Mitchell . . 


Drawers, winter 


3,750 


9 50 doz. 


2,8l2 50 


> 


n 


Shirts, winter . 


2,500 


9 


1,875 oo 


Smart- Woods, Ltd!'. . 


Ottawa . . . 


Bolsters, barrack . 


500 


o 27 ea. 


135 00 


Tetrault Shoe Co. . . 


Montreal 


Canvas shoes 


10,000 


2 OO 


20,000 oo 


Ames, Holden, McCready 


ii 


i> n 


10,000 


2 00 


20,000 00 


Mackenzie, Ltd. 


Ottawa . . 


Shirts, winter . 


3iSoo 


10 50 doz. 


3,062 oo 


,, 


n 


Drawers, winter 


5i25o 


10 50 


4,594 oo 


Smart- Woods',' Ltd. . . 


n 


Aprons, cook's . 


50 


o 35 


17 50 


A. E. Rea Co., Ltd. 


ii 


Neckerchiefs . . 


i,75o 


o 09 ea. 


167 50 


Smart-Woods, Ltd. . . 




Shirts, cotton 


3,350 


o 85 


2,847 50 


T. Eaton Co. ... 


Toronto . . 


Jackets and trs., sleep 


525 


7 50 doz. 


1,078 12 






ing 


1,200 piec 


es. 




A. E. Rea Co., Ltd. 


Ottawa . . . 


Shirts, flannel . 


3,300 


i 07 ea. 


3,531 00 


William Scully . . . 


Montreal . 


Chevrons 


300 


o 20 av. 


60 oo 


Reliance Knitting Co. . 


Toronto 


Sweater coats . 


1,000 


24 oo doz. 


2,000 00 


A M. Ballantyne . . 


Stratford . 


Woollen gloves . 


10,000 prs. 


4 25 


3,540 00 


Monarch Knitting Co. . 


Dunnville . 


Caps, comforters . 


5,ooo 


6 oo 


2,500 oo 


Mark Workman Co. 


Montreal 


Great coats, drab . 


2 


. , 


19 28 


> ii 


ii 


Jackets, trousers, drab 


2 




19 26 






serge, each 








Smart- Woods, Ltd. . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Shirts, cotton, hospital 


400 


o 85 ea. 


340 oo 


A. E. Rea Co. ... 





Shirts, flannel, hospital 


400 


i 07 


308 oo 



329 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

CLOTHING CONTRACTS continued 



[SEP 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


Monarch Knitting Co. . 


Dunnville . 


Sweater coats . 


1,800 


2 oo ea. 


3,600 oo 


Can. Consolidated Rub- 


Montreal . 


Boots, knee rubber 


100 


3 09 


309 oo 


ber Company. 












Williams, Greene & Rome 


Berlin . . . 


Shirts, service . 


5,ooo 


i 15 ea. 


5,750 oo 


R. C. Wilkins . 


Farnham 


Trousers, service 


3,000 


r 20 pr. 


3,600 oo 


Semi- Ready Co. 


Montreal . 




3,000 


I 20 


3,600 oo 


John Forsyth 


Berlin . . . 


Shirts, service . 


5,ooo 


i 15 ea. 


5,750 00 


Murray- Kay, Ltd. 


Toronto 


99 99 ... 


5,ooo 


i 15 ,, 


5,750 00 


R. M. Ballantyne 
Kitchen Overall Co. . 


Stratford . . 
Brampton . 


Gloves, woollen 
Trousers, service 


5,160 prs. 

1,000 


4 25 doz. 
i 20 pr. 


1,827 50 

I,2OO OO 


Humphrey Underwear 


Moncton 


Drawers, winter 


3,000 


10 oo doz. 


2,500 oo 


Co. 












J. M. Garland Son Co . 


Ottawa . 


Overalls 


800 


O *7*% Dr 


600 oo 


Walter Blue Co. . . 


Sherbrooke 


Trousers, service 


4,000 


^ / D tr L 

I 22 ,, 


4,880 oo 


William Scully . . . 
A. H. Wolfe .... 


Montreal . 


Caps, forage . . . 

99 ... 


4,000 
5,ooo 


i 26^ ea. 

I 26* 


5,046 67 

6,308 34 


Muir Cap Co. ... 
Ham. Uniform Cap Co. 
J. M. Garland Son Co. . 


Toronto 
Hamilton . 
Ottawa . . . 


99 ... 
, ... 

Overalls 


3,000 
3,000 

222 


i 26* 

I 26$ 

i oo pr. 


3,785 oo 
3,785 oo 

222 OO 


Smart- Woods, Ltd. . . 


99 ... 


Shirts, service . 


9,OOO 


i 15 ea. 


10,350 oo 


Kitchen Overall Co. 


Brampton . 


99 


1,000 


i 15 


1,150 oo 


Mark Workman Co. 


Montreal . 


Pantaloons, service 


9,2OO 


2 05 pr. 


18,860 oo 


Smart- Woods, Ltd. . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Hats, sou'-wester . 


400 


4 oo doz. 


*33 34 





J> * 


Trousers, oiled . 


100 


I 00 


100 00 


99 99 




Jackets 


100 


I 00 


IOO OO 


Humphrey Underwear 


Moncton 


Shirts, winter . . . 


2,000 


10 oo doz. 


1,666 67 


Co. 












Orders given for cloth re- 






Total esti 


mated Cost 


2,432,927 54 


coverable from Cloth- 












ing Contractors not 












shown on forgoing . 





.. 








587,113 25 


Grand Total . . 


' 


.. 








3,020,040 79 



PART II 

PERSONAL AND CAMP EQUIPMENT 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


Bird Woollen Co. 
Smart- Woods 
J. M. Garland . 






Bracebridge 
Ottawa . 





Blankets, G.S. . . . 
Valises, blankets . . 
Towels, hand . . . 


6,000 
300 

120 


2 35 ea. 
3 25 
i 75 doz. 


14,100 oo 
975 oo 
17 50 


99 






t 




. 


' n 




240 


. 




48 oo 


99 














( 


238 






48 28 


McNee & Minnes 






Kin 


?ston 






. 


5*6 


t 




107 50 

















. 


588 






97 67 


99 99 
















588 


. 




no 25 


> 99 










. 




. 


624 






130 oo 


99 99 








. 


. 






216 


. 




36 oo 


99 99 














. 


516 






118 25 



330 



gi 



COMPOSITION OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

PERSONAL AND CAMP EQUIPMENT Continued 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


: .tevenson (Waverley Ph) 


Ottawa . . . 


Strops, razor 


85 




85 oo 


1 V. J. Graham . . . 
( rault Bros 


Montreal . 


Brushes, nail 
Table napkins . 


75 
150 




38 oo 
25 oo 


99 


> 


Mosquito netting . 


200 yds. 




9 oo 


(rault Bros 


. 


Pillowslips .... 


800 




III OO 






Towels 


3,088 


3 24 doz. 


833 oo 


' 




Barrack sheets . 


2,000 


o 77 


'-'JJ '-"-' 

1,540 oo 


i .... 




Counterpane and hospi- 
tal sheets 


8,500 


1 5 S 

I 22| 


| 9,206 oo 


1J. F. Ackerman 


Peterboro . 


Oliver equipment . 


2,000 


6 75 set. 


13,500 oo 


S. & H. Borbridge . . 


Ottawa . . . 


> , 


500 


6 75 


3,375 oo 


Arlington Co. ... 


99 * * 


Combs 


150 




7 oo 


Murray- Kay, Ltd. . . 


Toronto 


Brushes, shaving and 


220 




57 50 






hair 








Meriden Britannia Co. 


Hamilton . 


Knives and forks . 


5,520 


i 20 doz. 


552 oo 


Berlin Bag & Trunk Co. 


Berlin . 


Rifle slings . ., . . . 


2,000 


o 48 ea. 


960 oo 


M 99 


99 " 


Oliver equipment . 


500 


6 75 set. 


3>375 oo 


Meriden Britannia Co. . 
Alaska Feather & Down 


Hamilton . 
Montreal . . 


Spoons . . . . . 
Mattresses .... 


1,800 
822 


i 20 doz. 
4 60 


180 oo 
3,752 70 


Co. 








(ave.) 




Can. Con. Rubber Com- 


' 


Sheets, waterproof . 


8,000 


i 64 . 


13,120 oo 


pany, Ltd. 
J. Childerhose . . . 


Eganville . 


Blankets, G.S. . . . 


1,500 


2 35 


3,5o6 25 


Renfrew Textile Co. 


Renfrew 


,, 


8,000 


2 35 


18,700 oo 


Renfrew Knitting Co. . 


ii 


,, . . - . 


8,000 


2 35 


18,700 oo 


Pembroke Woollen Mills 


Pembroke . 


Blankets .... 


1,200 


2 36 


2,805 oo 


L. E. Stanley & Co. 


Ottawa . 


Towels 


250 


2 35 doz. 


638 05 


A. E Rea Co Ltd 






246 


2 83 


696 1 8 








16,300 


2 88 


3,912 oo 


L. E'.' Stanley & Co. ! 






5,482 


2 50 


500 oo 


Murphy-Gamble, Ltd. 






800 


300 


2OO OO 




99 


' 


36,240 


Wf ,, 

2 56 , 


7,731 2O 


B. S. Sims .... 


St. John, N.B. 


Brooms, corn 


4,800 


o 28 ea 


1,368 oo 


Ottawa Car Mfg. Co. . 
Watson Carriage Co. 


Ottawa . . . 

II . 


Pegs, picketing . . . 
Pickets, posts . 


5,000 

5,500 


o 40 , 
o 95 , 


2,000 00 

5,250 oo 


Ottawa Car Mfg. Co. . 




Mauls . . 


400 


I OO , 


400 oo 


Thos. Turner & Co. 


She'ffield, Eng. 


Clasp knives 


50,000 


5 55 doz. 


17,844 43 


Beal Bros., Ltd. . . 


Toronto . . 


Bandoliers . . . . 


600 


3 85 ea. 


2,310 oo 


B. F. Ackerman Co. . 


Peterboro . . 


.... 


300 


3 85 


1,155 00 


i, 





Rifle buckets . . . 


500 


3 75 


1,875 oo 


i> 


ii 


Oliver equipment . 


2,500 


6 75 set. 


16,000 oo 


Beal Bros., Ltd. . . 


Toronto . . 


Straps, mess tin 


2,500 


22 


550 00 


B. F. Ackerman Co. 


Peterboro . 


Rifle slings . 


5,000 


o 48 


2,400 oo 


Adams Bros. Harness 


Toronto . . 


Oliver equipment . 


5,000 


6 75 ,, 


32,000 oo 


Mfg. Co. 












Smart- Woods, Ltd. . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Haversacks .... 


7,5oo 


o 62* 


4,687 50 






Kit bags .... 


10,000 


o 60 


6,000 oo 


Grant-Holden-Graham . 





Haversacks .... 


8,000 


o 65 


5,200 oo 


ii i> 


> 


Kit bags . . . . 


10,000 


o 60 


6,000 oo 


>i 


, 


Covers, mess tin 


25,000 


o 65 


16,250 oo 


Mackenzie, Ltd. 


> 


Haversacks .... 


7,5oo 


o 65 


4,876 oo 


i, 





Kit bags .... 


10,000 


o 60 


6,000 oo 


Hugh Carson, Ltd. . . 





Bandoliers .... 


7,500 


3 85 ea. 


28,875 oo 


Lamontagne, Ltd. . 


Montreal . . 


,, . .... 


1,000 


3 85 


3,850 oo 


Heney Carriage & Har- 





" 


600 


3 85 


2,310 oo 


ness Co. 












Hugh Carson, Ltd. . 


Ottawa . 


Rifle slings .... 


10,000 


o 48 


4,800 oo 


Heney Carriage & Har- 


Montreal . . 


Buckets, rifle . . . 


400 


3 50 


1,400 oo 


ness Co. 












S. & H. Borbridge . . 


Ottawa . . . 


n - 


1,000 


3 75 


3,750 00 



331 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

PERSONAL AND CAMP EQUIPMENT Continued 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


A. E. Rea & Co. 


Ottawa . 


Towels 


983 


2 98 doz 


2 Q2Q 04 


J. M. Garland Son . . 






37 


2 10 


*, t y*,y O*t 

77 70 


L. E. Stanley . . . 


M 





4,200 


2 88 


1, 008 00 


Meriden Britannia Co. . 


Hamilton . 


Cutlery, knives, forks, 


10,000 


o 10 ea. 


3,000 oo 


Wm. Rogers Mfg. Co. . 


Niagara Falls . 


spoons 
Cutlery, knives, forks, 


20,000 


o 30 set. 


6,000 oo 






spoons 








T. Davidson Mfg. Co. . 


Montreal 


Mess tins, D.S. . 


20,000 


o 45 ea. 


9,000 oo 






Oil bottles .... 


30,000 


*5 


4,500 oo 


S. & H. Borbridge . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Valise equipment . 


1,500 


6 75 set. 


9,600 oo 


Arlington Co. 


Toronto . . 


Combs, hair 


I2O 


6 50 gr. 


780 oo 


Smith D'Entremont 






88J 


8 oo 


707 oo 


H. A. Drury Co. 


Montreal 


Razors 


300 


7 50 doz 


2,250 oo 


Chinic Hdwe. Co. . . 


Quebec . . . 





70 


8 oo 


560 oo 


S. J. Shaw Co. . . . 







300 


9 oo 


2,700 oo 


A. C. Leslie & Co. . . 


Montreal . 


,, > 


lOOj 


76 5 ;; 


768 82 


E. Kavanagh & Co. 





tt 


89 


7 95 


7O7 55 


Rice, Lewis, Son 


Toronto 


tt 


51 


8 34 


425 34 


Foreign Importing Co. . 


Montreal 


tt 


54 


9 oo 


486 00 


Grant-Holden-Graham . 


Ottawa . . . 


Marquees .... 


75 


125 oo 


9,375 oo 


J. J. Turner Sons . . 


Peterboro . 


> 


25 




3,125 oo 


Grant-Holden-Graham . 


Ottawa . . . 


Blanket valises . 


500 


3 25 ea. 


1,416 67 


Smart- Woods, Ltd. . . 






500 


3 25 


1,416 67 


Starke, Seybold, Ltd. . 


Montreal . . 


Razors . 


26 


7 63 doz 


108 38 


W. B. Dalton & Son . 


Kingston 




36* 


8 oo 


Ayu jv 
290 67 


Frothingham & Work- 


Montreal . . 


Razors . 


2 | 


7 SO 


24.5 62 


man. 






.3*4 


/ j v tt 


*<ij \JA 


A. M. Bell & Co . . 


Halifax . . 


tt 


3 


7 75 


232 5O 


Murray- Kay, Ltd 


Toronto 


Towels 


o OOO 


q OO 


7SO OO 


E. H. Pulford (Gault 


Ottawa . . 




J,WU 

454 


J VHJ ,, 

2 60 


/ J*"' uu 

1,180 40 


Bros.), 












McClary Mfg. Co. . . 


Montreal . 


Camp kettles . . . 


4,000 


2 oo ea. 


8,000 oo 


Horn Bros. Co. . 


Lindsay 


Blankets .... 


1,075 


2 35 


2,512 95 


Stairs Sons & Morrow . 


Halifax . . 


Razors 


14 doz. 




113 40 


A J Grant . 






10 




oo oo 


G. Brousseau 


Quebec . 


" 


4 




28 80 


Lewis Bros., Ltd. . . 


Montreal . 


M 


325 


8 oo doz. 


2,600 oo 


Turner & Son . . . 


Peterboro . 


Kit bags .... 


3,000 


o 60 ea. 


1, 800 00 


Hugh Carson 


Ottawa . . . 


Oliver equipment . 


14,000 


6 75 set. 


89,600 oo 


Simmer Hardware Co. . 


Moncton 


Razors 


08 


7 77i 


76l Q5 


Horn Bros. Woollen Co., 


Lindsay 


Blankets, hospital . 


600 


/ f/Z ,, 

2 93 ea. 


/Wi yj 

1,760 oo 


Ltd. 












E. H. Pulford ... 


Ottawa . . . 


Sheets, hospital. . . 


600 


i 05 


630 oo 


. 





Pillow cases 


I, OOO 


o 14 


140 oo 


Berlin Bag & Trunk Co. 


Berlin . 


Oliver equipment . 


1,500 


6 75 set. 


10,125 oo 


Deering Trunk & Bag Co. 
Berlin Bag & Trunk Co. 


Waterloo . . 
Berlin . . . 


Rifle slings' . ! . ! 


2,500 

2,000 


6 75 
o 48 ea. 


16,000 oo 
960 oo 


Deering Trunk & Bag Co. 
L. McBrine .... 
J. H. Chapman . 


Waterloo . . 
Berlin . . . 
Montreal 


Oliver equipment . 
Orderlies' pouches . 


3,ooo 
3>ooo 
900 


o 48 
6 75 set 
3 70 ea. 


1,440 oo 
19,200 oo 

3,330 00 


Murray- Kay Co. 


Toronto' . 


Shaving brushes 


2,100 


2 75 doz. 


5,775 oo 


W. J. Graham . . . 


Ottawa . 


m 


400 


2 75 


I,IOO OO 


Murray- Kay Co., Ltd. . 


Toronto 


Brushes, hair . 


10,000 


o 48 ea. 


4,800 oo 


R. E. Boyd & Co. . . 


Montreal . 


Brushes, cloth and hair 


1,200 


o 40 


480 oo 


Stevens & Hepner Co. . 


Port Elgin . . 





4,000 


o 32 to 


1,310 oo 










o 35 ea. 




Skedden Brush Co. . . 


Hamilton . 


Brushes, cloth, hair, 


1,500 


o 45 


700 oo 






body 








Boeckh Bros., Ltd. . . 


Toronto 


Brushes, cloth, hair, 


2,000 


o 33* 


670 oo 






body 









332 



COMPOSITION OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 



PERSONAL AND CAMP EQUIPMENT Continued 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


1M ?akins & Sons 


Hamilton . 


Brushes, dandy 


500 


o 25 ea. 


125 oo 


,, 99 


99 * * 


Brushes, hair . 


1,000 


o 35 ,, 


350 oo 


C W. Lindsay . . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Bugles and strings . 


23 


7 oo 


161 oo 








2,000 


o 35 


700 oo 


Si aart- Woods, Ltd. 


" 


Holdalls 


I 650 








" 




850 doz. 


O 24 99 

o 25 ,, 


4,752 OO 

2,550 oo 


Tie Two Macs, Ltd. . 





Housewives .... 


2,500 


J , 

o 53i 


15,975 00 


F nnie & Murray 


Winnipeg . 


Circular tents . 


500 


28 75 


14,375 00 


V( haley Royce Co. . 


Toronto 


Bugles, trumpets, and 




7 40 & 80 c. 


918 40 






strings 








Murray Kay Co. 


,, * 


Brushes, hair . 


10,000 


o 48 


4,800 oo 


Ives Modern Bedstead Co. 


Cornwall 


Bedsteads .... 


200 


7 50 


1,500 oo 


Murray- Kay, Ltd. . . 
McKechnie Music Co. . 


Toronto 
Ottawa . . . 


Straps 
Bugles and strings . 


2OO 
201 


6 60 ea. 


40 oo 
1,326 60 


W. B. Macdonald Co. . 





Bottles, water . . . 


200 


5 75 


1,150 oo 


Gault Bros 


Montreal 


Sponges . 


48 




i 66 








2,4OO 




83 33 


Boeckh Bros. . . . 


Toronto 


Dandy brushes . 


500 


\\ 


"O J J 

125 oo 


Meakins & Sons . . 


Hamilton . . 


99 99 ... 


500 




125 oo 


> Smart-Woods, Ltd. . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Kit bags . . . . 


3,500 


60 


2,100 00 


i Mackenzie, Ltd. . . 


99 ... 


99 .... 


3,500 


o 60 


2,100 00 


Grant-Holden-Graham . 






3,000 


o 60 


i, 800 oo 


Murray- Kay, Ltd. . . 


Toronto 


Brushes, cloth . 


10,000 


o 40! 


4,050 oo 


Smart- Woods, Ltd. . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Kit bags .... 


1,000 


o 60 


600 oo 


Mackenzie, Ltd. 


... 


99 * 


1,000 


o 60 


600 oo 


Grant-Holden-Graham . 


99 




1,000 


o 60 


600 oo 


Murray- Kay, Ltd. . 


Toronto 


Towels, hand . 


300 


o 25 


75 oo 


> 


t 


99 99 ... 


5,094 


3 oo doz. 


1,273 5 


Smart- Woods, Ltd. . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Canvas covers . 


150 


30 oo ea. 


4,500 oo 


, Grant-Holden-Graham . 


99 ... 


, ,, ... 


145 


29 75 ,, 


4,314 oo 


Mackenzie, Ltd. . . 




99 ... 


IOO 


30 00 


3,000 oo 


Carson, Ltd., Hugh 


99 ... 


Bags, kit .... 


550 


2 25 


i,237 50 


Murray- Kay, Ltd. . 


Toronto 


Hair brushes 


5,ooo 


o 48 


2,400 oo 


Mackenzie, Ltd. . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Cases paillaises . 


400 


i 57 


628 oo 


Murray- Kay, Ltd. . . 
Smart- Woods, Ltd. . . 


Toronto . . 
Ottawa . . . 


Towels, hand 
Waterproof hats 


300 
144 ea. 


4 oo doz. 


75 oo 






Jackets and trousers . 




I 00 


336 oo 


Caverhill & Learmont . 


Montreal 


Razors 


7O 


7 03 




Ontario Hughes Owen? 


Ottawa . 


Protractors .... 


/^ 
24 


/ U O 99 

5 50 


132 oo 


Co. 












Thos. Birkett and Son . 


99 * 


Enamelled basins . 


200 


. , 


24 oo 


Sheet Metal Products 


Toronto . . 


plates and 


3,ooo 


o 20 


606 oo 


Co. 




mugs 








McClary Mfg. Co. . . 


Montreal 


,, ,, 99 


2,000 


o 24 


481 60 


T. Davidson Mfg. Co. . 


99 




5,000 


o 20 


1,090 oo 


. Smart-Woods, Ltd. . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Bolster cases 


500 


o 27 


135 00 


Murray- Kay, Ltd. . . 


Toronto 


Hair brushes 


5,500 


o 48 


2,640 oo 


Logan Bros 
i Oxford Mfg. Co. . . 


Renfrew 
Oxford . . . 


Blankets, G S. 


3,ooo 
500 


o 6operlb 
o 60 


8,500 oo 
1,400 oo 


Slingsby Woollen Co. . 


Brantford . 




3,000 


o 60 


8,500 oo 


Bird Woollen Co. . . 


Bracebridge . 




2,000 


o 60 


5,600 oo 


Renfrew Textile Co. 


Renfrew 




2,000 


o 60 


5,600 oo 


1 Pembroke Woollen Co. 


Pembroke . 




2,000 


o 60 


5,600 oo 


Standard W9ollen Mills 


Toronto . . 




6,000 


o 60 


16,200 oo 


Renfrew Knitting Co. . 


Renfrew 




4,000 


o 60 


11,200 00 


La Cie Cantin Industrie 


Warwick . 




1,000 


o 60 


2,800 oo 


Horn Bros. Woollen Co. 


Lindsay . . 




6,000 


o 60 


16,200 oo 


T. Davidson Mfg. Co. . 


Montreal . 


Mess tins 


19,000 


o 45 ea. 


8,550 oo 


McClary Mfg. Co. . . 


99 * 


Camp kettles 


4,000 


2 00 


8,000 oo 


Meriden Britannia Co. . 


Hamilton . . 


Table spoons 


10,000 


O 10 


1,000 00 



333 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

PERSONAL AND CAMP EQUIPMENT continued 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


Arlington Co. of Canada 


Toronto 








360 oo 


Smith D'Entremont Co. 






70. 


8 oo 


560 oo 


Cole Burger Mfg. Co. . 


Lindsay 


Water bottles . . . 


20,000 


o 50 ea. 


. 10,000 00 


Gault Bros 


Montreal 


Towels, hand 


2,000 


2 oo doz. 


333 32 


A. E. Rea Co. ... 


Ottawa . . . 


11 ii ... 


1,176 


3 oo 


294 oo 


Murray- Kay, Ltd. . 


Toronto 


11 ... 


2,300 


3 oo 


574 98 


A. E. Rea Co. . . . 


Ottawa . . . 


ii ... 


1,652 


2 50 


344 17 


Eveleigh & Co. . . . 


Montreal . 


Oliver equipment . 


1,000 


6 oo set. 


6,000 oo 


L. McBrine & Co. . . 


Berlin . . . 


ii 


1,000 


6 75 ,, 


6,750 oo 


B. F. Ackerman Son & 


Peterboro . . 


ii 


2,000 


6 75 


13,500 00 


Co. 












Beal Bros., Ltd. . . 


Toronto . . 


11 ii 


2,000 


6 75 


13,500 oo 


Heney Carriage & Har- 


Montreal . 


ii ii 


1,500 


6 75 


10,125 oo 


ness Co. 












Lamontagne, Ltd. . 


ii 


ii 11 ... 


4,000 


6 75 ,, 


27,000 oo 


J. J. Turner Sons . 


Peterboro . 


Blanket valises . 


1,000 


3 50 


3,500 oo 


ii 


11 


Haversacks .... 


5,500 


o 77 


4,235 00 


Robert Soper . . . 
R. M. McMoran . . . 


Hamilton . 
Ottawa . . . 


Blanket valises . 
Towels, hand . . . 


500 

240 


3 50 


1,750 oo 
716 oo 


Eastern Linen Co. . . 


Dorchester . 


11 ii ... 


5,000 


2 50 


1,141 66 


W. R. Brock, Ltd. . . 


Toronto 


ii 11 ' 


231 


2 59 


598 29 


Murray- Kay, Ltd. . . 


99 * " 




9,868 


3 oo 


2,467 oo 


John Macdonald Co. 


99 * * 


ii ii ... 


1,884 


2 64 


414 48 


Beal Bros 
L. McBrine Co. ... 


Berlin . ! ! 


Oliver equipment . 


2,000 
1,000 


6 75 set. 
6 75 


13,500 oo 
6,750 oo 


Eveleigh & Co. . . . 


Montreal 


11 i 


1,000 


6 75 


6,750 oo 


Lamontagne, Ltd. 






4,OOO 


6 75 


27,000 oo 


Heney Carriage & Har- 


11 


i, n 


1,500 


v J J 

6 75 


10,125 oo 


ness Co. 












Can. Consolidated Rub- 


ii 


Waterproof sheets . 


3,OOO 


i 64 


4,920 oo 


ber Co 












T Birkett Son Co. 


Ottawa . 


Dishes 


Q - 




27 OO 






Pails 


288 




*/ *** 

172 80 


ii ii 


" 


Gauges 









I, >i 


" 


Baths 


82 




267 50 


,, ii . 


,, 


Saucepans .... 


24 




96 oo 


. 


ii ... 


Enamelled basins . 


2,944 


, 


397 80 


i ,i * 


ii ... 


Boxes, despatch and salt 


24 




52 80 






Cans 


2IO 




153 45 


" " 




Tubs . 






71 04 


' ' 


' 




ISO 




36 50 


' ' 




Lamps . . 


12 




1 06 oo 


i , 


i 


Ladles 


06 




4 22 


' ' 


' 


Forks 


J*-' 




41 26 


' ' 


' 


Funnels, tin 


*g6 




4 68 


S. Trees & Co. . . . 


Toronto . . 


Oliver equipment . 


1,000 


6 75 set. 


6,750 oo 


Alaska Feather & Down 


Montreal . . 


Pillows, hospital 


i, 600 


o 95 ea. 


1,520 oo 


Co. 












Mackenzie, Ltd. . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Towels, hand . 


3,768 


2 75 doz. 


866 65 






Bath sponges 


60 


^ 


27 oo 




" 


Oliver equipment . 


1,000 


7 75 set. 


6,750 oo 






ii n s p. 






15,800 oo 


" 




parts (various) 








Mackenzie, Ltd. 




Holdalls 


10,000 


o 25 


2,500 oo 


Alaska Feather & Down 


Montreal ! ! 


Mattresses, fld. ambul. 


900 


5 oo 


4,500 oo 


Co. 












Murray- Kay, Ltd. . . 


Toronto 


Towels, hand . 


5,000 


3 oo doz. 


1,250 oo 


W. R. Brock . . . 


ii 


11 11 ... 


1,632 


2 25 


306 oo 


Smart- Woods, Ltd. . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Bolsters, hospital . 


1,500 


o 27 


405 oo 


Gault Bros 


Montreal . . 


White flannel . . . 


48 yds. 




13 44 



334 



COMPOSITION OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 



PERSONAL AND CAMP EQUIPMENT continued 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


V. E. Rea Co. ... 


Ottawa . . . 


Table cloths . . . 


500 


i i2j ea. 


562 50 


^mart-Woods, Ltd. . . 


> ... 


Tents, circular . 


2,500 


27 51 


68,755 oo 


J. H. Pulford (Gault 


Montreal . 


Cases, pillowslip 


2,400 


14 


336 00 


Bros.). 












1. H. Pulford (Gault 


> 


Sheets, barrack hospital 


6,000 


o 70 to i 15 


5,412 oo 


Bros.). 












.amontagne, Ltd. . 
vlackenzie, Ltd. 


Ottawa . . . 


Buckets, rifle . . 
Tents, F. H. . . 


2,100 

75 


3 75 
125 oo ea. 


7,875 oo 


J. J. Turner Sons . 
< jrant-Holden-Graham 


Peterboro . 
Ottawa . . . 


> 


50 
75 


125 oo 
125 oo ,, 


37,500 oo 


Smart- Woods 


> ... 


> 


100 


125 oo 












$ 


1,057,881 06 



PART III 

VEHICLES, WAGONS, CARTS, MOTORS AND MOTOR CYCLES 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 


Ottawa Car. Mfg. Co. . 


Ottawa . . . 


Carts, tool, R.E. single 
Trucks .... 


12 
12 


At 
$ cts. 
366 oo 


$ cts. 
4,392 oo 

1 88 oo 


Ketchum & Co. . v . . 
CanadaCycle & Motor Co. 
Gramm Motor Truck Co. 

CanadaCycle & Motor Co 


West Toronto . 
Walkerville . 

West Toronto 


Motor cycles 
Bicycles, mil. pattern . 
Trucks and bodies . 


various 
9 
275 
i 
carload 
10 


300 oo 
62 oo 

62 oo 


2,700 oo 
17,050 oo 
15,000 oo 


Automobile & Supply 
Co., Ltd. 
Russell Motor Car Co. . 
The White Co., Ltd. . 
Ontario Motor Car Co., 
Ltd. 
Russell Motor Car Co. . 

Detroit Trailer Co. of 
Canada. 
Canada Cycle & Motor 
Co., Ltd. 
Ketchum & Co. . . . 


Toronto 

West Toronto . 
Toronto 
Toronto 

West Toronto . 
Walkerville . 
Toronto 

Ottawa . . 
Lindsay . 


Trucks (motor) . 
Motor trucks 
Motor Trucks . 

Trailers with stake 
bodies 
Trailers with stake 
bodies 
Spare parts for trucks 

Motor cycles . . . 
Wagons 


4 

8 
5 
4 

12 
2 
v . . 

7 

g 


300 oo 


12,600 oo 
28,000 oo 

15,750 00 
12,200 00 

14,100 oo 

2,200 00 
200 OO 
2,100 00 

720 oo 


J. J. Turner & Sons . 
Ketchum & Co. . . . 


Peterboro . 
Ottawa . . . 


Canvas covers (wagons) 
Motor cycles 
Heavy wagons . 


100 
16 
2O 


30 oo 
300 oo 


3,000 oo 
4,800 oo 
2,200 oo 


Ottawa Car Mfg.' Co'. ! 
Ketchum & Co. . . 
S. & H. Borbridge . . 


. . ! 


Carts, water, tank 
Cars leathered . 
Wheels, 2nd class 
Spare parts for motor 
cycles 
Black harness . 


2 
2O 

48 

1 6 sets. 
50 


315 00 

75 oo ea. 
30 oo 


630 oo 
84 oo 
3,600 oo 
40 oo 

1,500 oo 















335 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

VEHICLES, WAGONS, ETC. continued 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 











At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


White Co., Ltd. . . . 


Toronto 


Spare parts for motor 






300 oo 






trucks 








Gramm Motor Truck Co. 


Walkerville . 


Spare parts for motor 






300 oo 






trucks 








Ontario Motor Car Co. . 


Toronto 


Spare parts for motor 






300 oo 






trucks 








Automobile & Supply 


> ... 


Spare parts for motor 






300 oo 


Co. 




trucks 








Ottawa Car Mfg. Co. . 


Ottawa . . . 


Poles, draught, No. i . 


12 


15 oo 


1 80 OO 








Removable tops, anib. 


4 




224 oo 






wagons 








CcHiciclicin Fciirb&nkS" 




Trucks 


5 




IOO OO 


Morse Co. 


" 










CanadaCycle & Motor Co. 


West Toronto . 


Bicycles . 


20 


62 oo 


I 24.O OO 


Ottawa Car Co. . . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Skids 


36 




1 80 00 


Dom. Automobile Co. . 


Toronto . . 


Chassis, motor trucks . 


25 


. . 


82,000 oo 


Russell Motor'Car Co. . 


99 * 


Spare parts .... 
Chassis, motor trucks . 


51 


^ 


2,500 oo 


> 




Transport bodies 
Touring cars 


126 
7 


1 .. 


200,000 oo 


Gramm Motor Truck Co. 
> > > 


Waikerville* ! 
> 


Workshop bodies . 
Chassis, motor trucks . 
Stake bodies 


3 

19 
4 


J 


60,000 oo 


White Co" . ." . . 



Toronto . 


Spare parts .... 
Chassis, motor trucks . 


fi 





1,900 oo 

12 S OOO OO 


Canada Cycle Motor Co, 





Spare parts 
Bicycles 


O u 
IO7 


62 oo 


5,000 oo 

5f\?A nn 




" 








u j4 uu 


Total .... 





.. 








629,832 oo 



HARNESS, SADDLERY AND HORSE EQUIPMENT 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 




Toronto 


Saddlery .... 


200 sets. 


AZ no 


Q OOO OO 


Auburn Woollen Co. 


Peterboro 


Saddle blankets . . 


4,000 


T-0 VK-J 

3 24 


12,960 oo 


S. & H. Borbridge . 


Ottawa . 


Saddlery, universal 


loo sets. 


42 50 


4,250 oo 


Lamontagne, Ltd. . 


Montreal 


> 


1,200 


42 50 


51,000 oo 


Heney Carriage & Har 


H 




400 


42 50 


17,000 oo 


ness Co. 












H. Carson Co., Ltd. 


Ottawa . 


> > 


2,000 


42 50 


85,000 oo 


> > 





Bags, nose .... 


3,000 


o 69 


2,070 oo 


Beal Bros., Ltd. 


Toronto 


Heel rope .... 


3,000 


o 55 


1,650 oo 


S. & H. Borbridge 


Ottawa . 


Ropes, head, hemp 


3,000 


2l 


637 50 


Skedden Brush Co. 


Hamilton 


Harness brushes 


2,160 


o 31 


669 60 


Hugh Carson 
Dunlop & Co. 


Ottawa . 
Pembroke 


Covers, horse . 
Curry combs 


1,200 

2,000 


3. 50 to 4.25 


4,875 oo 
275 oo 


Hugh Carson, Ltd. 


Ottawa . 


Rubbers, horse . 


10,000 


o 38 


3,800 oo 


R. E. Boyd & Co. 


Montreal 


Brushes, body, horse . 


50 doz. 


8 oo doz. 


400 oo 


Boeckh Bros., Ltd. 


Toronto 


dandy . . . 


500 


o 25 


125 oo 


T. S. Sims & Co., Ltd. 


St. John, N B. 


horse and clothes 


5,600 ar. 




1,138 oo 


Stevens & Hepner Co. 


Port Elgin 


body, horse . 


1,300 


o 60 


780 oo 



336 



] COMPOSITION OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

HARNESS, SADDLERY, ETC. Continued 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


I amontagne, Ltd. . 


Montreal . 


Black harness . . . 


300 sets 


30 50 


9,150 oo 




^ 


Heel ropes .... 


2,000 


o 55 


1,300 oo 


I . F. Ackerman 


Peterboro . 


Harness, lumber, single 


46 sets 


30 50 


1,403 oo 


A aj. Williamson 


Lindsay 


j, ,, ,, 


10 


30 50 


305 oo 


S cedden Brush Co. . 


Hamilton . 


Brushes, harness 


300 


o 31 


93 oo 


S evens-Hepner . 


Port Elgin . . 


body, horse . 


500 


o 60 


300 oo 


B. F. Ackerman 


Peterboro . 


Lumber, harness 


8 sets 


21 9O 


244 oo 


Kugh Carson 


Ottawa . . . 


Nose bags .... 


500 


o 82 


410 oo 


... 


,, ... 


Rubbers, horse . 


500 


o 38 


190 oo 


... 


... 


Driving whips . 


300 


I 25 


375 oo 


H. Carson Co. ... 


,, . 


Bags, nose .... 


1,500 


o 82 


1,230 oo 


T. Birkett Son . . . 




Clippers, horse . 


20 




42 oo 


H. Carson Co., Ltd. 


,, ... 


Driving whips . 


24 




30 oo 


Esmonde Mfg. Co. . . 





Saddlers' panniers . 


36 


15 00 


540 oo 


B. F. Ackerman Son & Co. 


Peterboro . 


Surcingle pads . 


500 


P 75 


375 oo 


Beal Bros., Ltd. . . 


Toronto 


,, |, ... 


1,000 


o 65 


650 oo 


R. M. Beal .... 


Lindsay 


Black harness . 


ioo sets. 


30 50 


3,050 oo 


Lamontagne, Ltd. . 
Hugh Carson, Ltd. . . 


Montreal . 
Ottawa . . . 


Surcingle pads . 


2,500 
2,500 


o 76* 
o 76* 


1,912 50 
1,912 50 


J. E. Edwards & Son . 


Toronto . . 


Valises, horseshoe . 


900 


3 25 


2,925 oo 


James Jolly & Sons 
Hugh Carson Co. 


Hamilton . 
Ottawa . . . 


Harness 
Black harness . 


34 sets. 
550 


30 50 
30 50 


1,037 oo 

16,775 00 





,, ... 


Driving whips . 


387 


i 25 


485 oo 


L. S. Macoun . . . 


... 


Dubbing .... 


2,000 Ibs. 


15. 50 per ioo 


257 oo 


T. Birkett & Son Co. . 


,, 


Dubbing-boxes . 


48 




68 oo 





,, ... 


Tackles, differential . 


8 




400 oo 


S. & H. Borbridge . . 




Valises, horseshoe . 


23 




86 25 


Heney Carriage & Har- 


Montreal 


Black harness . 


50 sets. 


30 50 


1,525 00 


ness Co. 












Ottawa Car Mfg. Co. . 


Ottawa . . . 


Bars,supporting, draught 












pole 


48 


8 60 


412 80 


Steel Co. of Can., Ltd. . 


Montreal . 


Horseshoe nails 


1,555 Ibs. 


. . 


143 50 


Smart- Woods, Ltd. . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Bags, corn .... 


1,000 




IOO 00 


B. F. Ackerman Son Co. 


Peterboro . . 


Black harness . 


50 sets. 


30 50 


1,525 oo 


Beal Bros., Ltd. . . 


Toronto 





60 sets. 


30 50 


1,830 oo 


J. Jolly & Sons . 


Hamilton . 


. 


60 sets. 


30 50 


1,830 oo 


Hugh Carson, Ltd. . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Rope halters . 


2,000 


35 


700 oo 


Mackenzie, Ltd. 


. . . 


Canvas water buckets . 


2,000 


50 


1,000 oo 


Total .... 





.. 


" 





250,241 65 



ENGINEER AND SUNDRY STORES 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


J. H. Chapman . 
Canada Paint Co. . 


Montreal 


Snellin's test type . . 
Paint, service colour . 


50 sets. 
10,000 Ibs. 


12 50 


625 oo 
700 oo 


R. J. Taylor . . 
Ahearn & Soper 
Northern Electric Co. 


Ottawa . 
Montreal 


Target supplies . 
Cable, electric . . . 
Fid. telephone apparatus 


386 M 
30 mis. 
300 sets. 


7ti Yd- 
25 oo set. 


261 25 
3,983 oo 
7,500 oo 







Dry cells .... 


2,400 


o 35 


340 oo 








Ground rods (300) Cam. 


300 




335 oo 






10 









OVERSEAS I. 



337 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

ENGINEER AND SUNDRY STORES Continued 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


1 Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


Ottawa Car Mfg. Co. . 


Ottawa . . . 


Ladders, observation, 


25 


25 oo 


625 oo 






arty. 








Birkett Son & Co. . . 




Hardware .... 




various 


2,281 oo 


Gray-Harvey Co. 


,, ... 








152 oo 


Northern Electric Co. 


Montreal 


Electric cable . . . 


32 mis. 


4yd. 


2,240 oo 


Mackenzie, Ltd. 


Ottawa . . . 


Buckets, water . 


3,000 


50 


1,500 oo 


Courtney & Sears 
Ottawa Car Mfg. Co. 


" ! ! ! 


Pull throughs . 
Drums, cable, tel. wagon 


80,000 
6 


iaj 


10,000 00 

63 oo 


Nicholson File Co. . 


Port Hope ! ! 


Files, doz 


97 




158 oo 


Watson Carriage Co. 


Ottawa . 


Boxes, fld., stationery . 


50 




550 00 


Dunlop & Co. 


Pembroke . 


Axes, doz 


80 




960 oo 


T. Birkett & Co. . 


Ottawa . 


Wire cutters . . . 


850 


various 


1,622 50 


Ketchum & Co. . . 


,, ... 


Whistles, infantry . 


1,200 


33i 


400 oo 


D. F. Jones Mfg. Co. 
Lyman Knox 


Gananoque 
Montreal . 


Shovels and spades 
Quick lime, Valcartier . 


5,360 


various 


3,019 70 


Can. Consol. Optical Co 
J. Burns & Co. . . 


Toronto 
Montreal . 


Heliographs and stands 
Ranges, camp ckg. and 


130 

50 


61 50 
various 


7,995 oo 
3,925 50 






spare parts 








Gait Stove & Furnace Co. 


Gait, Ont. 


Ranges, camp ckg. and 


50 


various 


3,925 50 


Welland Vale Co. . 


St. Catherines . 


spare parts 
Picks and helves . . 


400 


5 40 doz. 


2,160 oo 


I. P. Dery & Fils. . 
A. B. Jardine . . 


Quebec . . . 
Hespeler 


Wrapping paper & bags 
Forges, field, folding . 


18,000 
24 


27 oo 


75 oo 
648 oo 


Ottawa Car Mfg. Co. 


Ottawa . . . 


Boxes, mob'n stores 


60 


various 


825 oo 


99 99 


99 ' 


Oil cans, i pt. . 


24 




5 76 


John Leckie, Ltd. 


Toronto 


Flags 


16 




14 40 


T. Davidson Co. 


Montreal . 


Boxes, candle . 


3 U 

360 




126 oo 


Esmonde Basket Co. 


Ottawa . . . 


Signalling panniers . 


80 


15 oo 


I,2OO OO 


Watson Carriage Co. 


,, ... 


Flag poles .... 


36 




34 20 


Caverhill & Learmont 


Montreal . 


Spanniers . 


300 


various 


498 50 


Kny. Sheerer Co., Ltd. 


New York . . 


Steel tapes .... 


15 


I 








Urine cases .... 


2 


/ 


23 20 


Beal Bros. .... 


Toronto 


Holdalls, engineers* 


24 


14 oo 


005 OO 


Gananoque Harness 


Gananoque. 


saddlers' . 


12 




O j u w 

60 oo 


Works. 












Beal Bros 


Toronto . . 


Tool valises .... 


250 


3 50 


875 oo 





i> 


Bags, tool, farriers' 


12 




54 oo 


t 


,, . 


Hand-saw cases 


360 


2 5O 


900 oo 


Caverhill & Learmont . 


Montreal , . 


Spanners .... 


12 doz. 




* 222 00 


Grant-Holden-Graham . 


Ottawa . . . 


Gloves, hedging 


60 prs. 




60 oo 


Gait Stove & Furnace Co. 


Gait . . . 


Parts of camp cooking 






125 oo 






ranges 








R. J. Taylor . , . 


Ottawa . , . 


Target supplies 








Birkett & Son Co. . 




Balances, spring 


q6o 




224 oo 


Ottawa Car Mfg. Co. . 


M 


Carpenters' tool chests 


y** 

18 


\ * 


70 oo 


T. Birkett & Son Co. . 


It ... 


Blocks, brake . . . 
Axes 


1,200 

32 doz. 


75 


900 oo 
261 oo 


99 


,, ... 


Hammers .... 


48 










Baskets, tool . . . 


12 






99 


,, ... 


Saws, folding . 


4 80 




. . 






Vices 


18 






99 " 
99 


" ' ' 


Brushes, paint . 


72 




19 oo 


99 


,, ... 


Points, masons' stone rag 


156 




15 oo 






Knives . . . 


60 




16 oo 


99 * 


If ... 


Pincers, pliers, wrenches 


236 




36 oo 


Ottawa Car Mfg. Co. . 




Drums, cable 


6 




63 oo 


Heney Carriage & Har- 


Montreal 


Tool bags .... 


24 


. . 


86 40 


ness Co. 












P. W. Ellis & Co. . . 


Toronto 


Watches 


85 


various 


650 oo 


Beal Bros 


f 


Farriers' tool bags . 


24 




1 08 OO 



338 



4l COMPOSITION OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

ENGINEER AND SUNDRY STORES Continued 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


J. Oliver & Sons . . 
T. Birkett & Son Co. . 


Ottawa . . . 


Measuring standards . 
Augers, screwdrivers . 


15 
1 68 


) 


41 25 






Vices 


36 


r 


41 oo 


Ottawa Car Mfg. Co. . 


>f 


Trestles 








T. Birkett & Son Co. . 


,', 


Planes 


48 




no oo 


jy ,, * 


... 


Levels, spirit 


12 




9 oo 


E ' ' 


; ; ; 


Braces, carpenters' 
Padlocks .... 


36 

3 





1 08 oo 

12 OO 


ff 


... 


Shaves and spoke shaves 


36 


" 


9 oo 


ff 


m 


Tongs, smiths' . 


24 




12 00 


ff if 


... 


Hammers .... 


834 




475 oo 





ff 


File handles 






14 oo 


> 


i 


Holders, file ... 


36 




8 oo 


ff ' 


f ... 


Irons, soldering 


3 




17 oo 


ff 


... 


Blue pots .... 


12 




10 00 


>f 


, 


Stones, scythe . 


48 




i 50 


n 


, ... 


Tools, fitters' & wheelers'. 


28 sets. 




55 oo 


f 


i ... 


Tools, tinmen's . 


12 n 


t * 


27 oo 


f 


, 


saddlers' 


60 


[ [ 


260 oo 






Needles . 






18 oo 





> 


Chisels 


768 




250 oo 


) ) | 


> ... 


Saws, hand .... 


360 


*' 


375 oo 








3i8 




325 oo 


The Topley Co ' . 


, . . . 


Axes and reaping hooks 
Watches . . . 


C 

396 

76 





84 oo 

642 96 


C. W. Lindsay . . . 




Drums, side 


/ ^ 
2 




40 oo 


John Burns & Co. . 


Montreal 


Ranges, camp . 


10 


* [ 


350 00 


Gurney Foundry Co. . 


Ottawa . 


i> if 


70 


40 oo 


2,800 oo 


Findlay Bros., Ltd. 
Ottawa Car Mfg. Co. . 


Carleton Place 
Ottawa . . . 


Baulks and chesses 


21 
156 


35 oo 


735 oo 
200 oo 


n 


ii 


Springs for holders 


24 






Ontario-Hughes-Owens 


n 


Drawing materials . 




| ] 




Co. 












C. May & Sons . . . 


fi ... 


Tools for shoemakers' 


50 




800 oo 






bags 








R. J. Taylor 
P. W. Ellis & Co. . . 


Toronto 


Target requisites . 
Binoculars .... 


9,000 
600 




1,950 oo 

21,000 00 


T. Birkett & Son Co. ! 


Ottawa . ! ! 


Compasses, prismatic . 
Sig. telescopes and stands 
Adzes, handles . 


144 

100 

24 


15 oo 


2,160 oo 
3,000 oo 
30 oo 






Bevels .... 


24 




8 50 


" " 


99 * 


Anvils ... 


6 


*" 


21 5O 






Knives 


38 




12 5O 


\ \ \ 


" ' 


Rules and squares . 


48 & 6 


* t \ 


15 50 





. 


Screwdrivers 


460 




54 oo 






Punches .... 








' ' 


> 


Trowels 


24- 


* ' 


8 50 


, , 


, ... 


Can openers 


150 


. . 


5 50 


, t 


f ... 


Scoops, flour 


36 




4 oo 


> 


> 


Clippers, hair 


36 




56 oo 


> t 


, ... 


Basins, enamelled . 


450 


,', 


77 oo 


> t 


i ... 


Ladles, pannikins . 


578 


t . . 


150 oo 


, , 


, ... 


Oil stoves .... 


36 


. . 


36 oo 


, , 


, ... 


Pencils, carpenters' 


36 doz. 


. . 


3 60 




' 


Mallets 


15 




3 oo 


, \ 


i ... 


Marline spikes and nail- 


12 & 72 


. . 








pullers 
Fullers, smith . 


24 




9 oo 






Gauges 


18 




12 OO 


" " 


if 


Gimlets 


240 




13 oo 















339 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

ENGINEER AND SUNDRY STORES Continued 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 


T. Birkett & Son Co. 


Ottawa 


Gouges 


48 


At 
$ cts. 


$ cts. 
7 oo 


i 
Smart-Woods, Ltd. . 




Brushes, sable . 
Diamond, glaziers' . 
Crowbars .... 
Braces, smiths' . 
Solder 
Crowbars .... 
Pliers and pincers . 
Brassards . . . 


72 

12 
12 
9 6 

1 6 Ibs. 
240 
420 & 108 
1,200 





6 oo 
48 oo 
5 oo 
52 oo 
5 50 
149 oo 
228 oo 
63 oo 


Esmonde Basket Co. 
T. Birkett & Son Co. 

Ottawa Car Mfg. Co. 
T. Birkett & Son Co. 

Ottawa Car Mfg. Co. 


Hugh Carson, Ltd. . 


Ottawa . . . 
,, ... 


Signalling panniers 
Oil stoves .... 
Blow pipes .... 
Boxes, lamp, siege . 
Lamps, slugs 

Boxes, lamp, siege . 
Boxes, mob'n stores ) 
Jacks, spokes, planks f 
Cases message book 


80 
48 
6 
54 

101 

48 
24 
39 
60 


15 00 

4 oo 
4 oo 

various 
various 


I,2OO OO 

37 92 
i 80 
18 oo 
404 oo 
192 oo 
9 oo 

2,000 00 

no oo 


Thos. Davidson Mfg. Co. 
Ketchum & Co. . . . 
P. W. Ellis & Co. . . 

T. Birkett &"Son Co. .' 
Hugh Carson Co. 
McColl Bros. . . . 
T. Birkett & Son Co. . 

Hugh Carson Co. 


Montreal . 
Ottawa . . . 
Toronto 

Ottawa . ! ! 

Montreal 
Ottawa . . 


Latrine buckets 
Handcuffs .... 
Compasses, prismatic . 
magnetic . 
prismatic cases 
Tool steel .... 
Shoemakers' tool bags 
Lubricating oil ... 
Packing asbestos, 12 Ibs. 
greased 
Bags leather field 


1,500 

200 

350 
60 
440 

50 
230 galls. 
24 Igths. 

oQ 


3 oo 

>'" 

6 oo 


4,500 oo 
950 oo 

3,500 oo 

100 OO 

300 oo 

149 50 
14 oo 

72 OO 


Watson Carriage Co. 
L. S. Macoun 




Field stationery boxes 
Grease 


20 

12 100 tons 


II 00 


22O OO 

OCQ OO 


Thos. Davidson Mfg. Co. 
Pugsley & Dingman 


Montreal 
Toronto 


Wash tubs, G.S. . . 
Soap 


400 
6 ooo Ibs 


"S 


600 oo 

30Q OO 


Northern Electric Co. . 

Campbell Steel & Iron 
Works. 
Steel Metal Products . 
Dominion Wire Rope Co. 
Robert Craig . . . 
Caverhill & Learmont . 
T. Birkett & Son Co. . 
Ottawa Car Mfg. Co. . 

T. Birkett & Son Co. ! 
Consumers Cordage Co. 


Montreal 
Ottawa . . . 

Toronto . . 
Montreal . 
Ottawa . . . 
Montreal . 
Ottawa . . . 

,, ... 
,, ... 

Montreal 


Flashlights, batteries, 
and bulbs 
Drums, oil .... 

Cylinders 
Steel wire rope . 
Cases, stand, No. 32 
Blocks, tackle . . 
Butchers' implements 
Grease boxes 
Cases, empty, for but 
chers' implements 
Taps for water tanks 
Knives and punches 
Cold blast lantern wicks 
Cordage 


25 &50 
30 

i,750 
100 fths. 
18 
128 

800 
400 

24 

176 ,, 
300 yds. 

2 700 fths 


65 

3 75 


66 25 

15 oo 
171 80 

IO OO 

150 oo 
500 oo 
800 oo 
520 oo 
1,500 oo 

25 oo 
42 oo 
30 oo 
1,700 oo 


Independent Cordage Co. 

Northern Electric Co. . 
Ontario Hughes-OwenCo. 
Ottawa Car Co. ... 
T. Birkett & Son Co. . 


Ottawa . . . 

Montreal . 
Ottawa . . . 
> ... 


Telephone cords . 
Candle composite . 
Drums, packing 
Jute 


5,6oolbs.anc 
2,700 fths. 
60 
1 6 Ibs. 

12 

200 Ibs 


various 


24 oo 
2 88 

100 00 

16 oo 


Smart-Woods, Ltd. . . 
T. Birkett & Son Co. . 


... 


Canvas, sail .... 
Spring balances . 


144 yds. 


' 


72 oo 
25 oo 


> > 
> 


,, ... 


Butchers' implements . 
i> 


24 sets 
24 cases 


| various 


720 oo 



340 



eg 4] COMPOSITION OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

ENGINEER AND SUNDRY STORES Continued 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


Thos. Turner & Co. 


Sheffield . . 


Clasp knives and lan- 


600 


50 


300 oo 






yards 








Stonebridge Co. . . . 
Can. Consolidated Rub- 


New York . . 
Montreal 


Folding lanterns . . 
Hose 


200 


i 75 


350 00 

150 oo 


ber Co. 












T Birkett Son & Co 


Ottawa . . . 


Tapes 


56 




500 


R. J. Taylor . . . 
T. Birkett Son & Co. . 


99 ... 
99 


Spotting discs and pins 
Balances, springs . 


10,000 

33 


' 


\J\J 

267 oo 
70 18 


Stamped & Enam. Ware 


Hespeler 


Enamelled plates . 


250 doz. 


10 


500 oo 


Co. 












Gault Bros 


Montreal . . 


Needles 


i, 600 




2 67 






Grey worsted . 


35 Ibs. 


\ 


* w/ 


. 


99 


Cotton, reels 


420 


I " 


43 5O 


D. F. Jones Mfg. Co. . 
High Commissioner 


Gananoque 
London 


Shovels, G.S. 
Panniers, entrenching 


500 

192 


6 50 doz. 
5 oo 


276 25 
960 oo 






tools 








Smart-Woods 


Ottawa . . . 


Bags, corn .... 


4,000 


10 


400 oo 


Ahearn & Soper 


99 


Electric cable . . . 


30 mis. 


27A- yd. 


3,983 oo 


Smart-Woods . 


99 ' 


Holdalls .... 


10,000 


24 


2,400 oo 


Crucible Steel Co. 


Montreal . . 


Round steel . . . 


100 tons 


I2O OO , 


12,000 00 


Esmonde Mfg. Co. 
E. Powell . . 


Ottawa . . . 

99 ' 


Grocery panniers . 
Tow, carbolised . . 


20 

288 Ibs. 


12 25 


245 oo 
57 60 


Grant-Holden- Graham . 




Covers, mess-tin 


20,000 


65 


13,000 oo 


T. Birkett & Son Co. . 





Machines, mincing . 


24 


^ 




99 * 


9 


wringing 


2 


1 








Coffee mills 


12 


1 


118 50 


99 


, ... 


Pots, cooking, oval 


12 


J 






1 ... 


Saucepans .... 


12 




67 08 


J> 


9 ... 


Spoons 


836 




64 36 


> 


, ... 


Pots, tea .... 


600 




73 50' 






Egg cups .... 


. . 


. . 




. 


, ... 


Shovels, fire, Dean'soven 


4 




2 OO 





99 ... 


Squeezers, lemon . 


24 




3 60 


, 




Cups, drinking . 


500 




25 oo 


( 


99 ... 


Tin covers .... 


1,700 


. . 


78 oo 


. 




Scoops, flour 


36 


. . 


4 50 


, 


99 ... 


Clippers, hair and cork- 






135 00 






screws 








Garrioch, Goddard Co. . 


99 ... 


Voltmeters .... 


2 


. . 


IO 00 


Northern Electric Co. . 


Montreal . 


Cords, arty., telephone 


600 




240 oo 


Esmonde Basket Co. . 


Ottawa . . . 


Panniers, G.S. . . . 


100 


12 35 


1,235 oo 


Robert Craig . . . 


" ! ! ! 


Cases, sugar 
cross-cut saw . 


24 

12 




45 oo 


Ketchum & Co. ! ! .' 


',', 


Whistles, infantry . . 
Handcuffs .... 


1,000 

12 prs. 


33i 


333 33 
57 oo 


Canada Basket Co. . 


Ottawa . 


Baskets 


80 




3 / wv 






Bottles, hand . 


6 





103 oo 


E. B. Eddy Co. . ! ! 


Huii : : : 


Boards, inventory . . 


1,000 


1 








bed, head . . 


I,2OO 


L .. 


221 OO 


. 


. 


knife 


IOO 


J 




Ottawa' Car Co. . . 




Carriage ambulance 












stretchers 








Canadian Fairbanks 




Trucks, workshop . . 


6 




I2O OO 


D. Pike Co 


Toronto . . 


Flags, Union 


24 


*] 


40 80 


T. Birkett & Son Co. . 


Ottawa . . . 


Strainers, trays, bed and 


256 




.. 






dinner 








99 99 


99 ... 


Corkscrews, screw- 


240 


. . 








drivers, twine 








J. J. Taylor .... 


Toronto . . 


Strong box, field pay- 


i 


.. 


30 oo 






master 









341 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

ENGINEER AND SUNDRY STORES Continued 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 


T. Birkett & Son Co. . 


Ottawa . . . 


Kettles, cooking 


24 
12 


At 
$ cts. 


$ cts. 


> 




> 


> ... 
... 
... 
> ... 


fish, tin 
tea . 
Tin boilers . 
Bell, press . 
Rakes, oven 
Pots, coffee . 
Tea, chamber, pannikin 
Cruets, mustard pots, 
etc. 
Salt cellars, etc. . . 
Strainers, egg whisks, 
etc. y 
Soup . * . 


6 

I2O 

4 8 

106 

296 
1,300 
142 

312 

48 

12 


} ;; 


199 50 

360 oo 
23 10 

I 00 

ioi 44 
130 oo 
49 oo 

66 80 

22 20 

3*K 


> 


Ketchum & Co 


> ... 
... 


Pans, stew .... 
Bars, cooking . . . 
Can openers, etc. . 
Frying pans, gridirons, 
etc. 
Whistles 


30 
60 
2IO 
132 

4.8 





19 15 

3 oo 
II 50 
88 20 

12 OO 


McKechnie Music Co. . 
Pritchard, Andrews Co. 

Mackenzie Ltd 


> ... 
,, ... 


Bugles and strings . 
Stamps, 0-3 and J-inch 
letters, sets . 
Plates, stencil, sets 
Flags 


12 

4 

6 
12 





99 oo 
5 oo 

9 oo 

7 20 


F. H. Plant .... 
W B MacDonald . . 


... 


Boxes, stationery . 
Measures, glass . 


48 
370 


II OO 


528 oo 
48 oo 


Ottawa Car Co. . . . 


, 


Lashingsm, tarred . 
Brassards .... 


504 
725 





500 oo 
38 oo 


Ottawa Car Co. . . . 


, . . 


Hand spikes . . 


24 
9 


} 


I OO 


Canadian Fairbanks 
Mr. Clare .... 
P. W. Ellis Co. . . . 
Ottawa Car Co. ... 

J. H. Chapman . 
Heney Carriage & Har- 
ness Co. 
T. Birkett, Son & Co. . 


Preston 
Toronto 
Ottawa . . . 

Montreal . . 

Ottawa . . . 
,, ... 


Trucks, stones . 
Enamelled plates . 
Stop watches . 
Key removing jambed 
cartridges 
Photo outfit for X-rays 
Wheelers' tool bags . 

Scissors, pairs . 
Ice picks, etc. . 
Tongs 


3 

3,ooo 

2 

50 

I 

60 
300 

444 
24 


II OO 


50 oo 
33 o oo 

10 00 

50 oo 

175 oo 
216 oo 

206 40 

60 84 

je OO 


> 
i 


> ... 
> ... 
... 


Dishes, baking . 
Pails 
Wire dish covers . 
Brass, copper, and steel 
Armchairs .... 


1,592 
48 
72 
442 Ibs. 
1 60 


' 


XJ "" 

420 36 
36 oo 
44 40 
50 oo 

220 00 


Northern Electric Co. . 

McKechnie Music Co. ! 
C W Lindsay Co. . 


Montreal 
Ottawa . . . 


Bands for Leclanche 
cells 
Blocks, do 
Bugles with strings 


500 

2,000 
125 
25 





20 OO 

65 oo 
1,031 25 

175 00 


Whaley Royce Co. . 
Estate J. Davidson 
T. Davidson Mfg. Co. 

Req'n No. 
3831 War Office . . 


Toronto . . 
Ottawa . . . 
Montreal . 

London 


Packing cases . . . 
Boxes, candle . . 

Locks, bearer, catch, 
etc. 


50 
100 

144 


' 


410 oo 

125 oo 

50 40 

30 oo 



342 



:g: 4] COMPOSITION OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

ENGINEER AND SUNDRY STORES continued 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 




Req'n. No. 








$ cts. 


$ cts. 


2832 War Office . . 
2833 . . 
2835 . . 


London 
99 


Arms, steadying, etc. 
Spurs, jack, ordinary 
Drawings 







5 oo 
6,380 oo 
8 oo 


2836 . . 


99 * 


Telescopes, rangefinders 


. . 


t t 


66 oo 


2837 . . 


19 


Boxes, lantern, art'y 


. . 


t . 


450 00 


2838 . . 


99 


Boxes and detonators 


. . 


. . 


1 60 00 


2839 . . 


99 


Gun cotton and cases 


, . 


. . 


30 oo 


2840 . . 





Discs, identity . 




. k 


52 12 


2841 ,.. . 




Tools, screw - cutting, 




. . 


224 40 






bolt, etc. 








2842 . . 


99 


Rangefinders, stands, 




t . 


4,396 oo 






etc. 








2843 ,, 


99 


Strikers, Ord., Q.F. 13 


, t 


, t 


800 oo 






and i8-pr. 


, 






2844 ,, 


99 


Instructional prints 


. . 


, . 


18 oo 


2845 . . 


99 ' ' .' 


Carriers, No. 7 dial 






500 oo 






sights 








2846 . . 


99 


Slings, gun and carriage 


. . 


, . 


10 OO 


2847 . . 





Instructional prints 


, . 


t , 


5 oo 


2848 . . 


99 


Charges, field boxes, gun- 


. . 


. . 


5 50 






cotton 








2849 


99 


Rope, bracing, gyns, 


. . 


. . 


I 90 






triangle 








2850 . . 


99 * 


Chests, tool, filled . . 


^ . 


, . 


338 oo 


2851 . . 


99 


Springs, extractor, etc. 


. f 


, 9 


28 oo 


2852 




Boxes, testing and joint- 


. . 


. . 


90 oo 






ing 








2853 ,, 


99 * * 


Wheels, 3rd class . . 


, , 


t k 


1 06 oo 


2854 . . 




Instruments, inserting 


. , 


, 4 


zo oo 






cable 








2855 


99 


Carriers, wrenches, adi. 


f f 




100 00 


2856 . . 




Trucks, gyns, triangle . 


. . 


. . 


3 oo 


2858 . . 


99 


Nuts and screws . . 


. . 


. . 


2 00 


2860 . . 


19 


Barrows, drum, etc. 




. . 


800 oo 


2861 . . 




Anchors, pontoons . 






3,385 oo 


2863 . . 


99 


Chests, stocks, etc. 


. , 


g . 


10 00 


T. Birkett & Son Co. . 


Ottawa 


Gauges, cattle hooks, 






62 oo 






mallets, etc. 








Ottawa Car Mfg. Co. . 


99 * 


Spindles and reel cable 


60 




81 oo 


T. Birkett & Son Co. . 




Cans, oil, tools, etc. 


(various) 


.. 


2,059 50 


Total . . . 





.. 








187,127 25 



MEDICAL EQUIPMENT AND STORES 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 


Ottawa Car Mfg. Co. . 
W. B. MacDonald . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Stretchers, field hospital 
Urinals and bedpans . 


200 

OQO 


At 
$ cts. 

i 75 


$ cts. 
2,350 oo 
1,050 oo 


T. A. Brownlee . . . 
Murray- Kay, Ltd. . . 
J. Oliver & Sons . . 


Toronto* '. '. 
Ottawa . . . 


Medical supplies . . 
Sanitary cases . 
Cases, medical . . . 


12 

500 


85 oo 
3 80 


5,000 oo 

1,020 OO 

1,900 oo 



343 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

MEDICAL EQUIPMENT AND STORES continued 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


Kny-Scheerer Co. . 


New York . 


Operating tables 


12 


32 50 


390 oo 


J. E. Powell .... 
J. H. Chapman . 


Ottawa . . . 
Montreal . . 


Medical supplies 
equipment 


various 




19,500 oo 
13,968 90 


... 





and surgical ap- 


5 sets. 




1,850 oo 


J. Oliver & Sons . . 


Ottawa . . . 


pliances 
Tables, folding, small . 


48 


2 00 


96 06 


Burroughs, Welcome Co. 


Montreal . . 


Medical equipment 






820 oo 


J. E. Powell (Bauer and 


Ottawa . . . 


First field dressings 


30,000 


21 


6,300 oo 


Black). 












J. Oliver & Sons . . 


, . 


Boxes, med. stores 


100 


7' 00 


700 oo 


John Jolly . . . . 
A. E. Rea Co. ... 


, 


Bandages, comp. 
Pins, safety, pkts. . 


833 

200 


i 48 doz. 


1,232 84 
7 oo 


Murphy-Gamble 




,Calico, unbleached, 


IOO 


I2j 


12 50 






yds. 








W. J. Graham . . . 


... 


Leathers, chamois . 


60 




21 75 






Candles 


600 




5 oo 


T. A. Brownlee . . . 


,, ... 


Leathers, chamois . 


36 




12 60 


Lyman Knox 
W. J. Graham . . . 


Montreal 
Ottawa . . . 


Chloride of lime, tons . 
Medical supplies . . 


2* ' 




90 oo 
1,400 oo 


W. B. McDonald . . 


... 


> 






650 oo 


Murray- Kay .... 
Ives Modern Bedstead Co. 


Toronto 
Cornwall 


Bedsteads, folding field 


300 


5 40 


6,600 oo 
1,620 oo 






ambulance 








Alaska Feather & Down 


Montreal 


Pillows, hospital . . 


1,000 


o 95 


950 oo 


Co. 












Nichols Chemical Co. . 


> 


Chloride lime 


7,500 Ibs. 


o if 


125 oo 


Ives Modern Bedstead 


Cornwall . . 


Bedsteads, hospital 


200 


7 50 


1,500 oo 


Co. 












Lymans, Ltd. 


Montreal . 


Pocket instrument cases 


30 




225 oo 


T. A. Brownlee 


Ottawa . . . 


Stethescopes 


15 




26 25 


Bryson & Graham, 


it ... 


Hearthrugs 


60 




206 40 


Ltd. 












T. Birkett & Son Co. . 





Mats, coir fibre . 


144 




133 92 


Murphy-Gamble, Ltd. . 


ii ... 


Mats, bedside, hosp. 


60 




156 oo 


Stott & Jury . . . 


Bowmanville- . 


Foot elm .... 


5 gr. 




120 oa 


Hugh Carson Co. 


Ottawa . . . 


Cases, message, book . 


72 




136 80 


Mackenzie, Ltd. 
Ingram & Bell . 


Toronto . ! 


Hospital clothing . 
Sterilizers .... 


i, 600 
4 


3 40 


5,460 oo 
440 oo 


T. A. Brownlee . . . 


Ottawa . 


Vaccine 


1,000 pkts. 


i 50 


1,500 oo 


Ottawa Car Mfg. Co. . 
J. Oliver & Sons 


ii ... 


Stretchers and slings . 
Boxes (for surgical sup- 


IOO 

<o 


H 75 

72S 


1,175 oo 

063 <o 






plies) 


j^ 


~ J 


O u * r j w 


ii 


,, ... 


Boxes (for urinals and 


20 


. . 


145 00 






bed pans) 








W. B. MacDonald Co. . 


ii 


Bed pans, urinals and 


200 each 


various 


800 oo 


T. A. Brownlee . . . 
William Scully . . . 


Montreal . . 


spit cups (various) 
Serum antidiphtheric . 
Armlets 


200 pkts 
500 


6 50 


1,300 oo 
125 oo 


J. H. Chapman . 




Filters 


12 




156 oo 


Gault Bros. (Pulford) . 


Ottawa . ! ! 


Fomentation flannel . 


50 




36 oo 


Can. Red Cross Society 
Smart-Woods, Ltd. . . 


Montreal 
Ottawa . . . 


Bandages, trian. 
Hosp. mattress cases . 


2,000 
2OO 




250 oo 
376 oo 






Barrack mattress cases 


>oo 




417 oo 


Gault Bros. (Pulford) . 


ii ... 


Flannel ... 


gw 

zoo yds. 




28 oo 


ii n 




Operating towels 


IOO 




25 oo 


Burroughs Welcome Co. 


Montreal . 


Containers, iodine 


144 




1 80 00 


T. Birkett & Son Co. . 
William Scully . . . 
A. Harry Wolfe . . . 
Watson Carriage Co. 


Ottawa . . . 
Montreal . 

Ottawa . ! ! 


Lamps, operating 
Arm badges 

Stretchers . 


12 
4,695 

8,775 
300 


various 

ii 65 


234 oo 
1,126 80 

2,106 oo 
3,495 oo 



344 



19 4] COMPOSITION OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

MEDICAL EQUIPMENT AND STORES continued 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


Mothersill Remedy Co. 


Detroit . . . 


M. Seasick Remedy 


20,000 bxs. 




3,984 oo 


Mackenzie, Ltd. 
A. A. Rae, Co., Ltd. . 


Ottawa . . . 


Hospital clothing . 
Neckerchiefs, hosp. 


600 sets. 
1,200 


3 05 


1,830 oo 
1 08 oo 


Murphy-Gamble, Ltd. . 


... 


Handkerchiefs . 


1,700 


. . 


70 83 





M ... 


Aprons, operating . 


75 




56 25 


T. Birkett & Son 




Needles palm punches 


84 




22 OO 


Co. 












Ingram & Bell . 


Toronto 


Medical units . . . 


10 sets. 


277 


2,770 oo 


Ottawa Car Mfg. Co. . 


Ottawa . 


Spanners .... 


63 




79 oo 


Kny-Scheerer Co., Ltd. 


New York . . 


Operating Tables . . 


8 


32 50 


260 oo 


W. B. MacDonald 


Ottawa . . . 


Pocket instrument cases 


61 


6 50 


396 50 


Co. 












Smart- Woods, Ltd. . 




Armlets 


200 




12 OO 


T. F. Hartz Co., Ltd. . 
W. J. Graham . 


Toronto 
Ottawa . . . 


Microscopes and stages 
Flannel bandages 


2 

30 doz. 





250 oo 
132 oo 


J. F. Hartz & Co. 


Toronto 


Bandages 


250 


}" 


190 oo 


War Office .' . 


London, Eng. . 


Oil stoves 


12 






... 


> 


Food warmers . 
Oil stoves 


36 
46 


- 


1,200 OO 


99 ' 




Portable stoves 


40 






A. E. Rae & Co. 


Ottawa . . . 


Hospital drawers 


400 


I 20 


480 oo 


Quality Mattress Co 


Waterloo . . 


Mattresses . 


7OO 


4 90 


3,430 oo 


Ames, Holden, McCready 
T. Birkett Son & Co. . 


Montreal 
Ottawa . . . 


Slipper, hospital 
Trays, diet and soap 


1,750 prs. 
300 


i 50 


2,625 oo 
500 oo 




. 


Boxes, dressing 


72 




153 oo 





,, 


Enam. tumblers & mugs 


444 




50 oo 


Shurley, Dietrick .. ! 


Gait ! ! ! 


Bedsteads, folding field 


500 


5 40 


2,700 oo 






ambulance 








Ives Modern Bedstead Co. 


Cornwall . . 


Bedsteads, folding field 


1,000 


5 40 


5,400 oo 






ambulance 








Murphy-Gamble 


Ottawa . . . 


Operating aprons . 


!25 




93 75 


Mackenzie, Ltd. . . 




Hosp. jackets and 


300 


6 10 


1,830 oo 






trousers, suits 








Gault Bros 


Montreal . . 


Cloths, sponge, medi- 


2,788 




269 oo 






cine, etc. 








Ottawa Car Co. . . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Panniers, reserve, Medi- 


26 


. . 








cal, with fittings and 










,, ... 


trays 
Panniers, fld, med. prs. 


6 










6 No. i, 6 No. 2 








J. Oliver Sons . 


,, ... 


Screens, bedside 


40 




206 oo 


T. A. Brownlee . . 


... 


Bandages, gauze, comp. 


100 


gross 


600 oo 






gr. (various) 








Harrisons' Pharmacy . 


... 


Bandages, gauze, comp. 


100 


various 


1,776 oo 


W. J. Graham . . . 




gr. (gross) 
Acid carbolic, Ibs. . 


75 




45 50 


Murray-Kay, Ltd. . . 


Toronto . . 


Commodes and pans -j 


100 
2OO 


each 

6 20 


I 620 oo 


J. H. Chapman . . . 


Montreal . . 


Berkfeld filters . . . 


4 8 


13 oo 


625 oo 


E. Powell .... 


Ottawa . . . 


Needles, ice bags, labels, 






79 oo 






etc. 








W. B. MacDonald . . 


... 


Syringes, needles, hypo- 


50 and 100 




183 oo 






dermic, bxs. 








Harrison's Pharmacy . 


,, ... 


Rubber sheeting, yards 


50 




35 oo 


Gault Bros 


Montreal 


Hospital sheets . 


800 


i 05 


840 oo 


J. Oliver Sons . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Boxes for bedpans, etc. 


20 




145 00 


W. B. MacDonald ! ! 


,, ... 


Boxes for surg. supplies 
Water bottles, fld. hosp. 


50 

200 


5 75 


362 50 
1,150 oo 


* ""-" 


... 
> ... 


Basins, dressing 
Plaited silk, tins . . 


18 
36 


} 


IO OO 



345 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

MEDICAL EQUIPMENT AND STORES continued 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 


\ 








At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


W. B. MacDonald . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Cases, syringes and 


120 




340 00 






hypodermic 








t 


t 


Pocket instrument cases 


61 




396 50 


Lyman, Ltd. 


Montreal 


Ampules, camph'd oil 


4,625 


\ 








stovaine, etc. 




f 


733 10 


a 


a 


Tablets 


6,000 


J 




Kny-Scheerer 


New York . . 


Tables, operating . 


8 


35 25 


282 oo 


Ingram & Bell . . 


Toronto . . 


Spare parts for steriliser 


. , 




50 oo 


Harrison's . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Dental supplies 






360 oo 


J. F. Hartz . . . 


Toronto . . 


Inhalers' clovers, 16 sets 


60 


} 








Chloroform 




r 


400 oo 





a 


Cones, ether 


20 


J 




W. J. Graham ! ! 


Ottawa . . . 


Plaster 300 spls. liga- 


250 




1 60 oo 






tures, silk, skeins 








T. A. Brownlee . 




Ligatures silk, 400 pkts. 












Catgut 900, Ice bags 
200 


- 





210 00 


Can. Red Cross Society. 
J. H. Chapman . 


Montreal 


Bandages, comp. . . 
Syringes, 6. Needles . 


2,000 
30 





250 oo 
54 oo 


a ... 


a 


For Machine X-Ray . 


i 


i 


, 


T. A. Brownlee . 


Ottawa . ! ! 


Lamps, operating . 
Hypodermic tablets, 864 


14 


f 


1,000 
230 oo 






tubes, 288 tabs. 








a ... 


... 


Tablets, A, B, S, & C. 


10,000 




10 50 


a ... 


a ... 


Corks for 8-oz. bottles, 


10 










gross 
Adrenalin solution, i-oz. 


228 


.. 


234 oo 






bottle 








Claudius Ash Co. 


Toronto . . 


Dental cases 


4 




560 oo 


J. F. Hartz Co. . . . 


a 


Eyeshades, 624 and rub- 


350 




102 00 






ber tubing, tubes 








Ottawa Car Co. . 


Ottawa . 


Splints 


300 




75 oo 


T. A. Brownlee . x . . 




Lysol, 144 tubes 










... 


Morp. tart, tubes . 


800 




158 oo 


H. K. Mulford ! 
J. F. Hartz .... 


Philadelphia ! 
Toronto . . 


Strych. sulph. 144 tubes 
Lympg. vaccine, pts. . 
Medical books, sets 


20,000 

75 


o 09 


1, 800 00 

118 75 


Harrison's .... 


Ottawa . . . 


Rubber sheeting 


50 yds. 




35 oo 


W. B. MacDonald . . 


" ' 


Hypod. syringes 
Needles, doz. 


50 
100 doz. 


} 


184 oo 






Nail brushes 


36 


1 




J. F. Hartz . '. '. '. 


Toronto 


Bandages, plaster Paris 


50 doz 


1 ' 


IQO OO 


T. A. 'Brownlee . ! *. 


Ottawa . . . 


Oiled calico . . 
Bandages 


200 yds 
400 doz 


.'! 


288 oo 


Lymans, Ltd. . . . 


Montreal . 


Abs. cotton, rolls 


360 


i 




ft 


a 


Gauze, plain, rolls 


1,000 


\ 


300 oo 


Harrison's .... 


Ottawa . . . 


Abs. gauze . 


100 doz 


. . 


148 oo 


W. B. MacDonald . . 


19 ... 


Gauze, sublimate, comp 


100 doz 




290 oo 


W. J. Graham . . . 
T. A. Brownlee . 


II ... 


Bandages, flannel, comp 
Tablets, hydrarg. per- 


30 doz 
70 




132 oo 
273 oo 






chl. bottle 








Can. Red Cross Society 
E. Powell .... 


Montreal . 
Ottawa . 


Bandages .... 
Bandages, dressing and 


16,000 
2,278 doz 


12$ C. 

various 


2,000 oo 
5,256 oo 






gauze 








Burroughs Welcome Co. 


Montreal . 


Bandages, dressing and 


551 doz 





816 78 






gauze 








Eimer & Amend 


New York . . 


Laboratory apparatus . 


. f 


. . 


574 oo 


E. Powell .... 


Ottawa . . . 


Gauze, plaster, etc. 




various 


20,380 45 


T. A. Brownlee . . . 




Boxes, Med. stores, 


150 


85 oo 


12,750 oo 






filled, complete 









340 



4] COMPOSITION OF FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 



MEDICAL EQUIPMENT AND STORES Continued 



Name. 


Address. 


Article. 


Quantity. 


Prices. 


Estimated 
Cost. 










At 












$ cts. 


$ cts. 


T. A. Brownlee . . . 


Ottawa . . . 


Boxes, comp. with bio- 


6 


225 oo 


1,350 oo 






logical products 








Lymans, Ltd. 


Montreal 


Oil calico . . . 


200 yds. 


) 




W. B. MacDonald 


Ottawa . 


Cases, ward dressing 
Syringes, hypo. 


100 

50 


f 

I 


240 oo 


Kny-Scheerer 


New" York 


Needles, boxes . . 
Instruments 


12 


f 

various 


112 OO 

1,507 45 


> 


M 


Instruments, surgical 


. . 




299 oo 


J. H. Chapman . 
Harris & Barry . 


Montreal ' 
Ottawa . 


Orderlies' pouches . 
Washstands, hosp. . 


QOO 

4 


3 70 


3,330 00 
12 OO 


Mackenzie, Ltd. 


> 


Jackets and trs., hosp. 


3,500 sets. 


6 10 


21,350 oo 


Murray- Kay . 


Toronto 


Gowns, hospital 
Tables, bedside . . 


1,300 

I,IOO 


4 50 
5 15 


5,850 oo 
5,666 oo 


Ottawa Car Co. . 


Ottawa . 


Carriages ambulance 


20 


40 oo 


800 oo 






stretchers 








Total . . . 





.. 








217,893 12 



347 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



APPENDIX 

CORRESPONDENCE RELATING TO THE PROPOSED 
FORMATION OF AN IMPERIAL GENERAL STAFF 

No. i 

Parlia- The Secretary of State to the Governor of New Zealand, the 
mentary Governor-General of Canada, and the Governor-General 

37cd of Australia 

4475]. ( (To New Zealand. 24 December, 1908.) 

Downing Street, -j (To Australia. I January 1909.) 
[(To Canada. 15 January 1909.) 

MY LORD, I have the honour to forward, for the consideration of 
Your Excellency's Ministers, copies of a letter from the War Office, 
enclosing and commenting on a Memorandum which has been prepared 
by the General Staff on the subject of the creation of an Imperial 
General Staff for the service of the Empire as a whole. 

2. This Memorandum has been prepared in pursuance of the Third 
Resolution of the Imperial Conference of 1907, and His Majesty's 
Government trust that the principles and procedure explained in it 
may meet with acceptance from your Government, and I hope that it 
will be welcomed as showing the lines on which action should be taken 
in developing and improving the existing organisation of the defence 
forces of the [Dominion] [Commonwealth]. 

3. I shall be glad to receive the observations of your Ministers as 
soon as possible, and if they accept the principles of the Memorandum 
it will be convenient if I can be informed by telegram. I propose to lay 
this despatch and its enclosures before Parliament, as the question has 
attracted much public attention in this country, and was regarded by 
the Conference of 1907 as one in the united discussion and solution of 
which the whole Empire is deeply interested. I have, etc., 

CREWE. 

ENCLOSURE IN No. i 
War Office to Colonial Office 

War Office, London, S.W., i$th December 1908. 
SIR, In pursuance of the Resolutions passed at. the Imperial Con- 
ference held last year with reference to the formation of an Imperial 
348 



APPENDIX 

General Staff, and approving the general principles for the military 
defence of the Empire submitted to the Conference by the Secretary of 
State for War, I am commanded by the Army Council to forward, for 
the information of the Earl of Crewe, the enclosed statement of their 
views on the subject of the Imperial General Staff, and to request that 
should his Lordship think it advisable this statement may be sub- 
mitted to the Ministries of the respective self-governing Dominions. 

The enclosed paper is based on the general principles embodied in 
the statement made by the Secretary of State for War, which received 
the cordial approval of the Conference. 

The main points in this statement, so far as the subject now under 
discussion is concerned, may be summarised as follows : 

(1) The necessity for the maintenance of sea supremacy, which 

alone can ensure any military co-operation at all. 

(2) The desirability of a certain broad plan of military organisa- 

tion for the Empire, but not a rigid* model making no 
allowance for local difficulties. 

(3) A conception of combination in which the armed forces of the 

Empire would be organised in two parts ; the first part 
having local defence as its function, the second designed for 
the service of the Empire as a whole. 

The Army Council are well aware that the self-governing Dominions 
can give no guarantee that contingents of any given strength or com- 
position will be forthcoming for service in any part of the Empire in 
the event of a great war. At the same time, they fully realise that the 
feelings of loyalty and affection towards the Mother Country entertained 
by the Oversea Dominions will operate as powerfully in the hour of 
trial as they did during the recent war in South Africa. But the lack 
of definite and timely provision for an emergency deprives military 
forces of much of their potential value, while adequate preparation has 
been proved in all recent campaigns to be a paramount factor in securing 
a rapid and successful decision. For these reasons, although the 
Oversea Dominions may be unable to undertake definite responsibility 
for anything beyond local defence, it would still be well, in organising 
for such defence, to consider the necessities incidental to a situation in 
which the Dominions beyond the seas desired to give effective military 
service in association with the troops of the Mother Country. Such a 
contingency has been kept in view in the accompanying paper. 

In conclusion the Army Council desire to urge the importance of 
carrying into effect the general principles of the higher organisation of 
units agreed to by the Conference of 1907. I am, etc., 

E. W. D. WARD. 



349 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Need for an 
Imperial 
General Staff 
recognised by 
Colonial Con- 
ference of 1907. 

Its duties de- 
fined by the 
Conference. 



Definite pro- 
posals by the 
Chief of the 
General Staff 
called for. 

Necessity to 
examine into 
general con- 
siderations 
before formu- 
lating definite 
proposals. 

The conditions 
to be dealt 
with are new. 



Treatment of 
the subject 
under differ- 
ent headings. 



THE IMPERIAL GENERAL STAFF 
INTRODUCTORY REMARKS 

The need for a General Staff, ' selected from the forces of the Empire 
as a whole/ was affirmed by the Imperial Conference which met in 
London in April 1907, and the duties to be performed by such a staff, 
in time of peace, were defined as follows : 

' To - study military science in all its branches ; to collect and 
disseminate to the various Governments military information and 
intelligence ; to undertake the preparation of schemes of defence 
on a common principle, and (without in the least interfering in 
questions connected with command and administration) at the 
request of the respective Governments, to advise as to the training, 
education, and war organisation of the military forces of the 
Crown in every part of the Empire.' 

It was further decided that the Chief of the General Staff should put 
forward definite proposals to give effect to the resolutions of the Con- 
ference on this subject. The object of this paper is to do so. 

Before definite proposals can be put forward, however, it is necessary 
to examine into certain general considerations on which the arrange- 
ments made should be based. 

In the first place, it must be recognised that we are now practically 
only at the beginning of the creation of military forces, on an important 
scale, in the Oversea Dominions. The Empire has now reached a stage 
when its sons in the Oversea Dominions have begun to feel themselves 
sufficiently strong to undertake more responsibility for the defence of 
their own homes, and to look on this not only as a duty which they are 
willing to perform, but as a right. The real problem before the various 
Governments concerned is to guide this feeling into correct channels 
from the outset. It is in order to supply such guidance that the 
creation of an Imperial General Staff is necessary. 

Considering the subject from this standpoint, it appears that we 
should 

(i.) Form a clear conception of the general principles on which 
our system for national defence should be built up and per- 
fected, and of the relations of the several parts to the whole, 
(ii.) Outline the most suitable and efficient organisation for an 

Imperial General Staff to develop and perfect that system, 
(iii.) Taking this organisation as our objective, consider the best 
means of selecting and training the officers who are to com- 
pose it. 

(iv.) Consider what means are at present available, and how they 
can best and soonest be utilised for the formation of the 
Imperial General Staff. 
350 






APPENDIX 

In this paper, accordingly, the subject is discussed under the above 
headings, and endeavour is made to present (under each heading) an 
ideal to be kept in view, and to suggest the best method of approaching 
that ideal with our existing means. 

PART I 
GENERAL PRINCIPLES AFFECTING NATIONAL DEFENCE 

Considerable anxiety is at the present time being displayed through- Growing 
out the Empire with regard to questions of local and Imperial defence, [^QverslT 
and nowhere is the desire to consider such problems more remarkable Dominions of 
than in our great self-governing Dominions. Not only at home, but I^JSwd^ 8 
in these Dominions and in India, steps are being taken to develop local defence. 
military resources with a view to organising for local defence on a more 
solid and practical foundation, and there can be little doubt that the not 
far distant future will witness a great development in the potential 
military resources of the Empire. 

It would be beyond the scope of this paper to discuss at length the 
causes which have led up to this movement. 

Whatever these causes may be, it is certain that, with the develop- 
ment of the great self-governing Dominions, a growing desire is also 
evident in them for self-contained, efficient, and progressive military 
institutions ; while, with the growth of Imperial ideals, the need is 
being felt for knitting closer together the military forces of the Empire. 
These facts must be kept constantly in view in everything that is under- 
taken now, in order that progress may be made along right lines from 
the beginning. 

National defence in the case of the British Empire divides itself National de- 
naturally into fence must 

J _ , , be considered 

(i.) Local defence. under two 

(ii.) Imperial defence. heads - 

As regards local defence in each case the object to be kept in view, Local defence, 
which should govern the standard to be striven for, is to provide, 
organise, and render efficient such means of defence as will form by 
their existence a serious deterrent to the most probable and feasible form 
of attack. In other words, these means should be adequate to enable 
each particular division of the Empire to secure itself against reason- 
able initial contingencies ; while, in the event of more serious hostile 
undertakings, the organisation and means provided should be sufficient 
to enable the issue to be deferred until the naval and military resources 
of the Empire can be concentrated at the decisive point or points. 

Turning to Imperial defence, the first point to note is that it is a imperial 
cardinal military maxim that no organisation for defence can be re- defence - 
garded as adequate or complete which does not contemplate offensive 

351 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Need for 
similarity of 
organisation 
in order to 
ensure com- 
bination. 



Special need 
for combina- 
tion in war. 



The General 
Staff must be 
an entity 
throughout 
the Empire. 



action. Passive defence seldom, if ever, wins decisive results. As 
already stated, the possible necessity for the concentration of Imperial 
forces for the defence of the Empire was admitted by the Imperial 
Conference. The scale on which such forces might have to be con- 
centrated must depend on the Imperial interests involved, the pro- 
bability being that they would be required to come to the assistance of, 
and act in combination with, the forces maintained for local defence in 
some particular portion of the Empire. 

It is thus evident how closely the forces maintained in various 
portions of the Empire may be associated in war time. In order that 
the several parts of such an army may be able to act in close combina- 
tion, they must be organised on the same general principles, especially 
as regards the system of command and staff duties. The need for this 
was dealt with fully in a ' Memorandum on the possibility of assimilating 
war organisation throughout the Empire,' which was submitted to the 
Imperial Conference on the I4th of March 1907^ by the Chief of the 
General Staff. A copy of this Memorandum is attached, to obviate the 
need of any further discussion on this point. 

Again, the proverb that ' Unity is strength ' applies to war and pre- 
paration for war with greater force than to almost any other sphere of 
human activity. Combination of effort is a fundamental principle of 
war, and the existence of different schools of thought in an army is fatal 
to such combination. The ideal to be arrived at is that all divisions of a 
military force should be capable of acting in war as parts of a whole. 
This ideal can only be fully realised when all the parts are organised and 
trained by one brain, and in the modern army that brain is the General 
Staff. The General Staff must therefore be an entity throughout the 
Empire, and to make it so, all its members ought to be uniformly 
trained in principles and practice in one school under one head. 



The objects to 
be attained by 
the General 
Staff. 



PART II 

THE MOST SUITABLE AND EFFICIENT ORGANISATION FOR AN 
IMPERIAL GENERAL STAFF 

Before attempting to form any estimate of what our requirements 
would be for an Imperial General Staff, as recommended by the Imperial 
Conference, or to suggest how the necessary officers to compose it should 
be trained and selected, it is necessary to consider what its duties would 
be. In attempting to do this, an essential condition to be borne in 
mind is that the true and only objects to be attained are : 
(i.) Efficient preparation for war in peace time. . 
(ii.) Successful conduct of war in war time. 

No solution of the problem can be effective unless it is governed by 
these factors. 

1 See pp. 22-27 [Cd. 3524], May 1907. 
352 



APPENDIX 

The duties of the' General Staff 'selected from the forces of the Duties of the 
Empire as a whole/ as regards preparation for war, were defined by the 
Imperial Conference. 

We still have to consider the duties of the General Staff in war. Duties of the 
These may be described as follows : P e ^ r r al Staff 

' Assisting the General Officer or Officers in Local Command by 
' (i.) Planning ; thinking ; watching the enemy ; obtaining, 

compiling, and distributing all information concerning the 

theatre of war, the enemy's forces, and their disposition. 
' (ii.) Working out all arrangements necessary for security, 

marches, and battle in accordance with the plans of the 

General. 
' (iii.) Communicating the necessary orders at the right time and 

place. 
' (iv.) Watching over the fighting condition of the troops, and 

keeping the General informed of their efficiency in every 

respect/ 

It follows that, in the first place, we require a central guiding body its work 
to consider and draw up plans for the defence of the Empire as a whole, ^JJJJJJJ in 
to study and formulate broad principles of general application, and to divisions. 
collect and disseminate general information. In the second place, we 
require local branches to study local needs and local possibilities, and 
to supervise the application of broad general principles under local 
conditions. But, as has already been said, the Imperial General Staff 
must be an entity ; therefore, these local branches must form parts of 
one whole, springing from the central body. 

Thus, both in peace and war, the General Staff must be regarded as Necessity for 
a large organisation, consisting of a central body, with branches stretch- supreme head 
ing out to all the various units of an army. If it is to carry out the to the imperial 
duties allotted to it efficiently and to act as the guiding and directing 
spirit the ' brain ' of the whole army, it is evident not only that all 
its members must be highly educated and trained, but that its work 
must be carried out on common principles in all parts of the Empire. 
It is, therefore, a necessity that the Imperial General Staff should have 
one recognised head to ensure uniformity of method and purpose. 
That head can only be the Chief of the General Staff in London, who 
must become the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, if we are to have a 
really efficient organisation. 

Under the more or less direct supervision of the Chief of the Im- General lines 
perial General Staff, the General Staff organisation for the Empire o?gSSiSf 
should be built up gradually on the following lines : of the imperial 

General Staff 

I. The central body having its headquarters in London, and should be 
working directly under the Chief of the Imperial General framed - 
Staff. 
OVERSEAS i. z 353 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Subjects which 
local sections 
should deal 
with. 



Relationship 
between the 
Chief of the 
Imperial 
General Staff 
and Chiefs of 
local sections. 



Best method 
of keeping 
touch between 
them. 



II. Local sections in the United Kingdom, in each of our regular 
garrisons abroad, in each self-governing Dominion, and in 
India. These local sections, except in the case of the 
smaller foreign garrisons, might be subdivided into the local 
headquarters, and the staff with local troops. Each section 
should have a Chief at its head ; and it would deal with ques- 
tions connected with (i) local defence, and (2) the training of 
troops on lines similar to those now followed for the United 
Kingdom by the Training Directorate at the War Office. 
In this organisation, as applied to the self-governing Dominions, 
each Chief of a local section of the General Staff would be the adviser of 
his own Government as well as the head of all General Staff Officers in 
his section whether at his headquarters or with the troops. A possible 
difficulty to be solved, as regards this organisation, is the establishment 
of the proper relationship between the Chief of the Imperial General 
Staff and the Chiefs of local sections of the General Staff in the several 
Dominions. It has already been pointed out that in all purely military 
questions guidance should come from the former. But it may be held 
that such guidance is incompatible with full control of the local Chief by 
his own Government, and this full control must be accepted from the 
outset. The solution of this difficulty would appear to be that, while 
the Chiefs of the local sections of the General Staff keep in close com- 
munication with the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, they cannot 
receive orders from him. We will keep them informed as to what are 
considered the correct general principles ; and they will advise their 
Governments as to the best method of applying these principles to local 
conditions, and as to the risk of departing from them. When their 
advice is not accepted, it will be their duty to carry out whatever their 
respective Governments may order. 

Under such conditions the best method of keeping up close touch 
between the central body of the General Staff and the local sections of 
the General Staff requires further consideration. Much can be done to 
ensure uniformity by a judicious system of preliminary selection, 
education, and training of officers for the General Staff ; by periodical 
interchanges between those serving on the staff in different parts of the 
Empire ; and by occasional general conferences. These questions are 
discussed in the following pages, and it will be necessary to rely a good 
deal on such methods. But in these days the military art is pro- 
gressive. New ideas and inventions demand constant consideration, 
and close and frequent personal communication between the centre and 
the branches is necessary to prevent the initiation and growth of 
divergent opinion which might be fatal to combination. 

This personal touch may be maintained either by delegating 
selected officers from the central body to each of the local sections, 
changing them at frequent intervals ; or by reversing this process. 
354 



APPENDIX 

The first of these methods would be most effective in some ways, but 
it might not always be acceptable to local authorities. In all prob- 
ability a combination of both methods would work best on the whole. 
In the first instance, selected officers of local sections might be attached 
by their respective Governments to the War Office, London, and 
periodically changed. Their duty would be to study the methods 
of education and training and staff duties in vogue under the immediate 
eyes of the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, as well as the latest 
development of ideas on organisation, strategy, and tactics ; to give 
the Chief of the Imperial General Staff information of local defence 
arrangements and other local matters in their respective countries ; to 
study the part to be played by local forces in Imperial defence ; to corre- 
spond on such questions with their local chiefs ; and, finally, on relief, 
to return home to explain and practise personally what they have learnt. 

In a great war the General Staff officers with the troops would be Organisation 
furnished chiefly from those serving in the local sections from which the 
troops were drawn, while those attached to the supreme commander in 
the field would be mainly drawn from officers who had proved their 
efficiency on the central body of the Imperial General Staff. 

It is abundantly clear that the officers appointed to the General 
Staff, both in peace and war, should possess the confidence not only of 
military opinion, but also of the Imperial and other Governments of the 
Empire. This can only be attained by the inclusion in the General Staff 
of officers having specialist, personal, and practical knowledge of the 
peculiar local conditions, both military and political, in all parts of the 
Empire. 

PART III 

THE PRINCIPLES OF SELECTION AND TRAINING OF OFFICERS FOR 
THE IMPERIAL GENERAL STAFF 

The organisation of the Imperial General Staff having been outlined, General P rin- 
it is now necessary to consider the general principles on which officers oS^shc 
should be selected and trained for it. Under this head the first point to be selected 
note is that, in order to qualify themselves for employment on the 
General Staff, officers must have been educated previously up to a staff. 
certain common standard of military knowledge, and have become 
imbued with the requisite uniformity of thought and practice. 

This uniformity in training and thought can only be obtained by 
passing officers intended for General Staff work through a staff college. 

The Staff College at Camberley, working under the immediate super- The staff 
vision of the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, must be recognised for gf^Siey, 
some years to come as the central school of higher military education must be the 
for the whole Empire. But as our military institutions develop 
throughout the Empire, this establishment will be unable to meet to come. 
Imperial requirements outside those parts of the Empire which are 

355 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Eventually 
several local 
staff colleges 
will probably 
be required. 



The Indian 
Staff College. 



Staff college 
education is 
the normal 
system, but 
officers of 
approved 
ability in the 
field not 
excluded. 

Standard of 
knowledge 
required for 
entry to a 
staff college, 
and how to 
ensure uni- 
formity in this, 

Uniformity of 
instruction at 
staff collegt s, 
how to be 
ensured. 



Officers to 
return to duty 
with troops 
after graduat- 
ing at a staff 
college. 

Then to under- 
go a proba- 
tionary course 
of practical 
staff training. 



garrisoned by the regular army, including India. The essence of 
efficient training lies in individual attention and instruction. If too 
great a number of officers are collected together for such training at one 
centre, any such establishment will become congested, and individual 
training is certain to suffer. With the growth, therefore, of the General 
Staff of the Army at large, the need will arrive for decentralisation ; and 
if the self-governing Dominions beyond the seas are ever to become 
self-contained in their military institutions, they themselves will, 
sooner or later, recognise this necessity. Such decentralisation should 
take the form of an educational establishment on similar lines to, and 
worked in close connection with, the Staff College at Camberley, for 
each great division of the Empire. It is, however, recognised that this 
requirement may not make itself sufficiently felt for a considerable 
period, and, pending the institution of more such colleges than exist 
at present, officers of the forces of the Oversea Dominions should be 
encouraged to make the fullest possible use of existing establishments. 

Working in close touch and uniformity, except as regards entrance 
examinations, with the Staff College at Camberley, the Staff College at 
Quetta constitutes already for India a valuable part of our educational 
machinery. 

Thus, without excluding officers of proved ability who are not staff 
college graduates, it must be accepted as a principle that recruits for the 
Imperial General Staff should normally pass through one of the staff 
colleges. Their selection for, and entry at, such an establishment 
would mark officially the first step in their training. 

The standard of military knowledge to be required from officers 
entering the staff colleges must be made as uniform as possible, and this 
should be attained by holding simultaneous examinations with precisely 
the same papers for the different colleges. 

Uniformity of instruction at the colleges must also be secured. This 
can best be done by making the syllabus and curriculum identical for 
all, and by careful selection of the instructors. At all such colleges the 
head should be selected from officers who have served on the central 
body of the Imperial General Staff, and he, with a proportion of the 
instructors (say, one-third as is now the case at the Quetta College) 
should be Camberley graduates. 

After graduating at a staff college, an officer should return to 
regimental duty with troops for a time, in order to refresh his knowledge 
of their wants and feelings in the light of his wider experience'. This 
period should, if possible, be of at least one year's duration. 

After this, officers selected as likely to be suitable for General Staff 
work should undergo, under the eye of the Chief of the local section of 
the General Staff, a probationary course of practical staff training with 
troops and at headquarters, during which they would be fully reported 
on, with regard to their fitness for the Imperial General Staff. Under 
356 



APPENDIX 

present conditions this course of staff training should be carried out 
under the supervision of the Chief of the Imperial General Staff in 
London, or in India under that of the Commander-in-Chief of the Forces 
in that country. 

After completing the full course of training on the above lines, an After which to 
officer should ordinarily serve for a further period in his own country wUh r tix>op S uty 
with troops. But all officers who have completed the full course, and until required 
have been found to possess the necessary qualifications, should be f< 
considered as eligible for appointment to the Imperial General Staff 
when required. 

A system of training on the lines described has been inaugurated and 
is being developed at home, and should, as soon, as practicable, be 
introduced in other parts of the Empire. 

The next step in the General Staff officer's career would be appoint- First appoint- 
ment to a local section of the General Staff. Ordinarily this should be gS^SuS 
in his own country in the first instance ; but temporary interchange interchange of 
between officers for duty in different parts of the Empire should be officers 15 
arranged by the Governments concerned on the advice of the Chiefs of throughout 
local sections of the General Staff. 

It will probably be found advisable that such interchanges should HOW such 
take place under the advice of the Chief of the Imperial General Staff. SjtSil? 
Moreover, the system proposed seems scarcely practicable unless the arranged for. 
organisation of the various branches of the Imperial General Staff in the 
different parts of the Empire, and the allotment of duties to individuals, 
follow a general system so far as local conditions admit. 

In addition to periodical interchanges as suggested above, great Advisability 
benefit would result from occasional conferences, attended by repre- 
sentatives of the Imperial General Staff from all parts of the Empire, general 
for the purpose of comparing notes and discussing military matters 
under the presidency of the Chief of the Imperial General Staff. Such 
conferences would serve to keep the various members of the Staff in 
touch with one another, and to prevent differences of opinion arising on 
important matters of principle. The Chiefs of the local sections of the 
General Staff in various portions of the Empire should also be encouraged 
to correspond with the Chief of the Imperial General Staff himself, or 
with his immediate subordinates in London. 

Officers composing the central body of the Imperial General Staff Appointments 
must be the pick of the officers of the whole Empire who are qualified body'of'the 
for General Staff work. They should be retained in that employment i m P eri *i 

, i ., ., J , ~ . . , F . . ,, , , j f General Start. 

only as long as they prove themselves fitted for it. They should, as far 
as possible, before appointment to the central body, have served on the 
local staffs both at home and abroad. They should be nominated on 
the advice of the Chiefs of the local General Staffs or as regards officers 
serving in India by the Commander-in-Chief in India, subject to the 
concurrence of the Chief of the Imperial General Staff. 

357 



coherences. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



sta?work!, 
Time required 



The personnel 
available* 



In carrying out the general system outlined above, an ideal to be 
aimed at is that, eventually, the self-governing Dominions and India 
should be self-supporting as regards the provision of properly qualified 
officers for their respective sections of the General Staff, in addition to 
providing a due proportion of officers for service on the central body of 
the Imperial General Staff. ' 

Officers to On completion of a tour of General Staff work, whether on the 

w?th f troops Uty central body or on a local section, officers should ordinarily return to 
after each tour duty with troops before reappointment to the staff. 

The foregoing is submitted as an outline of the objective at which we 
should aim. An efficient General Staff organisation can only be evolved 
g ra dually, an d> a- 8 already stated, it is necessary to its successful 
evolution that the end to be attained shall be clear from the very 
commencement. 

Only thus can we ensure that progress shall continue steadily and in 
the right direction. 

PART IV 

PRESENT MEANS, AND HOW BEST TO UTILISE THEM, FOR THE 
CREATION OF AN IMPERIAL GENERAL STAFF 

It is first necessary to consider what personnel is actually available, 
an( * what means already exist, for training officers for the General Staff, 
indicating how far this personnel can apparently be made to meet 
present Imperial requirements. We can then proceed to consider what 
modifications of system appear desirable. 

On looking into this, we find that opportunities for studying and 
practising the art of war vary considerably in different portions of the 
Empire. 

As regards its military forces, the British Empire may be considered 
& consisting of three great divisions, viz. : 

(i.) The United Kingdom, and the various possessions whose 
defence and military organisation are directly under the 
authorities at home. 

(ii.) India, which is garrisoned by both British and Indian forces, 
the control of which is mainly under the Government of India 
and the India Office, although the War office retains certain 
powers of issuing instructions in regard to the British troops 
in India. 

(iii.) The Oversea Dominions, in which military service and 
organisation are altogether regulated by local Governments, 
and which may be subdivided again into the Dominions of 
Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. 
Considering the Empire as consisting of the three main divisions 
denned above, we have already in the first of these divisions a pro- 
fessional Army comprising a considerable number of trained and 
358 



Different con- 



personnel in 
ofThe C EmpJre. 



APPENDIX 

experienced officers, who have been specially educated, in a central 
school (the Staff College, Camberley), in the higher art of war and in 
staff duties. A General Staff has been organised, and has gained 
several years' experience of its work. We have some thousands of 
regimental officers to choose from, all of whom are educated, up to a 
certain standard, on a regular system which has been at work for years. 
We have an organised and experienced machinery for selecting the best 
of these officers for higher education and training, and the necessary 
facilities for providing both. 

In India the conditions are, in great measure, similar. A large and 
efficient Army, including a number of experienced and highly trained 
officers, is maintained there. Regimental officers are educated on 
practically the same system as exists at present in the regular army 
serving elsewhere. A Staff College was opened in India in 1905 ; its 
curriculum is approximately the same as at Camberley ; and it is hoped 
that, by selecting the Commandant and one-third of the instructional 
Staff from Camberley graduates, uniformity of instruction will be 
ensured. 

On the other hand, the self-governing Oversea Dominions of the 
Empire present a different problem. At present it is only in Canada 
that there exists a national educational establishment l resembling 1 [Royal 
Woolwich and Sandhurst, in which youths who possess a suitable general Military 
education can be grounded in the more technical details of military College, 
art, before they enter, as officers, the military service of their country. Kingston.] 

It is, however, necessary to inaugurate the Imperial General Staff Necessity for 
without any avoidable delay, as it is felt that in cases where the Oversea ^tiolfS 
Dominions are contemplating a considerable expansion of their military an imperial 
forces on new principles, the institution of suitable and efficient sections General Staff - 
of the General Staff for purposes of organisation and training is very 
necessary. It is evident that where such a reconstitution of military 
elements is in process of evolution, the benefit of past and practical 
experience should be made available from the very commencement. 
It is so important that the military forces of the Empire should not be 
allowed to develop on divergent and independent lines, but on common 
and approved principles as regards organisation and training, that an 
attempt should be made to start the General Staff organisation now 
with the means available. 

A limited number of officers of the Oversea Dominions, who are staff Special officers 
college graduates, are serving in the United Kingdom or India, or are * l i*i" 
now being employed under their respective Governments. It is also tionsofthe 
realised that among the permanent or other forces of the Oversea ^0*^ 
Dominions, there will be found some experienced officers of proved Dominions, 
ability, who would be available for General Staff employment. 

It is not pretended that the officers so selected will be sufficient in 
number, or that all will be qualified as regards training, practical 

359 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Temporary 
means of 
making up 
numbers 
required. 



Summary of 
conclusions. 



experience, and seniority to meet General Staff requirements. But 
in such cases the Oversea Dominions would find no dimculy in borrow- 
ing from the home and Indian armies the necessary officers to complete 
and start into being the requisite General Staff organisations. The 
services of Officers borrowed in this manner would be replaced pro- 
portionately by those of officers of the forces of the Dominions con- 
cerned, as soon as the latter passed the necessary courses of instruction 
or were considered otherwise qualified for the various appointments. 
It is suggested, therefore, that each self-governing Dominion should 
arrange as soon as possible to prepare and send a suitable number of 
officers to undergo a staff college course at Camberley, Quetta, or at the 
local staff colleges which it is hoped may soon be established. 

CONCLUSION 

To sum up, the following seem the main points requiring attention 
at the present moment, in order to lay the foundation of an Imperial 
General Staff : 

(i.) All the forces of the Empire to be organised for war on the 
same general principles, especially as regards the system of 
command and staff duties. For this purpose the formation 
of the Imperial General Staff should be proceeded with as far 
as the present available means permit. 

(ii.) Uniformity to be ensured in the system of training officers for 
the General Staff 

(a) Uniformity in the system of educating regimental 
officers, from whom selections for the staff colleges are 
made. This is to be secured by recognising the Staff 
College at Camberley as the central school of military 
education for the Empire, and by filling at the outset, 
to such extent as may be approved by the respective 
Governments of the Oversea Dominions, the most 
important instructional appointments by Camberley 
graduates. 

(b) Uniformity in the system of selection of regimental 
officers for staff college courses. 

(c) Uniformity in the entrance examinations, curriculum, 
syllabus, and teaching at the several staff colleges. 

(iii.) Uniformity in the carrying out of staff duties, to be attained 
by encouraging graduates of the staff colleges, who aspire to 
holding the more important General Staff appointments, to 
undergo a further course of training in England or India ; and 
by arranging for a systematic interchange of officers of the 
Imperial General Staff between the various appointments 
throughout the Empire. 
360 



APPENDIX 

The system proposed above could not be carried out without a 
certain expenditure of money. Amongst other items of cost it should 
be recognised that officers who are sent far from their homes for the 
benefit of the Empire ought not to suffer pecuniarily, otherwise we 
cannot be sure of obtaining the services of men of the right type. But 
the total cost of the system would be small in proportion to the interests 
at stake, and if it resulted in greatly increased efficiency as it is 
believed it would do the money would be wisely spent. 

It is fully recognised that the system proposed would not produce an 
ideal General Staff at once. To do so is a matter of years, which renders 
it all the more desirable that a beginning should be made at once. 

As stated before, the Imperial General Staff must have the con- 
fidence of the whole of the forces of the Empire in order to exercise the 
required influence over their training and education in peace, and over 
the conduct of operations in war ; and this confidence can only be 
gained by officers who are believed to be worthy of it, both by reason 
of natural qualifications and through the possession of superior know- 
ledge and judgment. 

Before such an Imperial General Staff as we require can be formed, 
therefore, its members must be fully and carefully trained, and the 
complete organisation must be built up gradually and slowly as qualified 
officers become available. The value of continuity in our methods of 
action is thus of prime importance, and though the personnel of the 
Imperial General Staff may change year by year, the spirit in which it is 
conceived, and which animates all its members, must always remain 
the same, namely, loyalty to the Empire and to one another, at all times 
and in all places. W. G. NICHOLSON, 

Chief of the General Staff, 
jth December 1908. 

APPENDIX 

THE EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF OFFICERS PREPARATORY TO 
THEIR ADMISSION TO THE STAFF COLLEGE 

1. The need has been explained why officers should normally be Necessity for 
required to pass through one of the staff colleges, before being employed [^"nTtfnd- 
on the General Staff in any capacity. But in order that officers may ardofeduca- 
obtain the fullest advantages from such a course, it is necessary that ^"^^o a 
their military education as regimental officers should have reached a staff college. 
sufficient standard before they enter the colleges. It is necessary, in 
providing officers with the means of reaching that standard, again to 
remember the need for instilling uniformity of thought on all questions 

of principles in the theory and practice of war. 

2. The desirability of officers entering the permanent military 
service of their country, as regimental officers, with a certain standard 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



And for requir- 
ing a certain 
standard of 
general educa- 
tion before 
entering mili- 
tary service as 
officers. 



How this is 
provided for in 
the United 
Kingdom and 
India. 



Suggestion as 
to how the 
Oversea 
Dominions 
should pro- 
ceed in this 
respect. 



Regimental 
education 
of serving 
officers is 
main con- 
sideration at 
the moment. 



Provision of 
instructors. 



of general education and with a uniform grounding in the rudiments of 
their profession, has been alluded to. It would be beyond the scope of 
this paper to enter into any detail regarding this part of an officer's 
education, but it should form the foundation for his subsequent training, 
and it must always exercise a very important and universal influence on 
the esprit d'armee, and on the state of efficiency of every unit included 
in the military forces of the Empire. It is especially necessary to bear 
this fact in mind at a time when the expansion and reorganisation of 
these forces is under consideration. 

3. Such education for candidates for the home and Indian armies is 
provided for the United Kingdom in our great public schools and uni- 
versities, and in the Royal Military College at Sandhurst and the Royal 
Military Academy at Woolwich. This system may not be perfect, but 
it has, generally speaking, fulfilled its purpose satisfactorily. 

4. It is suggested that in the Oversea Dominions a similar course 
should, as far as possible, be followed, and that their Governments 
should be invited to consider the feasibility of instituting national 
educational establishments calculated to meet their own military 
requirements, and that, in estimating these, consideration should not 
be limited to their permanent forces only. 

5. The system of regimental education is, however, at the present 
moment the most urgent matter requiring attention, in order to bring 
the military knowledge of the officers, from whom those who are to form 
the General Staff must be selected, up to the standard required as a 
basis for a study of the higher art of war. Some progress in this 
direction has already been made, but much still requires to be done. In 
suggesting how this should best be proceeded with, it is necessary to 
remember that, in cases where a considerable expansion of the forces of 
a Dominion is contemplated, an increased number of efficient General 
Staff officers will eventually be required to supervise the training of 
units as well as the education of officers, and to meet the possible 
wastage of war. 

6. The first difficulty seems to consist in the provision of competent 
Instructors. The Governments concerned can doubtless find some 
locally ; but it is necessary to emphasise the fact that an important 
feature of any system of military education is that the Instructors 
themselves should have had a uniform education in the principles of the 
military art. 

7. Should it be desirable, it would be possible during the transition 
stage, to arrange for the special attachment to the Staff College at 
Camberley of a limited number of officers (say, two or three) from the 
forces of each of the Oversea Dominions, for special training as In- 
structors rather than as General Staff officers. This would, however, 
be merely a temporary expedient, and not altogether satisfactory. If 
the Government concerned prefer it to borrowing from the home army, 
362 



APPENDIX 

the details of the conditions of attachment must be dealt with in a 
separate paper. 

8. After having prepared suitable officers for a higher military 
education, the next step should be to send them to a course at one of the 
staff colleges, into which their entry would be regulated by the pro- 
visions of paragraph 720, King's Regulations. W. G. N. 

No. 2 

The Secretary of State to the Governors of the Cape, Natal, Transvaal, 

and the Orange River Colony 
MY LORD, 
SIR, Downing Street, 8 January, 1909. 

I have the honour to transmit, for the consideration of your 
Ministers, copies of a letter 1 from the War Office enclosing and com- 
menting on a Memorandum which has been prepared by the General 
Staff on the subject of the creation of an Imperial General Staff for the 
service of the Empire as a whole. 

2. This Memorandum has been prepared in pursuance of the Third 
Resolution of the Imperial Conference of 1907, and His Majesty's 
Government trust that the principles and procedure explained in it may 
meet with acceptance from your Government. It is possible that the 
existing development of the military forces may not be such as to 
enable immediate effect to be given to what is proposed, to any con- 
siderable extent, but the Memorandum will, I hope, be welcomed as 
showing the lines on which action should be taken in directing future 
improvements in organisation. 

3. I shall be glad to receive the observations of your Ministers as 
soon as possible, and if they accept the principles of the Memorandum 
it will be convenient if I can be informed by telegram. I propose to lay 
this despatch and its enclosures before Parliament, as the question has 
attracted much public attention in this country, and was regarded by 
the Conference of 1907 as one in the united discussion and solution of 
which the whole Empire is deeply interested. I have, etc., 

CREWE. 

No. 3 

The Secretary of State to the Governor of Newfoundland 

Downing Street, i$th January 1909. 

SIR, I have the honour to transmit to you, to be laid before your 
Ministers, copy of a letter from the War Office, 1 enclosing a Memor- 
andum on the subject of the creation of an Imperial General Staff, 
which has been prepared in pursuance of the Third Resolution of the 
Imperial Conference of 1907. 

1 Enclosure in No. I. [See pp. 348-63.] 

363 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

I propose to lay this despatch and its enclosures before Parliament, 
as the question has attracted much public attention in this country, and 
was regarded by the Conference of 1907 as one in the united discussion 
and solution of which the whole Empire is deeply interested. I have, 
etc., CREWE. 

No. 4 

The Governor-General of Canada to the Secretary of State 
(Received 1.45 a.m., itfh February 1909.) 

TELEGRAM. 

Following is substance of Minute of Council approved loth February 
Imperial General Staff. 

After general acceptance of principles as laid down in War Office 
letter and memorandum enclosed in your despatch of I5th January, 
satisfaction is expressed that principle of local control by responsible 
Ministers concerned over officers of local section has been fully safe- 
guarded. 

While agreeing to proposal as to the chiefs of local sections keeping in 
close communication with chief of Imperial General Staff, Minister of 
Militia considers it advisable to lay down definitely that such com- 
munications from chief of Canadian section other than on routine or 
ephemeral questions should be submitted to and concurred in by 
Minister of Militia before being despatched. 

Definite assent is recorded to principle as laid down in first paragraph 
of Part III., memorandum, as to education at Staff College. In view of 
improbability of any considerable increase in Canadian permanent 
forces for some years, Canada not likely to spare more than four officers 
at the same time for Staff College training, so that Ministers think 
that establishment of Canadian Staff College would not be worth while. 
They would prefer to send Canadian officers to Staff College, Camberley, 
in accordance with existing arrangements, and would be prepared to 
pay equitable share of additional expense involved in increase in accom- 
modation or number of instructors, and propose to meet difficulties as to 
preliminary military education of military officers by extending functions 
of Royal Military College, Kingston, and including in its instructing 
staff selected officers from educational branch of Imperial General Staff. 

Proposals regarding free interchange of officers of General Staff and 
holding of periodical conferences concurred in. 

Last paragraph of memorandum of Canadian Minister of Defence, 
laid before Colonial Conference, I902, 1 is quoted as representing present 
attitude of Government of Canada. 

Despatch follows by mail. GREY. 

1 P. 74of[Cd. 1299]. 
364 



APPENDIX 



REPORT BY GENERAL SIR JOHN FRENCH, G.C.B., 
G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G., INSPECTOR -GENERAL OF THE 
IMPERIAL FORCES,* UPON His INSPECTION OF THE 
CANADIAN MILITARY FORCES 

Ottawa, July 5, igiO. Canadian 

Parliamentary 

To the Hon. Sir FREDERICK BORDEN, K.C.M.G., etc., Paper, NO. 35*. 

Minister of Militia and Defence, Ottawa. 

SIR, I have the honour to report that, in accordance with instruc- 
tions received from the Imperial Army Council, I embarked for Canada 
on May 13, and landed at Quebec on the morning of Friday, May 20. 

I reported my arrival to you by telegram, dated May 20. I was 
met on board the R.M.S. Victorian by Major-General Sir Percy Lake, 
Inspector-General of the Canadian Militia, who conveyed verbally to 
me your wishes and instructions. 

Sir Percy handed me an itinerary, comprising a series of inspection 
of Canadian permanent troops and Militia, which you desired me to 
carry out. The tour was to cover both Eastern and Western Canada, 
and was also arranged to include visits to the fortress at Halifax, the 
Royal Military College, and various other establishments in connection 
with the maintenance and efficiency of the Canadian Militia. 

A copy of this itinerary is contained in Appendix ' A ' of this report. 

From the instructions conveyed to me I have conceived that it is 
your desire that I should report to you fully upon the state and con- 
dition of the Canadian Militia, with respect to its readiness either to 
maintain internal order within the country, to protect its frontiers 
against attack, or to furnish contingents to succour other parts of the 
Empire, in the event of the Dominion Government seeing fit to follow 
on the precedent set by them in the late war in South Africa. Of these, 
the most important and necessary role which the Militia have to fulfil 
is to defend Canada against attack by land. A force which is in a 
sufficiently satisfactory condition of organisation, training and efficiency 

1 [On June 20, 1910, it had been decided that * in the event of the Government of a 
self-governing Dominion . . . desiring that its forces should be inspected,' the Army 
Council would make the necessary arrangements for their inspection by the Inspector- 
General of the Oversea Forces (British Parliamentary Pafler[Cd. 5012], p. 6).J 

365 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

to render the frontier reasonably secure, will also be in the best position 
either to furnish Imperial contingents or to keep internal order. 

In this connection I would particularly draw attention to paragraph 
15, Part II., of the memorandum by the Chief of the Imperial General 
Staff, ' Proposals for so organising the Military Forces of the Empire as 
to ensure their effective co-operation in the event of war/ and Appendix 
' B ' of the same memorandum, in which Canada assents to the principle 
therein enunciated. As regards the first proposal of the above men- 
tioned paragraph 15, it would seem that the defence of Canada against 
external attack would naturally constitute ' the substantial functions ' 
in a general scheme of defence to be assigned to each part of the Empire. 
Throughout this report, therefore, ability to defend the land frontiers 
of Canada has been the standard by which I have formed my judgment 
upon the condition of its Militia. 

As a basis for the comment and recommendations contained in this 
report I have drawn up a confidential appreciation of the strategic, 
geographical, topographical and other conditions as they appear to me 
to bear upon the problem of frontier defence. 

A precis of this confidential document is embodied in Appendix ' B ' 
1 [This of this report. 1 

precis As the military organisation is centred in Eastern Canada, I deal 

was not chiefly with that part of the Dominion, but I have divided my report as 
printed, follows : 

see p. 398.] Part L _ East ern Canada. 

Part II. Western Canada. 
Part III. Summary. 



PART I. EASTERN CANADA 

I am expressing my views under the following headings : 

(A) Organisation. 
(B) Mobilisation . 
(C) Peace training. 

(D) Artillery practice, musketry and ranges. 
(E) Camping grounds and drill halls. 
(F) Command and staff. 
(G) Royal Military College. 
(H) Regimental officers. 
(I) Non-commissioned officers and men. 
(J) Horses. 

(K) Armament and ammunition. 
(L) Administrative services. 
(M) Fortresses and armed posts. 

(N) Schools of instruction and manufacturing establishments. 
366 



APPENDIX 

(A) ORGANISATION 

A sound system of organisation is the corner stone of all military 
efficiency. 

Unless this is based upon a correct appreciation of the character- 
istics of the country and the requirements of modern war, waste of 
strength and resources will certainly result, and the people of the 
Dominion will not get the best value for their money. 

Success in war depends to-day more than ever upon the harmonious 
working together of the different arms of the service, cavalry, artillery, 
engineers and infantry, and the mutual support they can render to one 
another. 

This can only be secured if each possesses a close and intimate 
knowledge of the other, and such advantage can only be gained if the 
peace organisation of troops is assimilated to that which is required for 
war. 

For these reasons, I am strongly of opinion that the establishment 
of a sound organisation is the first and foremost requisite to render any 
army efficient for war, and that no amount of superior physique, 
armament, or individual excellence in either commanders, staff, or 
bodies of troops will compensate for a want of it. 

I am well aware of the many drawbacks which have hitherto 
hindered the Canadian Militia, but I feel myself obliged to state plainly 
that, after a careful study of the problem, I am persuaded that their 
existing system of organisation does not fulfil the above requirements, 
for the following reasons : 

(a) The proportion between the various arms of the service is 

not correctly adjusted. 

For example, the infantry and the heavy artillery are somewhat 

in excess of actual requirements, whilst the field artillery is at least 

50 per cent, below the necessary proportion. There is only one 

battery of field howitzers and the engineers and supply services are 

much too weak. 

The same remark applies to the distribution of troops ; instead 

of each county, province, or area furnishing something like its due 

quota of the various arms, it appears that one part of the country 

altogether favours mounted troops, another infantry, another 

artillery, and so on. 

I fully realise that great difficulties exist, but surely these ought 

not to be insurmountable when it is a question of the safety of the 

Dominion. 

In point of actual numbers, I believe that those contemplated 

under the present war establishments are sufficient and suitable, if 

they were allotted in a proper proportion to the various arms of the 

service, and on the basis of a sound system of organisation. 

367 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

I may mention here that a comparison of the effective strengths 
as they exist at present with the peace training strengths as laid 
down shows a considerable shortage in numbers, and I wish to 
guard against misunderstanding by saying that, in expressing an 
opinion as to the adequacies of actual numbers, I consider it ab- 
solutely essential that these peace training strengths should be 
maintained, and that sufficient provision should be made to ensure 
the numbers required on mobilisation being always forthcoming. 

(b) I am aware that, under existing arrangements, certain war 
divisions are arranged to be formed on mobilisation. 

According to these plans, troops which have never served 
together as an organised body in peace are to be suddenly con- 
centrated in an organisation to which they are totally unaccustomed 
and placed under commanders and staff who will have had no 
sufficient practice in handling such a unit. 

The annual camp trainings are only a large collection of troops 
without any organisation in formations of all arms. 

The various arms do not, apparently, work, to a sufficient 
extent, in conjunction with one another, and hence neither com- 
manders nor staff officers have any practice in the handling of these 
war divisions with which, within a few days of the outbreak of war, 
they may have to encounter trained troops in a thickly wooded 
country which is strange to them. 

I cannot lay too much stress on the necessity for cultivating the 
utmost spirit of mutual understanding amongst all ranks of the troops 
which make up a war division, and this can only be effected by assimi- 
lating peace organisations to those employed in the field. 

The Militia of Canada is composed of splendid material, and, accord- 
ing to my observation, is imbued with a fine spirit and energy, and a 
desire to become efficient, and it seems somewhat illogical to hamper 
their patriotic and loyal endeavours by failing to organise them to the 
best advantage. As an instance of how lack of organisation permeates 
throughout the force, and leads to extravagance and loss of power, I 
might mention that at two of my inspections I saw what were called 
' double battalion ' regiments on parade. The whole numerical 
strength of such regiments was not equal to some of the single bat- 
talions, and yet each of the two battalions of which they were composed 
had the same staff and complement of officers and non-commissioned 
officers as is laid down for a single regiment. 

The question of command and staff is of such overwhelming im- 
portance in all modern military organisations that I think it best to 
deal with it, under a separate heading, but I may mention here that the 
state of affairs existing at the present moment as shown above would 
render a quick mobilisation and prompt action, which is so vital an 

368 



o] APPENDIX 

element in the frontier defence of Canada, altogether impossible, and 
would effectually paralyse and frustrate any effective preliminary 
operation of war. 

The war organisation which I recommend for the Dominion forces is 
drawn up in Appendix ' C ' of this report. I am of opinion that it 
should be gradually adopted throughout the Militia, and that the peace 
establishments should be assimilated to it. 

(B) MOBILISATION 

If efficiency and readiness for war is to be ensured, a complete and 
thoroughly worked out system of mobilisation must go hand in hand 
with a sound peace organisation. 

In order to render the present system by which units are raised from 
a peace to a war establishment effective, I am of opinion that a closer 
supervision must be maintained over the ' Service Rolls ' kept by unit 
commanders, and such a system cannot be considered reliable unless a 
' test ' is applied periodically by means of a trial peace mobilisation, 
which need not necessarily involve a large number of units at any one 
time. 

Arms, clothing and equipment should be maintained in mobilisation 
stores at regimental headquarters. I understand this is being gradually 
carried out, but I would strongly urge the necessity of accelerating to 
the utmost this most important service, without which no speedy 
mobilisation can possibly take place. 

Any effective scheme of defence must lay down points of concentra- 
tion for the various units, in accordance with a well thought out and 
determined plan of campaign. 

' Mobilisation Time Tables ' and ' Railway Time Tables ' do not 
appear to exist at present, and the transport of troops to their several 
destinations would, in the absence of such arrangements, lead to nothing 
but chaos and confusion. 

I would strongly urge the establishment of a Railway War Council 
over which the Chief of the General Staff should preside, and which 
should include amongst its members the managers or representatives of 
the principal railway companies in Canada. 

The following subjects must be taken in hand and settled as quickly 
as possible by the Mobilisation Department before real war preparation 
can be effective. They do not appear to have received due attention up 
to the present : 

(1) War organisation of transport, supply, ordnance, and medical 

services. 

(2) Organisation of lines of communication. 

(3) Arrangements for the training of drafts and reinforcements. 

(4) Supply and training of remounts. 

(5) Inspection of mobilisation stores. 

OVERSEAS I. 2 A 369 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

For a country situated as is the Dominion, it is clear that, in order to 
give it time to develop its latent resources for defence, the existing 
organised troops should be ready to take the field at the earliest possible 
moment after the emergency has arisen. In other words, the process 
of passing them from a peace to a war footing their mobilisation 
should be as rapid as possible. 

It is equally evident that the work of completing the arrangements 
for speedy mobilisation, of providing, or ensuring the provision of 
transport, equipment, stores and supplies, of preparing the necessary 
regulations and instructions, and of drawing up tables showing the war 
equipment of all units, is a labour of very considerable magnitude. 

In the Imperial Army, for the United Kingdom alone, this work has 
occupied the undivided attention of five or six officers for nearly twenty 
years, while the duty of keeping the arrangements now thoroughly 
decentralised up to date, entails continuous work on all officers of the 
army, both staff and regimental. A great portion of the work thus 
accomplished is available for the guidance of Canadian officers, and the 
problem to be solved is, on the whole, simpler for the Dominion. But 
the conclusion is unavoidable that the number of officers available for 
this duty at Militia Headquarters and in the several military districts 
is now, and apparently always has been, far too small to cope success- 
fully with the task. So far as I can judge, the preparation of a suitable 
mobilisation scheme would require the undivided attention for some 
years of at least two general staff officers and one administrative staff 
officer at Headquarters, and of one administrative staff officer in each 
military district. When the scheme is completed, it is probable that 
the services of two of the officers at Headquarters could be dispensed 
with, but for the proper maintenance of mobilisation arrangements, the 
remaining additional officers must be permanently retained. The 
staff at present maintained at Headquarters and in the Commands 
appears to me absurdly inadequate in numbers to deal successfully with 
the numerous problems which require its attention. 

I understand that the standard of military preparation to be aimed 
at by the Dominion is the provision of 100,000 men immediately 
available in the first line of defence, with the necessary machinery for 
raising and organising another 100,000 in the second line, and I assume 
that no departure from this policy is contemplated. This standard 
cannot be attained until definite arrangements for mobilisation are 
completed and the immediate supply of the necessary war outfit assured. 
At present it would not be possible to put the militia in the field in a fit 
condition to undertake active operations, until after the lapse of a con- 
siderable period. 

The value of mobilisation preparedness is very great, and its cost, 
compared to other military expenses, is but small, provided a definite 
and continuous policy is pursued. 
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APPENDIX 



(C) PEACE TRAINING 

Before expressing an opinion as to the standard of peace training 
reached by the Canadian forces and their methods of instruction, it will 
be convenient if I briefly recount the opportunities which I have had 
of forming a judgment on these matters. 

My field training inspections were as follows : May 21, the 8th and 
9th Regiments of the 2oth Infantry Brigade carried out a scheme of 
manoeuvre in the Levis Camp at Quebec. 

May 25, the Royal Canadian Dragoons carried out a reconnaissance 
scheme in the neighbourhood of Toronto. 

May 26, the I3th and gist Regiments at Hamilton performed some 
minor drill operations in their drill hall. 

June i and June 2, the I4th Regiment of Infantry and the Royal 
Canadian Horse Artillery practised manoeuvre schemes at Kingston. 

June 4, the Governor-General's Foot Guards and the 43rd Regiment 
carried out an ' attack and defence ' scheme in the neighbourhood of 
Ottawa. 

June 8 to June 10, the Royal Canadian Regiment carried out field 
operations in connection with the fortress defence at Halifax, and the 
Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery worked their guns against a night 
attack by destroyers represented by Government transport boats. 

June 15 and 16, the ist and 2nd Cavalry Brigade, and the 3rd, 4th, 
and 5th Infantry Brigades were seen both at field training and manoeuvre 
at Niagara-on-the-lake. 

June 18, the 6th, 7th and 8th Infantry Brigades carried out field 
operations under Col. S. Hughes at Kingston. 

June 20, at Petawawa Camp, the 3rd Cavalry Brigade was seen at 
field training, and the 2nd and 8th Brigades, Canadian Field Artillery, 
at manoeuvre and field firing. 

Judging from all I have been able to see, I should consider the 
standard of training efficiency which has been reached by the troops of 
the Permanent Force to be satisfactory. 

In my opinion their peace establishment is not large enough to 
enable them to properly carry out the work of supervising the training 
and instruction of the Militia, and, at the same time, to permit of their 
attaining themselves to that perfection of field efficiency which it is very 
desirable should be possessed by the small regular force maintained by 
the Dominion. 

For this reason, as well as those which I have brought forward in the 
course of this report, I think, when funds are available, the Royal 
Canadian Dragoons should be increased by one squadron, and a battery 
should be added to the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery. 

I cannot close my remarks on the training of the Permanent Force 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [jut 

without expressing my admiration of the performance of ' A ' and ' B ' 
batteries of the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery at Kingston under 
Lt.-Col. Burstall, on June 2. I have no doubt it is in some degree 
owing to this officer's able instruction and supervision that the Canadian 
Field Artillery appear to have attained to the degree of efficiency which, 
considering the circumstances under which they serve, has caused me 
considerable astonishment. 

Coming to the Canadian Militia, the first conclusion I have drawn 
from my observation of their work is that there is an absence of uni- 
formity in the standard of efficiency to which they have attained. 

Some units are far ahead of others in this respect, and even in the 
same command they seem to differ considerably. 

This remark does not apply to the field artillery to anything like the 
same extent as to the cavalry and infantry. 

Of the nine cavalry regiments I have seen in Eastern Canada, only 
two appear to me to have attained a standard of efficiency commen- 
surate with the material in men and horses which they possess and the 
opportunity they have had. 

I was favourably impressed with the standard of training efficiency 
reached by the two brigades of field artillery which I saw at Petawawa. 
Their riding, driving, manoeuvre and firing practice seemed to me very 
remarkable in view of the short time they had been together in camp 
and the few opportunities they have. 

As regards the field training efficiency of the infantry, I am of 
opinion that their methods of carrying out company and battalion 
training, so far as I saw them, are not up to date or suitable to the 
requirements of modern war, but I am compelled to add that, when I 
saw them manoeuvre in the field, all ranks showed greater aptitude and 
knowledge than I should have thought they possessed. 

The plans made and carried out by brigadiers were fairly sound, and, 
on the whole, regimental and company commanders displayed in- 
telligence and initiative in directing and leading their commands. I 
observed, however, many faults and mistakes which would not have 
occurred under a better system of company and battalion training. 

Coming now to the training methods generally adopted, and com- 
mencing with the cavalry, I have already expressed the opinion that, 
as a whole, this arm is decidedly behind the others in regard to field 
efficiency, but I do not think that Canadian Militia cavalry officers are 
altogether to blame for this state of affairs. 

It appears to me that the proper role of cavalry in a country like 
Eastern Canada has not been correctly appreciated, and that the 
energies of those responsible for its training and inspection have not 
been used in a right direction. 

In the whole of Eastern Canada there are hardly any open spaces 
which admit of the employment of that form of engagement known as 
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APPENDIX 

' shock action/ If the most highly trained cavalry in the whole of 
Europe were put down to fight in this country they would find no 
opportunities of employing ' shock tactics ' with any effect, and they 
would be compelled to act as mounted rifles. 

But besides the character of the country there are other weighty 
reasons why the Canadian Militia cavalry must rely for their power of 
offence upon the rifle rather than upon the sword. 

Amongst the most important of these reasons are 

(a) The class of horse they ride, both as regards breeding and 

training. 
(6) The short time they are brought together. 

(c) The entire lack of highly trained regimental, squadron, and 

troop leaders. 

(d) The impossibility of training higher commanders. 

I think the role of cavalry in this country is to act altogether as 
mounted rifles, and the training of the cavalry should tend towards 
securing efficiency in this direction. 

The physique of the men is excellent, they ride sufficiently well, and 
the class of horses seen by me is quite suitable to the work of mounted 
riflemen in a close country. Their inefficiency is owing to faulty method 
of training and instruction. 

Squadron officers are not sufficiently grounded in their duties as 
leaders and instructors. As a rule they cannot lead properly, nor are 
they sufficiently instructed themselves to train and instruct their men. 

There is nothing like enough troop and squadron drill instruction, 
and regiments are brought together under the commanding officer 
before squadrons are fit to work as part of a regiment. 

The ability of all ranks of the cavalry to carry out the role which 
they will have to fulfil in this country is, so far as I have been able to 
judge, very much below what it should be. 

Having regard to its great importance, I strongly urge the necessity 
of increasing their annual camp attendance from 12 to 16 days, as is the 
case with the artillery. 

For the rest, it is for the training department of the Militia Council 
to lay down a syllabus of training which is applicable to what is expected 
of that arm in war, and then for the officer charged with the inspection 
of the cavalry and Cavalry Brigadiers to enforce the constant practice 
of the syllabus, and to see that there is absolute uniformity of method 
throughout the whole force. The Inspector of Cavalry must make 
himself thoroughly acquainted with the qualifications of the brigadiers, 
commanding officers, and squadron commanders, and report fully upon 
any whom he considers unfit to fill these positions. 

Great care must be taken in the selection of young officers and 
non-commissioned officers, and they should receive a more extensive 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

preliminary training, both theoretical and practical, than appears to be 
the case at present. 

The methods of field training adopted in the field artillery seem to be 
sound and good, and, so far as I saw them, they appear to lead to the 
best results. There can be no doubt that the standard of training 
efficiency in this arm is very high, considering the few opportunities 
they have of coming together and their untrained horses. 

So much depends upon sound supervision and inspection that I 
cannot avoid again referring to the excellent work which has been done 
for the Canadian Militia by the officers of the Royal Canadian Horse 
Artillery. 

With regard to the peace training of the infantry, I am of opinion 
that far too much attention is given to the practice of ceremonial 
exercises and evolutions. In fact, the greater part of the time available 
for training appears to be devoted to drills of a type which in respect of 
training for war are nearly obsolete. A certain amount of drill in close 
order is necessary to inculcate steadiness and accuracy of movement, 
but considering the very limited time available for training of all kinds, 
I consider that such practices for the militia should be confined to 
company drills, and that the time expended in battalion and brigade 
ceremonial parades is largely wasted. Moreover, I have observed that 
the excessive practice of ceremonial and the neglect of manoeuvre 
have apparently cramped both the initiative and the intelligence of the 
officers and men when employed in field manoeuvres, with the result 
that mechanical, barrack-square accuracy is attempted without regard 
to the condition of the ground or to the effect of the enemy's action. 

I can understand the natural desire on the part of the Militia to 
make a good appearance on ceremonial parades. Even for this end, 
the true basis of training is the company, and practice in battalion and 
brigade, with insufficiently trained companies, will add nothing to 
ceremonial smartness. But elasticity and freedom in manoeuvre are of 
infinitely greater value than any mere parade smartness, and these 
cannot be attained unless companies have opportunities of engaging 
in manoeuvre on suitable ground and under conditions which simulate, 
in some way, an operation of war. It seems to me that, at present, 
smartness in drill is looked upon as an end to be attained instead of 
merely as a means of acquiring efficiency in manoeuvre, which is the 
real preparation for war. 

For this excessive devotion to ceremonial the training staff cannot 
be held free from blame. On the only two occasions on which I saw 
classes of young infantry officers at training schools, one class was 
employed at ceremonial brigade drill and the other at the practice of 
saluting with swords. 

The syllabus of infantry training should be revised ; brigade and 
battalion ceremonial drills should be discouraged, * and more time 
374 



APPENDIX 

allotted to company drill and manoeuvre (Part II., Infantry Training). 
Every opportunity should be taken of practising the troops in field 
manoeuvre, and the instruction in the schools should be of a more 
tactical and less of a ceremonial nature. 

I have had but few opportunities of observing the field training of 
the Canadian Field Engineer companies, but those which I saw at 
Petawawa camp seemed making very satisfactory progress towards 
efficiency. 

It appears that the principle which has had such excellent results in 
the Territorial Army, of utilising to the utmost the special expert 
knowledge and training which abounds in civil life and turning it to the 
purposes of national defence, is very apparent in Canada. 

There is only one telegraph company, and I think steps should soon 
be taken to place this important branch of military engineering on the 
same efficient footing as the field companies appear to be. 

(D) ARTILLERY PRACTICE, MUSKETRY AND RANGES 

I inspected the artillery ranges at Petawawa, and was much im- 
pressed by the suitability of the ground for artillery manoeuvres and 
practice. The equipment of the ranges and the management of the 
targets were satisfactory. 

I saw the 2nd and 8th brigades at practice. 

Considering that these brigades have been only a few days in camp, 
the results were surprisingly good. The practice was carried out under 
a suitable scheme, and was well conducted. Battery commanders 
appeared to have a good knowledge of the theoretical principles of 
artillery fire, and with more opportunities for practice would, I feel 
sure, soon acquire the quickness and accuracy in which they are, 
naturally, at present somewhat lacking. 

I was able to inspect only a few of the rifle ranges, but I understand 
that, although insufficient in number to meet requirements, they are 
generally satisfactory. It should be remembered that, for the efficiency 
of a force whose opportunities of training are so limited, ample and 
convenient range accommodation is an absolute necessity. I have 
observed with satisfaction the large provision of auxiliary apparatus 
for musketry training, such as sub-target rifles and miniature ranges. 

The musketry practice which I observed was being fairly, although 
somewhat leniently, conducted. 

(E) CAMPING GROUNDS AND DRILL HALLS 

I have visited the camping grounds at Petawawa, Niagara, Barrie- 
field, and LeVis. 

The acquisition and establishment of the camp at Petawawa seems 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

to me to be the most important step which has yet been taken towards 
securing the efficiency of the troops in war. 

It is an ideal terrain for the instruction of forces for fighting in 
country such as that of Eastern Canada. The great extent of ground 
which it covers, a great part of its surface being wooded and of an 
intricate nature, its gentle undulations, and its position on the banks of 
the Ottawa River, render it capable of fulfilling all the requirements of a 
great central camp of instruction. 

As the wide extent of country covered by the camp at Petawawa is 
capable of affording very valuable instruction to a large number of 
troops at one time, I strongly recommend that the fullest advantage be 
taken of it, especially in view of the fact that all other camping grounds 
in the country are much too restricted for the numbers of the troops 
which have to use them. 

The Western Ontario Command contains a larger number of troops 
than any other command, and the camp at Niagara which they use is, 
in my opinion, much too restricted in area for efficient training and 
instruction. I understand that the ground west of the rifle ranges has 
only recently been acquired, and, so far as it goes, it seems very suitable 
for the purpose. 

The manoeuvre exercises I saw carried out there of three brigades of 
infantry showed clearly, however, that it is much too small for use by so 
large a body of troops. 

The same remarks apply with even greater force to Barriefield and 
LeVis. At the former place I saw the manoeuvre exercises carried out 
by three brigades of infantry. The ground was so restricted that there 
was little freedom or scope for the display of initiative or intelligent 
leading either by brigadiers, battalion or company commanders. 

At L6vis I saw only two battalions exercised in manoeuvre, and they 
really seemed to me to be the maximum force which could be efficiently 
trained in so small an area, and yet this is the only manoeuvre ground 
available for the Quebec Command Militia of No. 7 Military District. 

I must point out the necessity for due care being taken by the staff 
at these annual camps to ensure the training area being allotted to units 
in a more methodical manner than appears to be the case at present. 

For example : At two camps which I visited I found several 
distinct units, each doing different kinds of training, or carrying out 
separate manoeuvre schemes, using the same area ground, and inter- 
fering with one another to such an extent as to materially prejudice the 
value of the instruction. 

Whilst these troops were thus pressed together in one space of 
ground, there were other available areas which were not being used at 
all. 

The terrain of all camping grounds should be mapped out into areas 
of suitable size and allotted to units for a certain specified time. The 
376 



APPENDIX 

nature of the training and the kind of ground suitable to the special 
arm should be given due consideration. 

I inspected the drill halls at Quebec, Montreal, Toronto, Hamilton, 
Ottawa, Halifax, St. John, and Kingston. 

Some of these were fine buildings and establishments, whilst others 
were not so large and very incomplete as regards accessories. 

A capacious and well found drill hall is of great importance to the 
efficiency of a city corps. If it covers an adequate space of ground and 
possesses miniature ranges, valuable instruction can be carried on at all 
time, and in all kinds of weather throughout the year. Good and com- 
modious accessories, such as officers', sergeants', and corporals' mess 
rooms, and men's recreation and club rooms, must have, if well managed, 
a wholesome effect on the esprit de corps and wellbeing of the unit, and 
are, besides, of great assistance to recruiting. 

One drawback common to all the drill halls I saw, except those at 
Ottawa and Halifax, was the absence of an open space adjoining, or 
close to, the drill halls. 

I understand that these city corps seldom, or never, attend camp, as 
it is alleged that the men cannot be spared from their civil employment. 

I cannot agree with this custom, and strongly recommend that it 
should cease. 

In an irregular force nothing can compensate for the advantages 
gained by concentrating the troops in these annual camps. 

The difference between the training efficiency and elasticity of 
battalions which have been accustomed to attend these camps and 
those city battalions which have not had these advantages is very 
marked, although the appearance, setting up of the men, and the cere- 
monial movements of the latter may lead to an entirely erroneous 
opinion being formed as to their equal, if not superior, value as fighting 
corps. 

(F) COMMAND AND STAFF 

The command and staff of the Canadian Forces are, to some extent, 
modelled on the lines of the Imperial Army. 

The Militia Council is a body which is charged with the functions of 
a Commander-in-Chief. 

In time of war a Commander-in-Chief is specially selected and 
appointed by the Government. 

The link between the Militia Council and the troops is the Inspector- 
General, who is himself in close touch with both. 

So far the Imperial and the Canadian systems are identical. 

In Canada, however, the Inspector-General is himself a member of 
the Militia Council. 

I cannot help thinking that, in this respect, it would be better for 
Canada to follow the example of the Army Council at home. 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

It is, of course, necessary that the Inspector-General should be in 
close touch with the Minister, the Chief of the General Staff, and each 
head of a Department of the Militia Council, and he can well remain so 
without being himself a member of Council. 

The great objection is that, as a member of the Council, he must in 
time be regarded as de facto Commander-in-Chief. 

He is the one member of Council who is empowered to exercise 
individual authority on the parade ground or in the field, and, as such, 
the troops cannot do otherwise than practically regard him as the head 
of the forces. 

Further than this, the Inspector-General's duties are of so responsible 
and onerous a nature that they need his whole time and attention. 

I therefore recommend that the Inspector-General and his depart- 
ment should be constituted on the same lines as in the Imperial Service. 

The Inspector-General must, of course, always remain in close touch 
with the Minister and the Chief of the General Staff, reporting to them 
constantly, and I am of opinion that it would add much to the smooth 
despatch of Militia Council business if he took opportunities of holding 
frequent consultations with the Adjutant-General, the Quartermaster- 
General and the Master-General of the Ordnance with respect to matters 
which have come to his notice connected with their departments. This 
is the custom adopted by the present Inspector-General. 

Since the Office of Inspector-General has been held by Major-General 
Sir Percy Lake his whole time has been taken up in supervising the 
organisation and reconstruction of the Canadian Forces. 

His advice and assistance have been sought and obtained in every 
department, and the result of his knowledge, skill, tact and patience are 
apparent everywhere. 

Sir Percy Lake has only been able to devote a part of his great 
ability to the work of actual inspection and direction of the inspectors 
under him, and I believe there are very few men who could, under the 
circumstances, have done anything like so much in the way of training 
supervision. His hand and his direction are apparent in all the training 
work of the troops I have seen. 

If due efficiency in training is to be expected in the future the 
Inspector-General cannot be hampered in this way. 

I think the officers commanding the permanent cavalry, artillery, 
engineers, and infantry respectively, should act as inspectors of these 
arms in the Militia. 

I am aware that this is done in the case of the cavalry and artillery, 
and to a certain extent in the case of the engineers, but I regard the 
other arms as standing in quite as much need of the attention of a 
specialist officer, who should be entirely under the orders of the 
Inspector-General. 

Coming to the various commands, I have really had but little 
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APPENDIX 

opportunity of testing the capacity of either chief or subordinate 
commanders. I am, therefore, unable to say whether they are capable 
of f ulnllmg the functions of higher command in the new organisation 
which I have recommended. From my own observation of the large 
number of senior officers who have come under my notice, I should judge 
that such officers exist. 

I wish to emphasise the necessity for the exercise of the utmost care 
in the selection of officers for the higher commands. The fighting value 
of a division in war depends, in these days, so much upon the training 
ability of its commander and the methods he has adopted in peace time 
to prepare his command for war, that no consideration except that of 
fitness for the post should be allowed to weigh in selecting officers for 
this important role. 

In some of my inspections of single regiments I have commented 
upon the absence of the brigadier and his staff, and I was told that it was 
not considered necessary for them to be present on such occasions. If 
this is really the case, I think a most important principle of command 
has been overlooked. The brigadier is, and should be, held responsible 
for the efficiency of the units under his command. 

One of the most important principles to be followed and carefully 
observed is continuity in the chain of responsibility throughout all 
ranks. 

The officers employed on general and administrative staff duties 
appear to me to be well selected and to perform their various duties in 
a satisfactory manner. 

They are, as a rule, energetic and hardworking, and seem to cope 
with their many difficulties in a resolute fashion. 

In many cases I believe they are men of business who are able to 
bring to bear on their important task a valuable knowledge of men and 
affairs. 

In administrative matters they are well informed, but, with few 
exceptions, their education in the duties of the General Staff is some- 
what incomplete. 

I think every effort should be made to afford opportunities to those 
who are unable to attend a staff college, to practise, by means of staff 
tours, war games, and conferences, the very important duties which they 
would have to perform on service in the field. 

I recommend also that, if possible, they should be relieved of some 
portion of their administrative work in order that they may take a more 
active part in the military education of officers and in the war training 
of the troops. The increase to the staff which I have recommended for 
mobilisation purposes in another part of this report would probably be 
sufficient for this purpose. 

In my inspections and observations of the troops I have sometimes 
noticed a somewhat unfortunate and tactless interference with regi- 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

mental officers by the staff. I think this should be carefully guarded 
against. 

I regard the establishment of the Corps of Guides as being a most 
valuable and useful adjunct to the staff. I think it is a principle which 
is capable of extension. 

I cannot close this part of my report without adding a few words as 
to certain opinions which I have heard expressed in influential quarters 
in this country. I refer to the erroneous ideas which are often pro- 
pagated with respect to the numbers and composition of the staff. 

It is evident that people who hold such views have absolutely failed 
to grasp the most elementary factors to be considered in the solution 
of military problems. 

They are, apparently, quite unaware of the fact that the range and 
destructive power of firearms, both infantry and artillery, are at least 
a hundred fold greater than formerly, and that, consequently, a much 
higher scientific knowledge is required in those who have to handle them 
and direct their fire. Again, the enormous increase in the size of 
modern armies is entirely overlooked. 

It follows from this, that the main result of these two conditions, 
namely, the vastly greater extent of modern battle-fields, is altogether 
ignored. 

Surely the merest novice in military affairs can understand from all 
this that the brain power of an army must, of necessity, be infinitely 
greater and more widely diffused than formerly. 

It was- as much as the brain of Wellington, with the assistance of his 
small staff, could do to direct the operations of the battle of Waterloo 
on a front of some 5 or 6 miles. Would the same staff have sufficed him 
to bring to the same successful conclusion the battle of Mukden, which 
was fought on a front of 100 miles ? 

The fact is, that these critics do not in the least understand how 
complicated and technical a business war has now become, not only in 
its combatant but in its administrative aspects. 

The average citizen, while recognising that the soldier requires to 
be fed, clothed and equipped, does not readily realise what this means 
in practice. Having himself usually a fixed abode, he becomes 
accustomed to rely upon the tradesmen with whom he deals to supply 
his wants as they arise, with the minimum of forethought on his part. 
The nature of the problem which faces the military administrator, when 
dealing with an army in the field, may, perhaps, be most readily under- 
stood from the following simple illustration : 

The size of the force which Canada aims at being able to place in the 
field in case of emergency is, as has been previously noted, 100,000 in 
the first line. This means that the strength of the main force would not 
fall far short of the population of the city of Ottawa, the capital of the 
Dominion. 

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APPENDIX 

* 

Bearing this in mind, it will be seen that the organisation prepared 
by the Canadian military administrator has to be such that, at a 
moment's notice, a body of men nearly as numerous as the whole 
population of Ottawa, can be moved, at the General's wilt, any distance 
up to 20 or 30 miles daily, in any direction, both distance and direction 
being liable to be changed without warning in the middle of a march, 
and yet find, at every halt, food, water, fuel, and usually shelter, 
provided for, their deficiencies in clothing, ammunition, horses, etc., 
made good, and their sick and wounded collected and cared for. 

This is one of the tests of a sound military system, and yet it is but 
one, and perhaps one of the simpler demands upon the military ad- 
ministration. The problems of maintaining a regular supply of trained 
men and horses to replace casualties in the ranks, or of keeping up 
constant and reliable communication between the different units of a 
force operating over an area of perhaps several hundred square miles, 
are even more difficult, and there are many others. 

This is the question of administration only the art of handling 
large masses of men in the actual combat is even more difficult and 
exacting. 

The deduction to be drawn from these considerations is, that, alike 
for the organisation and training of the army in peace and for its ad- 
ministration and control in war, a large and sufficiently trained body 
of staff officers is indispensable. A staff officer cannot learn his duties 
after war has broken out, and an inefficient staff will nullify the efforts 
of the best commander and the best trained troops in the field. More- 
over, to be an efficient staff officer demands quite exceptional qualities. 
He must not only be well educated, able, businesslike, but he must 
work hard and devote continual study to the technical side of his 
profession in war, and must give himself constant practice in the 
performance of his duties during peace. It demands from him an 
amount of ability and hard work which would ensure success in the 
ordinary walks of life. If a sufficient supply of officers possessing these 
qualifications is to be obtained, sufficient inducements must be held out 
to bring men forward to qualify themselves for the work. 

Such inducements may take either of two forms special advance- 
ment in their profession or increased pay. In a force constituted as is 
the Militia force of the Dominion, the former is hardly feasible and 
would involve serious drawbacks, and the true solution would appear 
to lie in the direction of pay higher than that of the regimental officer, 
and at a rate generally comparable with what a successful business 
man would receive in civil life. 

At present there can be no doubt but that the Militia staff is in- 
adequate for the amount of work required to be done, and that the 
efficient staff officer is underpaid, both as compared to the regimental 
officer and in relation to the quality of the work performed. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

The demands upon a staff officer in the way of expenditure are 
heavy and frequent, and the increase in the cost of living of late years, 
while it has hit the officer and the civil servant alike, has been especially 
severe upon District Officers Commanding, and the staff officers both 
at Headquarters and in the Commands and Districts. 

I venture to think that this subject deserves the early and serious 
consideration of the Dominion Government efficient staff officers are 
an indispensable part of any military force, if it is to be effective ; they 
cannot be improvised when war threatens, and material inducements 
appear to be requisite in order to lead officers to submit themselves to 
the constant work and severe self-education necessary to develop an 
efficient staff officer. 

The holding out of rewards to efficient officers might well be accom- 
panied by a strict weeding out of those others who have not made 
themselves proficient in their duties. 

(G) ROYAL MILITARY COLLEGE 

On June 2, I inspected the Royal Military College at Kingston. 

I saw the cadets formed up on parade. They appeared to me to be 
a very fine body of men, averaging about nineteen years of age, well set 
up and smartly turned out. Their drill and marching were excellent. 

After the parade I went through the class-rooms, lecture-rooms, 
dormitories, etc. 

Some specimens of military plans and sketches executed by the 
cadets were laid out in one of the class-rooms, which indicated excellent 
instruction and satisfactory proficiency in topography. 

The bath-room and sanitary arrangements seemed good and suitable. 

There is a workshop, where the cadets learn and practise carpenter- 
ing and handy work generally. I think this is a particularly useful 
establishment. 

The chemical laboratories, electric science models, machines, etc., 
were indicative of the excellent general education which is imparted to 
the cadets. 

There is a large covered building which is given up to practical 
instruction in field fortification and engineering. An excellent model 
of ground covers the whole space. 

Good provision appears to be made for sport of every kind, parti- 
cularly those connected with the hard winters, which last so long in 
this country. 

There appear to be excellent boating and bathing facilities on the 
shores of the lake and river which almost surround the college. 

I visited the gymnasium, and saw the whole of the senior class of 
cadets carrying out gymnastic exercises in a style which I have never 
seen excelled in any institution I have inspected. 
382 



APPENDIX 

There appears to be a valuable collection of books, but nothing in the 
nature of a reading-room, which would be a useful addition to such an 
institution as this. I have also to remark upon the fact that there is a 
deficiency in the necessary number of dormitories. When two cadets 
are compelled to occupy the same room, opportunities for private study 
are very much curtailed, and the best advantage is not obtained from 
the excellent course of study provided at the college. 

A riding establishment has just come into existence, with good 
stabling, etc. 

There is no riding-school, but only an uncovered manege. I think, 
considering the length of the winter and the hard weather, in this 
country, that a covered riding-school is a most necessary adjunct. 

In this connection I may mention that there is a skating-rink, which 
is also uncovered, and which, for similar reasons, should also be covered 
in. It is of importance that the cadets should have every opportunity 
for getting hard exercise throughout the year. 

The outside direction of the college is largely in the hands of a Board 
of Visitors, which reports to the Militia Council. The Board is com- 
posed of past and present Canadian officers, members of Parliament, 
and eminent educationalists. Sometimes the Inspector-General or the 
Chief of the General Staff is on the Board, but not always. I venture to 
think that it should be a rule that one or the other of these officers 
should, invariably, be a member. 

There appears to be a very good and efficient staff of officers and 
professors, and I am persuaded that the instruction throughout is 
sound and good. 

Referring to the subjects embodied in the syllabus of instruction 
at the college, it appears that no lectures are given in military history 
and that no campaign is regularly studied. There is thus no opportunity 
of practically applying theories which have been studied and learned. 
I strongly recommend attention to this point. 

A great feature of the college is the endeavour to make it answer 
the purposes of a national ' war school ' by holding ' long ' and ' short ' 
courses, special instruction classes, etc., for both permanent and active 
Militia officers. 

I have heard much of the Royal Military College at Kingston, and 
from what I have observed I feel sure that the celebrity which the 
institution has earned throughout the Empire, on account of the good 
work it has achieved, is well justified. 

The constitution of the Royal Military College seems to indicate the 
main intention of its founders. A few graduates are chosen every year 
for service with the regular army, whilst others join the Canadian 
Permanent Force. The great majority of the graduates do not, how- 
ever, adopt soldiering as their principal business or calling in life. They 
become Reserve Officers, and constitute a body which, owing to the 

383 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

fine preliminary training which they have received, should be a great 
strength to national and Imperial defence. 

A country like this, which is in course of such rapid development, 
cannot hamper its best citizens in pursuing their several avocations in 
the direction of national advancement and national development. 

The principle, then, of giving to a large proportion of its brain power 
the advantage of military training and education is a great asset in the 
provision of national defence, for the supply of efficient officers in a 
crisis is assured. 

For these reasons I venture, in this report, to urge most strongly 
the extension of the principle embodied in this excellent system, of 
giving military training to the youth of Canada. 

It appears to me that, at present, the general effect upon the country 
is infinitely less than it might be if the college at Kingston were greatly 
enlarged, and perhaps a similar institution established elsewhere. 

It is, perhaps, hardly within my province to make such recommenda- 
tions, but I realise so fully the value of the work already done, and the 
great necessity for securing a higher standard of military education and 
knowledge amongst the officers of the Active Militia, that I feel impelled 
to state my opinion emphatically. 

There is another point of great importance to which I desire to call 
attention. It appears that, at the present time, the Dominion educates 
a number of young men, to a large extent at the expense of the State, 
and gets no return from them in the way of military service. In a 
country like Canada, which maintains no regular army, the question 
of national defence is of the utmost importance to every individual 
citizen, and whilst, in my opinion, every one is morally bound to take 
some share in this great work, I consider a full share may be justly 
demanded from those citizens who have had the advantage of being 
educated at the Royal Military College. 

I am aware that graduates are obliged to become Reserve Officers 
for a certain number of years, but I think they ought either to be com- 
pelled to take service with the Active Militia for a period of at least ten 
years, or, if they can show satisfactorily that they are not in a position 
to do this, they ought to be called upon to undergo military training at 
intervals of two or three years, and to pass a certain qualification test 
to ensure their ability to furnish that return to their country for which 
the education they have received at the Royal Military College renders 
them amenable. 

(H) REGIMENTAL OFFICERS 

I am informed that there has been a great improvement in recent 
years in regimental commanding officers. I have had little opportunity 
of personally judging of their merits, but I have observed them chiefly 
384 



APPENDIX 

to be young, energetic men, of active habits and possessing business 
capacity. 

It appears that, before commanding a regiment, an officer must have 
qualified on entry, and subsequently as a captain, and again as a field 
officer, and, in addition, he must have passed for some period under the 
close observation of the Inspector-General and the officer commanding 
his District. 

Provided these tests are thoroughly applied they would appear to 
be sufficient for the purpose, but I am informed that conditions and 
requirements are often relaxed, and this, probably, accounts for the 
fact that some commanding officers who have come under my notice are 
unfit for their position. I recommend that the attainment of the qualifi- 
cations be enforced to the utmost limit, for I hold that, without efficient 
command, no unit can be considered of any effective use in the field. 

What has struck me more than anything else in this connection is 
the fact that, whenever I have visited camping grounds, I have seen 
nothing but regiments and battalions working together under the 
commanding officer, although squadrons and companies have only been 
under training for a few days and are quite unfit to be worked together. 

It would' appear that commanding officers have not realised the fact 
that the efficiency of the individual squadron or company is the essence 
of all sound military training, and they do not seem to have power to 
direct and supervise such independent training. 

To be able to do so in an efficient manner, and without undue 
interference, is one of the highest and most necessary qualifications 
for a commanding officer to possess. 

With regard to squadron, battery, and company commanders, I 
have to remark that, although I have noticed a display of much activity 
and energy amongst them, there is everywhere considerable room for 
improvement. 

I notice that they are not, apparently, given a sufficient measure of re- 
sponsibility when they are concentrated with their regiments, but appear 
to be kept too much in leading strings under the regimental commander. 

The attitude of these officers towards their men, when engaged in 
drill and manoeuvre, leaves a good deal to be desired. They issue 
rough, sharp instructions and directions, without giving their men any 
reasonable explanation why they are expected to do certain things. 
They altogether fail, it seems to me, to appeal to their men's reason 
and intelligence, a principle which should be at the very root and 
foundation of all intercourse between officers and men, particularly in 
a force like the Canadian Militia. 

On the other hand, I have noticed that they do not maintain a 
proper discipline amongst their men when engaged in field exercises. I 
have heard talking and shouting, and all sorts of irrelevant conversation 
going on whilst a manoeuvre, which demanded the close attention of all 

OVERSEAS I. 2 B 385 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

ranks, was in course of being carried out. The officers were standing 
by and taking no notice. Here, again, appeal might well have been 
made to the men's reason and intelligence. 

It seems to me that qualification tests must have been a good deal 
relaxed, for squadron and company commanders do not appear to 
know enough themselves to instruct the young officers under their 
command, or to impart that theoretical instruction to all ranks of their 
command which is absolutely essential to practical training for war. 

Turning to the junior officers, the general stamp is good, and, 
provided the existing qualification tests are strictly enforced, they 
ought to be quite capable of efficiently officering the Canadian Militia. 

From the outset of their instruction they should be taught, before 
all things, initiative and resource, and some responsible charge, however 
limited, should be confided to them. 

If the Royal Military College principle could be more widely ex- 
tended, a much larger proportion of Militia officers would be graduates 
of that institution, and the effect on the efficiency of the force would be 
incalculable. 

(I) NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND MEN 

The good selection and adequate qualification of non-commissioned 
officers is one of the most important conditions for the efficiency of any 
military unit, and I feel assured, from all I have observed, that this 
requires far greater care and attention than it now receives. 

It is not at all unusual, I believe, for non-commissioned officers to be 
found serving as such at their first attendance in camp. 

Non-commissioned officers should be chosen by unit commanders 
from amongst the best men in the ranks of their, command. They 
should be selected for their superior knowledge and intelligence, and 
should be required to pass a certain qualifying test. 

For this purpose schools of instruction should be available and every 
facility should be afforded to enable men selected for non-commissioned 
officers to study and qualify as such. Whatever expense this may 
entail to the State (and it cannot be a very great item) is absolutely 
essential to the fighting efficiency of the forces. 

In respect of non-commissioned officers, I understand there is a 
great difference between city and rural corps. 

In such units of the Canadian Militia as have come under my 
observation I consider the physique of the men is very good, although, 
in some corps, I have noticed a sprinkling of mere boys. 

I have, as a rule, been much impressed by their smart turn out, 
their set up and their bearing on parade. Their marching and 
manoeuvre were also decidedly good for non-regular troops, and there 
can be no doubt that they are pervaded by a fine patriotic spirit, energy, 
and a great desire to do all in their power to render themselves efficient. 
386 




APPENDIX 

They appear to be quite amenable to discipline when it is properly 
enforced, and generally to possess intelligence and resource. 

I have to add that I have been informed by competent authorities 
that the physique of the men composing the Canadian Militia is not so 
good as that of the inhabitants of the country, but I cannot speak from 
my own personal knowledge. 

I am further informed that the term of service engagement of three 
years is hardly ever exacted. 

I consider this to be very prejudicial to the efficiency of the force, 
and it is my duty to state emphatically that, unless the very limited 
term of service which every man undertakes to carry out when he joins 
is fulfilled to the last day and hour, and every available moment is used 
for the purposes of training and instruction, the Canadian Militia can 
never be considered in an efficient condition to undertake the responsi- 
bilities for which it exists. 

(J) HORSES 

I regret that there has not been sufficient time or opportunity to 
study the horse question in Canada as fully as I should have liked. I 
am, therefore, unable to express any reliable opinion as to the best 
means of meeting military requirements. 

It is, however, quite clear to me that satisfactory arrangements for 
the adequate supply of horses for war do not exist throughout the 
Dominion, and I desire to draw attention to the danger which such a 
state of affairs involves. 

In Appendix ' D ' will be found a short statement of peace training 
and war establishments of horses for the mounted troops in Canada. 

I am informed that there is little doubt of these numbers being 
forthcoming on mobilisation. 

It can be taken as certain that at least 10 per cent, of these numbers 
would be found unfit for service, so that, taking 33,000 as being the 
number required, some 3000 of these would have to be made good from 
reserve sources. 

In a serious war it must be expected that within six weeks 50 per 
cent, of these numbers would be required to make good losses and de- 
ficiencies, and a similar number six weeks later. 

A reserve of at least 30,000 horses of all kinds would thus be neces- 
sary to keep the mounted troops of the Dominion efficient within three 
months of the outbreak of war, which, with the 3000 required to make 
good unfits on mobilisation, makes a total of 33,000. 

I am informed that even with the best mobilisation arrangements 
and supervision it would be very difficult to register so large a number, 
but, with matters as they are at present, it would be impossible, for no 
machinery exists for such a purpose except certain registers of draught 
horses in Commands and Districts. 

387 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

I recommend that an Assistant Director of Remounts be added to 
the Department of the Quartermaster-General, with a suitable in- 
spection and veterinary staff. 

His duties would be : 

(1) To keep the Militia Council fully acquainted with the numbers 
and classes of horses produced annually for training ; 

(2) To supervise the service rolls of mounted units and ascertain by 
inspection and inquiry if the horses shown on such rolls are really 
available and fairly fit for service ; 

(3) To take over the registration department and to thoroughly 
exploit the horse resources of the country with a view to securing as 
large a number as possible registered to complete the numbers which 
would be required on mobilisation ; 

(4) To arrange for the establishment of horse depots in war and to 
undertake all mobilisation arrangements as regards horses and transport. 

As regards the permanent force, I think a small permanent horse 
depot should be kept up in time of peace at some convenient central 
place. 

Considering the nature of the country, particularly in the west, and 
the general conditions of life in Canada, mounted troops seem likely to 
play an important part in warfare conducted in North America, and the 
possession of carefully economised horse reserves would probably prove 
of great value and would give much advantage to the side which is best 
prepared in this respect. 

I have conversed on the subject with several competent authorities 
in the country, and there appears to me to be a consensus of opinion 
that breeders require more Government help and encouragement. 
There are, apparently, some determined and energetic efforts now 
being made to improve the horse supply of the Dominion, notably by 
an organisation known as ' The Horse Breeders' Association.' 

It is well known that conditions in the Dominion of Canada favour 
horse breeding on a large scale, and, if these facilities are fully developed 
and encouraged, it is quite possible that the Dominion might, in time, 
become the chief source of horse supply for the Empire, which would go 
far to solve a very difficult problem. 

(K) ARMAMENT AND AMMUNITION 
Fortress Artillery 

The armament of the fortress at Halifax and the river forts near 
Quebec seemed suitable for the purpose. 

Heavy Field Artillery 

The armament of the heavy field artillery batteries is suitable, but 
there is so little scope for the full development of fire at such long 

388 



APPENDIX 

ranges in densely wooded country, that it is a question in my mind 
whether the result obtained by the employment of such heavy ordnance 
in the field will, in most parts of Eastern Canada, outweigh* the expense 
and difficulty of the transport with which it is necessary to furnish them. 

Field Howitzer Batteries 

There appears to be only one howitzer brigade in the Dominion. It 
is armed with a 5-inch gun which is very suitable. 

I have elsewhere expressed the opinion that the full proportion of 
howitzer batteries, as laid down in Imperial divisional organisations, 
should be provided in Canada. 

It seems to me that the vertical fire of howitzer batteries might be 
very effective in the kind of country in which they will have to act. 

Horse and Field Artillery 

The armament adopted is similar to that used in the Imperial Army, 
and the rearmament of the batteries is, I understand, progressing very 
satisfactorily. 

I have remarked elsewhere upon the absence of field telephones with 
batteries, and I think that such an important essential should be 
provided as speedily as possible. 

Rifles 

Having regard to the trials which are now going on in all the great 
military centres of the world of a proposed automatic rifle I have no 
remarks or recommendations to make on the subject of the difference in 
armament between the Canadian and Imperial Forces. 

It is to be noted, however, that the most important essential is 
assured in the similarity of the ammunition used by the Ross rifle and 
that used in other parts of the Empire. 

Ammunition 

I understand there is a reserve of shrapnel shell ranging from 500 
to 1000 rounds per gun. I am of opinion that this is not enough and 
that it should be at least double. There is, also, in my opinion, a 
considerable deficiency in small arm ammunition. I am told that 
40,000,000 rounds are now in store. This amount should be doubled 
before the position can be considered satisfactory. 

Bayonets 

I have nothing, to add to the few remarks which appear under the 
heading of ' Manufacturing Establishments.' 

Swords 

I would call attention to the remarks of Major-General Sir Percy 
Lake in his annual report for 1908-09 on this subject. I concur generally 
with the opinions he expresses. 

In one or two of the cavalry regiments which I inspected in this 

389 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

country I have seen such excellent cavalry material, both as regards 
men and horses, that I feel assured, when they had been together for a 
few weeks after mobilisation, they would be capable of acting effectively 
with the arme blanche in small bodies on a sudden emergency. 

I should like to have equipped such regiments with the sword, but I 
am aware that many other conditions are involved, and I do not, 
therefore, feel myself in a position to do more than put forward the 
suggestion. 

(L) ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES 

I saw some Canadian Army Service Corps Companies at Niagara 
and Petawawa. They were doing the transport and supply work of 
those large camps in a very efficient and satisfactory manner. 

The principle of enlisting special expert skill and talent into the 
military service is also apparent here, and very good progress is being 
made in this branch of the administrative services. 

The Canadian Army Medical Services is also receiving much care 
and attention. I inspected several Field Ambulances and Hospitals at 
the various camps, and was much struck by the energy, skill, and 
efficiency everywhere displayed. 

Although it has no bearing upon the subject immediately under 
report, I cannot help remarking that full value cannot be derived from 
the satisfactory condition of the administrative services in the absence 
of a sound system of peace organisation in war divisions. 

(M) FORTRESSES AND ARMED POSTS 

I inspected the fortress at Halifax on June 8, 9, and 10, and on June 
10 I saw shell practice from Sandwich battery. The practice from the 
6-inch guns was only fair, observation being faulty. The practice from 
the 12-pr. guns, at short range, was good. 

On June 8 and 10 I visited all the defence works. The batteries 
are in good condition ; the armament, equipment, and ammunition in 
good order, and as complete as is possible pending the execution of 
certain alterations. I consider that the defences are sufficient to 
protect the harbour from attack by sea. 

On the evening of June 9 I saw the electric lights at work. They 
are powerful and effective ; well placed and well worked. The tugs 
which were employed to run past the lights into the harbour were easily 
discovered and clearly shown up. A detachment of Active Militia 
artillery manned the guns at Fort Hugonin during this operation, and 
fired blank against the tugs. The drill was well carried out ; the 
arrangements for warning the battery worked effectively and the whole 
practice was highly satisfactory. 

On June 9 I inspected the ' movable armament,' and considered the 
question of land defence. 
390 



APPENDIX 

In my opinion the arrangements for land defence have not been 
sufficiently worked out, and are incomplete. The battery at Sandwich 
Point offers a tempting objective for a sudden raid, and the possible 
capture of Halifax might well induce an enemy to undertake land 
operations on a large scale. 

Considering the nature of the country the * movable armament ' is 
probably sufficient, but the infantry immediately available for defence 
consists only of six companies of permanent troops and three Militia 
battalions. This force cannot be considered sufficient to ensure the 
safety of the fortress. 

On June 9 I visited the barracks, hospital, A.S.C. establishments, 
engineer lines and workshops, and citadel. I found everything satis- 
factory. 

I am not quite satisfied that the mobilisation arrangements are as 
complete as they should be, especially with regard to the provision of a 
sufficient number of fortress engineers. 

I visited the forts on the St. Lawrence on May 31. 

The batteries designed for the defence of the St. Lawrence channel 
appear to be suitably placed and will be sufficiently armed when com- 
pleted. A suitable force must be detailed for their defence by land. 

The forts erected about 1870 for the protection of Levis from attack 
by land from the south may prove to have some value as points d'appui 
for the garrison of Quebec, but I do not recommend that any further 
expenditure be incurred upon them. 

The necessary arrangements can be embodied in a Quebec defence 
scheme. 



(N) SCHOOLS OF INSTRUCTION AND MANUFACTURING 
ESTABLISHMENTS 

I inspected the School of Garrison Artillery at Halifax. This 
establishment is well equipped and I consider that useful instruction 
is given to officers and non-commissioned officers. 

I saw two schools of instruction for infantry at work at Quebec and 
Toronto. The instructors and the officers under instruction appeared 
to be applying themselves with diligence to their work, but I am not 
satisfied that these courses are as valuable as they ought to be. At 
both places the classes which I saw were engaged in purely ceremonial 
work, and the instruction was given by old-fashioned methods. I 
think that more might be done in the way of lecturing and teaching the 
principles of field manoeuvre and fire action. Care should also be taken 
that the instructors do not yield to the temptation to make their work 
easy by rattling off memorised extracts from the drill book which any 
officer can read for himself instead of by personally illustrating the 
manner in which the instructions of the text-books should be carried 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

out, and explaining the intentions of the various exercises and the 
military end for which they are designed. 

I consider also that simple tactical schemes might be carried out 
with great benefit to the officers who attend these courses. 

Speaking generally, more attention might be paid to the essentials of 
war training and less time given up to non-essentials. 

I saw a class at the Cavalry School at Toronto, and artillery classes 
at Kingston and Quebec, but was unable to make any detailed in- 
spection of them. 

I understand that the School of Signalling produces satisfactory 
results, and I anticipate that the proposed system of instruction in 
musketry will have a beneficial effect. 

I inspected the Arsenal at Quebec on May 31. This establishment 
appears to be under very capable management, and I was much struck 
by its orderly and businesslike arrangements. I consider it to be a 
valuable asset in the military resources of the Dominion, and I should 
judge that, by judicious expansion, its value may be materially in- 
creased. In certain respects, Canada is not yet, in a military sense, 
self-supporting, and, although it may not be necessary for the Dominion 
to be entirely independent of outside supply, yet every advance in this 
direction is an addition to security. 

Some structural alterations and enlargement in the arsenal buildings 
appear to be necessary. 

I visited the Ross Rifle Factory at Quebec on May 31. The build- 
ings and plant appear to be in excellent order. 

The inspection branch appears to be efficient and well managed. Its 
officers brought to my notice what appeared to be a defect in the speci- 
fications governing the hilt of the present bayonet, but I understand 
that this question is already receiving your attention. 

PART II. WESTERN CANADA 

I visited the places in Western Canada on the dates mentioned in 
the itinerary. (See Appendix ' A.') 

I am unable to report as to the military situation in detail, as in the 
case of Eastern Canada, because military organisation in this part of the 
country has been undertaken comparatively lately, and is only in 
process of development. 

Whether it is keeping pace with the economic progress of Western 
Canada is a question upon which I do not feel myself competent to judge, 
but when the enormous area under cultivation in the western part of the 
Dominion is considered, and the greatly enhanced value of property, it 
would appear that the forces maintained for its protection are, com- 
paratively, very small in number. 

The military relations of Western Canada to the rest of the Dominion 
392 



APPENDIX 

may be likened to a great open plain which lies under the partial pro- 
tection of a fortress. 

The west will, of course, always be liable in time of war -to raids, and 
the adequate defence of the Canadian Pacific and other railways have to 
be provided for. 

The character of the country between Winnipeg and the eastern 
slope of the Rocky Mountains is admirably adapted to the employment 
of mounted rifles supported by horse artillery. 

A certain amount of infantry and, perhaps, heavy artillery, will be 
necessary to defend Winnipeg and other important centres, to hold 
posts on the railway lines, and to act as rallying points to mounted rifles. 
This appears to be the principle upon which the organisation of the 
military defence of the West is proceeding, and I am of opinion that it 
is in accordance with the needs of the situation, excepting as regards the 
paucity of numbers alluded to above. 

At the headquarters of Military District No. 13, at Calgary, I saw 
the camp established there under Lieut. -Col. Cruikshank. 

I was present when a manoeuvre was carried out in the adjacent 
country by the following troops : 
1 5th Light Horse. 
1 9th Mounted Rifles. 
2 ist Hussars. 
23rd Alberta Rangers. 
One Squadron Light Horse. 
25th Battery C.F.A. 
Corps of Guides (M.D. No. 13). 
Signalling Corps (M.D. No. 13). 
No. XVII. Cavalry Field Ambulance. 

The men were of excellent physique and rode, generally, well. 
The horses were of a good stamp, and admirably suited to the work 
they were doing. 

The officers had the makings of good cavalry leaders, and there 
appeared to be an excellent understanding between them and their men. 
The manoeuvre, however, revealed many shortcomings, and showed 
a considerable lack of training and knowledge. 

The principal fault lay in failure to use ground to the best advantage 
and to secure cover from firing. 

There was much undue exposure to led horses when the men were 
taking a position dismounted. 

The artillery, however, was very well worked. 

The camp and horse lines were well laid out and well kept, and both 
officers and men displayed considerable aptitude in the care and 
management of horses in camp, qualifications which are so essential 
to the efficiency of mounted troops in the field. 

On the whole, I think the troops of No. 13 Military District are pro- 

393 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [ji 

grossing in a right direction, but I must point out that there is con- 
siderable room for improvement in their methods of handling and 
working mounted riflemen in the field. 

On June 29 I visited the camp at Sewell, composed of troops of No. 
10 Military District, under the command of Colonel Steele, C.B. 

I witnessed a field manoeuvre in which the following troops were 
engaged : 

1 2th Dragoons. 
i6th Light Horse. 
i8th Mounted Rifles. 
2Oth Border Horse. 

22nd Light Horse (' A ' and ' B ' Squadrons). 
I3th Battery C.F.A. 
Corps of Guides (M.D. No. 10). 
99th Regiment. 

Signalling Corps (M.D. No. 10). 
No. XVI. Field Ambulance. 

At Sewell also I was greatly struck by the excellent material of which 
the cavalry in the West appears to be composed. Officers, men and 
horses, all seemed peculiarly adapted to the kind of fighting to which 
the country lends itself. 

In the manoeuvre exercises there were many mistakes and short- 
comings, again due to lack of training and knowledge, but the same 
fine spirit of earnest desire to improve themselves was as manifest here 
as elsewhere. 

The smart and efficient laying out of the camp lines was very 
remarkable in troops which had been together for so short a time. 

Although the horses had been doing hard work in very hot weather 
for several days previously, they showed no sign of it, but looked hard 
and fit and thoroughly well cared for. 

For reasons which I have stated above, I am of opinion that the 
training of the cavalry in Canada is not long enough, but should be 
extended, like that of the artillery, to sixteen days. 

On July i I inspected the 79th Highlanders and the 90 th Rifles at 
Winnipeg. They are a fine, well set up body of men, and their parade 
movements were very well carried out. I had no opportunity of testing 
their field training and efficiency. 

Nearly all mounted regiments which I saw in the West came to camp 
very weak and in no case approaching their establishment. I am told 
that the reason for this is the paucity of horses, and that, whilst heavy 
farm horses and other kinds of horses are bred in abundance, the cavalry 
horse is getting scarce. 

The defence of a country like Western Canada so largely depends upon 
an adequate supply of horses suitable for cavalry and mounted riflemen 
that I would call particular attention to the question of horse supply. 
394 



o] APPENDIX 

I have had no time to go at any length into the subject, and am 
therefore unable to make any definite proposal or recommendation, but 
it seems *to me that the country lends itself in a peculiarly favourable 
manner to horse breeding generally, and that if some form of Govern- 
ment encouragement and assistance were given to breeders a great 
industry might arise which would prove of great benefit, not only to 
Western Canada, but to the Empire at large. 

A training ground similar to that at Petawawa is badly needed in the 
West. 

When at Sewell I was shown a large extent of suitable country, 
which it appears can be obtained without great trouble or expense. 

I venture also to put forward this question as one of great im- 
portance to the efficiency of the troops in the West. 

What I have remarked generally, under the various headings, as to 
the state and condition of the troops in Eastern Canada, applies in a 
great measure to the West also. 

PART III. SUMMARY 

I have endeavoured in this report to emphasise the necessity for a 
sound peace organisation, and a thoroughly well established staff system, 
in order to ensure that immediate mobilisation and prompt move- 
ment which alone can secure to Canada the initiative in a serious war. 

It is upon their ability to do this effectively that a real and reliable 
estimate of the value of the Canadian Forces can be formed. 

I am not called upon to express opinions on the sub j ect of universal ser- 
vice, nor do I wish to do so, but I am not prepared, at present, to say that 
the volunteer system is inadequate to the requirements of the Dominion, 
because that system has not yet, in my opinion, had a fair trial. 

It cannot be judged upon its merits until it is seen what results will 
accrue when the rules and regulations which are framed to give effect 
to it are strictly enforced. 

An army which is maintained on a volunteer basis has certain 
decided advantages, and it is probably more suitable to a country like 
Canada than any other, if it can be made so efficient as to guarantee 
reasonable security. 

But sound organisation, good staff work, and competent commanders 
are the first essentials for its success, and there must be the closest 
adherence to Regulations laid down. 

The full measure of service and obligation which a volunteer, 
whether officer or private, takes upon himself must be exacted. 

In a force raised and maintained on a volunteer system, nothing 
less than this will do, and anything less will mean inefficiency, failure, 
and, at last, disaster. 

According to my judgment, these important requirements are not 
fulfilled. 

395 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [JUL 

I may summarise the principal shortcomings as lying in an in- 
sufficiently developed organisation ; inadequate knowledge in the 
higher command ; in the test qualifications for officers and non-com- 
missioned officers of the Active Militia laid down in Regulations, not 
being strictly enforced ; and in the rank and file not being compelled 
to fulfil their engagements. 

Only when the regulations which govern the constitution and 
maintenance of the Canadian Militia are strictly enforced will it be 
possible to say whether the present system meets the defensive require- 
ments of the country or not. 

Judging from what I have seen of the excellent material and the 
fine spirit which is apparent in all ranks, and taking also into con- 
sideration the marked progress which has been made within the past 
few years, and the evident signs of its continuance, I should be inclined 
to think that, so long as the present condition of affairs on the North 
American Continent remains as it is, the existing system, if strictly 
administered on a sound basis of peace organisation, should suffice to 
meet the needs of the Dominion. 

We live, however, in times of great change and progress, and it 
behoves the Intelligence Department to keep a sharp eye upon the 
course of events, so that the Government may be kept au courant 
with any military changes in other countries which necessitate con- 
sideration of a more drastic military system on the part of Canada. 

I may mention that, in the course of my tour of inspection, I have 
seen several bodies of cadets. 

The movement seems to be making good progress throughout the 
Dominion, and I have been much struck by the fine physique and 
training of the boys and their smart and soldierlike bearing on parade. 

I think much credit is due to those distinguished members of the 
scholastic and ecclesiastical professions who have done so much to 
foster this movement, which I regard of very great promise for the 
future of the Canadian Forces. 

I cannot close this report without* expressing my deep appreciation 
of the help rendered to me throughout the whole of my tour of inspection 
by Major-General Sir Percy Lake, Inspector-General of the Canadian 
Forces, Colonel F. L. Lessard, Adjutant-General, and the other members 
of the Canadian Staff who have accompanied me throughout. 

I must also express my warmest thanks for the kindness and 
cordiality with which I have everywhere been received. 

I have been thrown so much during my service with the Canadian 
Forces in the Field, and I have learned to regard them with such ad- 
miration and esteem, that it has given me the deepest pleasure and satis- 
faction to renew my acquaintance with them. I have the honour to be, 
Sir, your obedient servant, J. D. P. FRENCH, General, 

Inspector-General of the Imperial Forces. 

396 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX A 



Date. 


Place. 


Remarks. 


May 20 . . . . 


Quebec 




21 .... 





Inspect 8th and gth Regiments. 


22 . . 


5> 


Leave for Toronto. 


2 3 .... 
24 ..... 
25 .... 


Toronto 

5) 

M 


Inspection Toronto Cadet Corps by Governor- 
General. 
Unveiling South African memorial ; inspection 2nd, 
loth, and 48th Regiments. 
Inspect permanent corps, Toronto. 


26. ... 


Hamilton 


Inspect 1 3th and gist Regiments. 


27 .... 


5> 


Leave for Montreal. 


28 .... 


Montreal 


Inspect ist, 3rd, 5th, 6$th Regiments and Cadets. 


29 .... 


H 


Leave for Quebec. 


30. ... 


Quebec 


Inspect permanent corps, forts and arsenal. 


31 . . . . 





Leave for Kingston. 


June i and 2 
3 


Kingston 



Inspect *^i4th Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse 
Artillery and Royal Military College. 
Leave for Ottawa. 


4 and 5 


Ottawa 


Inspect the G. G. F. Guards and 43rd Regiment. 


6. ... 


jj 


Leave for Halifax 


7 to 10 . . 

!!.... 
12 .... 


Halifax 
St. John 
)j 


Inspect permanent corps, fortifications, 63rd, 66th 
Regiments and ist Canadian Artillery. 
Leave for St. John ; inspect 62nd Regiment and 
3rd Canadian Artillery. 
Leave for Niagara. 


15 to 17 . . 


Niagara 


Inspect troops in camp. 


18. . . . 


Kingston 


Inspect troops in camp. 


19 and 20 . 


Petawawa 


Inspect troops in camp. 


23 to 25 . . 


Calgary 


Inspect troops in camp. 


25 .... 


Laggan 




26. . . . 


Banff 




27 and 28 . 


Regina 


Inspect Royal North-West Mounted Police. 


29 .... 


Sewell 


Inspect troops in camp. 


29 to July 2 


Winnipeg 


Inspect 79th and goth Regiments. 


July 4 . . . . 


Ottawa 


Hand in Report to the Hon. the Minister. 



397 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [jui 

APPENDIX B 

(Not printed.) 

APPENDIX C 

Suggested organisation in one Cavalry Division, Five Divisions, 
Two Field Forces and Garrisons. 

Based on present establishment and distribution of Canadian Active 
Militia. 

CAVALRY DIVISION 
(Organised only on mobilisation, does not exist as such in peace.) 

ist Cavalry Brigade 
The G. G. Body Guard. 
9th Mississauga Horse. 
25th Dragoons. 

9th Battery Canadian Field Artillery, 
ist Field Troop Engineers (non-existent yet) . 
Cavalry Brigade T. and S. Column (No. 12 Co. C.A.S.C.). 
I3th Cavalry Brigade Field Ambulance. 

2nd Cavalry Brigade 
3rd Dragoons. 
5th Dragoon Guards. 

' A ' Battery, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery. 
Field Troop Engineers (non-existent yet). 
Cavalry Brigade T. and S. Column. 
3rd Cavalry Brigade Field Ambulance. 

3rd Cavalry Brigade 
6th Hussars. 
7th Hussars, 
nth Hussars. 

' B ' Battery, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery. 
Field Troop Engineers (non-existent yet). 
Cavalry Brigade T. and S. Column (No. 13 Co. C.A.S.C.). 
6th Cavalry Brigade Field Ambulance (when raised). 

5th Cavalry Brigade 

loth Hussars. 

I3th Dragoons. 

26th Dragoons. 
39S 



9i )] APPENDIX 

Battery, Horse Artillery. 

Field Troop Engineers (non-existent yet). 

Cavalry Brigade T. and S. Column (No. 10 Co. C.A.S.C.). 

Cavalry Brigade Field Ambulance. 

FIRST DIVISION 
Cavalry 

24th Grey's Horse. 

Artillery 

Brigade, C.F.A. 

Brigade, C.F.A. 

Brigade, C.F.A. 

ist Brigade, C.F.A. (Howitzer), (Guelph). 

Heavy Battery (No. 3 Co. R.C.G.A., Quebec). 

Engineers 

Field Company. 
Field Company. 
Telegraph Detachment. 

Infantry 

ist Brigade (London, 22nd, 26th, 27th, 28th). 

2nd Brigade (Guelph, 29th, 30th, 32nd, 33rd). W 

4th Brigade (Toronto, 23rd, 3ist, 35th, 97th). 

Army Service Corps 

T. & S. Column (No. i Co. C.A.S.C., Guelph). 
T. & S. Column. 
T. & S. Column. 
T. & S. Column. 

Medical Corps 

No. XIV. Field Ambulance (Sarnia). 
No. XV. Field Ambulance (London). 
Field Ambulance. 

ARMY TROOPS (ATTACHED) 

Mobile Column 
ist Hussars. 
6th Battery, C.F.A. 

I9th Infantry Brigade (London, 7th, 2ist, 24th, 25th). 
No. XIX. Field Ambulance (Hamilton). 

SECOND DIVISION 
Cavalry 

I7th Hussars (Montreal). 

399 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [jul 

Artillery 

6th Brigade, C.F.A. (Montreal). 

7th Brigade, C.F.A. (Sherbrooke). 

5th Brigade, C.F.A. (Quebec). 

Brigade, C.F.A. (Howitzer). 

2nd Battery Heavy Brigade (Montreal). 

Engineers 

4th Field Company (Montreal). 
Field Company. 
Telegraph Detachment. 

Infantry 

9th Brigade (Montreal, nth, 64th, 8oth, Sard, 85th). 
i8th Brigade (Montreal, ist, 3rd, 5th (2), 65th). 
loth Brigade (Quebec, 4th, i;th, i8th, 55th). 

Army Service Corps 

T. & S. Column (No. 4 Co. C.A.S.C., Montreal). 
T. & S. Column (No. 6 Co. C.A.S.C., Sherbrooke). 
T. & S. Column. 
T. & S. Column. 

Medical Corps 

No. IV. Field Ambulance (Montreal). 
No. V. Field Ambulance (Montreal). 
No. XX. Field Ambulance (Montreal). 



ARMY TROOPS (ATTACHED) 

3rd Cavalry Brigade. 

5th Cavalry Brigade. 

nth Infantry Brigade (Quebec, 6ist, 87th, 8gth, 92nd). 

20th Infantry Brigade (Quebec, 8th, 9th, 53rd, 84th, 86th). 

No. VI. Field Ambulance (Quebec). 

THIRD DIVISION 
Cavalry 

I4th Hussars (2 squadrons). 

Prince Edward Island Light Horse (i squadron). 

Artillery 

3rd Brigade, C.F.A. (Sydney). 

4th Brigade, C.F.A. (Woodstock) (less i battery). 

Brigade, C.F.A. 

Brigade, C.F.A. (Howitzer). 

No. i Heavy Battery (3rd Heavy Brigade, St. John, N.B.). 
400 






APPENDIX 

Engineers 

ist Field Company (Woodstock). 
Field Company. 
Telegraph Detachment. 

Infantry 

I2th Brigade (St. John, 73rd, 74th, 82nd). 

I4th Brigade (Halifax, 68th, 6gth, 78th, 93rd, 94th, with 76th 

Regt. to make two brigades) . 
Brigade. 

Army Service Corps 

T. & S. Column (No. 7 Co. C.A.S.C., St. John, N.B.)- 
T. & S. Column (No. 8 Co. C.A.S.C., Kentville, N.S.). 
T. & S. Column. 
T. & S. Column. 

Medical Corps 

No. VIII. Field Ambulance (St. John, N.B.). 

No. IX. Field Ambulance (Charlottetown, P.E.I.). 

No. i Field Ambulance (Halifax, N.S.). 

ARMY TROOPS (ATTACHED) 

Mobile Columns 

I3th Infantry Brigade (Woodstock, 62nd, 67th, 7ist). 

8th Hussars (Sussex). 

loth Battery, 4th Brigade, C.F.A. (Woodstock). 

i7th Infantry Brigade (Halifax, 63rd, 66th, 75th). 

I4th Hussars (2 squadrons). 

Garrison Artillery and Engineers. 

FOURTH DIVISION 
Cavalry 

2nd Dragoons. 

Artillery 

2nd Brigade, C.F.A. (Hamilton), 
loth Brigade, C.F.A. (Cobourg). 
Brigade, C.F.A. 
Brigade, C.F.A. (Howitzer). 
Cobourg Heavy Battery. 

Engineers 

2nd Field Company (Toronto). 
Field Company. 
Telegraph Detachment. 

OVERSEAS I. 2 C 4OI 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [jui 

M 

Infantry 

5th Brigade (Niagara Falls. 37th. 3Qth 44th, 77th). 
I5th Brigade (Hamilton, I3th, igth, 38th, gist). 
i6th Brigade (Toronto, 2nd (2), loth, 48th). 

Army Service Corps 

T. & S. Column (Toronto, No. 2 Co. C.A.S.C.). 
T. & S. Column (Hamilton, No. 9 Co. C.A.S.C.). 
T. & S. Column. 
T. & S. Column. 

Medical Corps 

No. X. Field Ambulance (Toronto). 
No. XI. Field Ambulance (Toronto). 
No. XII. Field Ambulance (Hamilton). 

ARMY TROOPS (ATTACHED) 

ist Cavalry Brigade. 

3rd Infantry Brigade (i2th, 20th, 34th, 36th). 

FIFTH DIVISION 
Cavalry 

4th Hussars (Kingston). 

Artillery 

. 8th Brigade, C.F.A. (Ottawa), 
gth Brigade, C.F.A. (Deseronto). 
Brigade, C.F.A. 
Brigade, C.F.A. (Howitzer). 
Heavy Battery. 

Engineers 

3rd Field Company (Ottawa). 
5th Field Company (Kingston). 
Telegraph Detachment. 

Infantry 

6th Brigade (Clarke, I5th, i6th, 40th, 45th). 

7th Brigade (Kingston, i4th, 46th, 47th, 49th, 57th). 

8th Brigade (Ottawa, G.G.F.G., 4ist, 42nd, 43rd, 56th, 59th). 

Army Service Corps 

T. & S. Column (No. 3 Co. C.A.S.C., Kingston). 

T. & S. Column (No. 5 Co. C.A.S.C., Ottawa). 

T. & S. Column. 

T. & S. Column. 
402 



APPENDIX 

Medical Corps 

No. II. Field Ambulance (Ottawa). 
Field Ambulance. 
Field Ambulance. 



ARMY TROOPS (ATTACHED) 

2nd Cavalry Brigade. 

WANTING TO COMPLETE 

Cavalry 

2nd Cavalry Brigade, i Regiment. 

Artillery 

Cavalry Division, i Battery, Horse Artillery, for 5th Brigade. 

ist Division, 3 Brigades, Field Artillery. 

2nd Division, i Brigade, Field Artillery (Howitzer). 

3rd Division, 2 Brigades, Field Artillery. 

i Brigade, Field Artillery (Howitzer). 
4th Division, i Brigade, Field Artillery. 

i Brigade, Field Artillery (Howitzer). 
5th Division, i Brigade, Field Artillery. 

i Brigade, Field Artillery (Howitzer). 

i Heavy Battery. 
Surplus 7 Batteries, Heavy Artillery. 

Engineers 

2nd Cavalry Brigade, i Field Troop. 
3rd Cavalry Brigade, i Field Troop. 
5th Cavalry Brigade, i Field Troop, 
ist Division, 2 Field Companies. 

i Telegraph Detachment. 
2nd Division, i Field Company. 

i Telegraph Detachment. 
3rd Division, i Field Company. 

i Telegraph Detachment. 
4th Division, i Field Company. 

i Telegraph Detachment. 

Army Service Corps 

Required, 4 Cavalry Brigade T. & S. Columns. 

5 Divisional T. & S. Columns. 
Available, 12 Companies, C.A.S.C. 

403 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [JUL 

Medical Corps 

Required, 4 Cavalry Field Ambulances. 
15 Field Ambulances. 

2 Field Ambulances for Mobile Columns. 
Available, 3 Cavalry Field Ambulances. 
14 Field Ambulances. 



SUMMARY 

WANTING TO COMPLETE 
Cavalry 

I Regiment. 

Artillery 

i Battery, Horse Artillery. 
7 Brigades, Field Artillery. 

4 Brigades, Field Artillery (Howitzer), 
i Heavy Battery. 

Engineers 

3 Field Troops. 

5 Field Companies. 

4 Telegraph Detachments. 

Army Service Corps- 
12 Companies. 

Medical Corps 

i Cavalry Field Ambulance. 
3 Field Ambulances. 

SURPLUS 

Artillery 

7 Heavy Batteries. 

In certain provinces there is a surplus of infantry, but in others there 
are deficiencies to be made up. Speaking generally, the infantry is 
slightly in excess of requirements for this establishment. 



404 



APPENDIX 
APPENDIX D 

HORSES REQUIRED FOR CANADIAN MlLITIA 

PEACE ESTABLISHMENT 
Branch of Service. 

Cavalry . . . . . . . . 

Field Artillery . . . 

Garrison Artillery ...... 

Engineers . . . 

Corps of Guides . . 

Infantry . . . . . . 

Army Service Corps . . 

Army Medical Corps ...... 

13,912 

WAR ESTABLISHMENT OF EXISTING AUTHORISED UNITS 

Cavalry . . . . 

Artillery . . . . . ... 

Engineers ......... 

Corps of Guides . . . . . . . 

Infantry ......... 

Army Service Corps . . 

Army Medical Corps ....... 

30,671 





405 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



REPORT UPON THE BEST METHOD OF. GIVING EFFECT TO 
THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF GENERAL SIR JOHN FRENCH, 
G.C.B., G.C.V.O., REGARDING THE CANADIAN MlLITIA. 
BY MAJOR-GENERAL SIR P. H. N. LAKE, CANADIAN 
INSPECTOR-GENERAL, K.C.M.G., C.B. 

The Honourable the Minister of Militia and Defence : 

I - You have asked me, as your chief military adviser, for a memor- 
andum upon the report, dated July 5, 1910, submitted to you by General 
Sir John French, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., Inspector-General, Imperial Forces, 
as the result of his tour of inspection of the Militia of the Dominion, 
with a view to considering how far and in what manner it may be most 
feasible and advantageous to give effect to his recommendations ; with 
which, I may perhaps be permitted to say, I am, speaking generally, in 
complete accord. 

ORGANISATION 

2. The Imperial Inspector-General, after stating that he deals with 
Western and Eastern Canada separately, begins by discussing the 
question of organisation. He attaches the highest importance to the 
peace organisation of the forces being identical with the organisation 
contemplated for war. 

3. In regard to Canada, west of the great lakes, he does not, in view 
of the rapid developments now taking place in that part of the country, 
make any definite recommendations in regard to organisation. The 
following remarks, therefore, under this heading apply only to Eastern 
Canada. 

4. After stating, in forcible terms, the advantages to be derived from 
the harmonious working together of the different arms and their mutual 
support in war, he states, equally forcibly, the drawbacks which he 
perceives to exist in our present peace organisation from its not being 
identical with our war organisation. 

5. Our present organisation in commands being based rather upon 
areas than on the distribution of units, he points out that the correct 
proportion between the various arms in those areas does not usually 
obtain, and that existing corps have been raised according to local 
likings and idiosyncrasies. This is, of course, quite true, and indeed 
406 



APPENDIX 

will usually be the case in voluntarily raised forces. Witness the great 
effort necessary in the United Kingdom before the scientifically organ- 
ised Territorial force could be called into being to replace the previously 
existing auxiliary forces, which were open to precisely these same 
criticisms. 

6. He points out the difficulties from which our war divisions, to be 
formed as such only on mobilisation, would suffer. He says that ' the 
annual camp trainings are only a large collection of troops without any 
organisation in formations of all arms/ and that ' the various arms do 
not apparently work to a sufficient extent in conjunction with each 
other.' In this remark, the case is, of course inadvertently, overstated, 
but the main contention may be accepted as correct. 

7. The Inspector-General considers that the staff should be organ- 
ised upon a divisional basis. He concludes by saying that the present 
state of affairs would ' render a quick mobilisation and prompt action 
. . . impossible.' 

8. The Inspector-General's recommendations are entirely in line 
with the policy towards which, as you are aware, the Militia Council 
has consistently been working. 

9. Since the Council came into being, when it found a large body of 
disconnected units which had grown up almost haphazard throughout 
the country, it has steadily worked towards the higher organisation, 
beginning first with brigades of all arms. It has also endeavoured 
(though not always successfully) to turn local military aspirations in 
the direction of raising those units which were most wanted in that 
district for service purposes. 

10. Similarly, the working together of the different arms has not 
been lost sight of, and forms part of the training syllabus even if it 
has not been carried as far as was desirable while the acquisition of 
training grounds where the three arms can be trained together has been 
consistently kept in view. 

11. Lastly, as regards the staff. The report has not perhaps 
brought out quite clearly the points wherein our staff system falls 
short of the system in force in England. England, outside the War 
Office, is divided into commands. All general administration is 
carried out at command headquarters, where the heads of services and 
departments are located, while each command includes one or more 
complete self-contained divisions (or other organised bodies), whose 
staffs carry out simply their own internal business. In reality, each 
command staff in Canada approximates closely, both in comparison 
and system, to the English command staff, though on a smaller scale ; 
but with us, at present, each command staff also administers one of the 
districts of which the command is composed, and we have not been able, 
up to the present, to organise divisional staffs. This, however, is 
merely a temporary condition due to the shortage of staff officers. It 

407 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYOVERSEAS [SEJ 

has always been intended to have, eventually, a separate staff for each 
district within the command, and, where that district finds a division for 
field service, to form a staff which would be in practice the divisional 
staff. 

12. It will thus be seen that the Militia Council has been working 
on correct lines towards the system which is in force in England and 
which the Inspector-General recommends. 

13. The question, therefore, for consideration is : How far is it 
possible, at the present moment, to take the further steps which he 
advocates towards the object which we are agreed in regarding as 
essential ? 

14. In his Appendix C, Sir John French shows how he would 
propose to organise the existing troops of Eastern Canada. He does 
not state clearly whether he proposes the retention pr abolition of com- 
mand staffs, but, as the latter would mean a departure from the British 
system and also the disappearance of heads of services and departments, 
who are not allowed for divisional staffs, and, in view of the general 
trend of his propositions and the fact that our declared policy is to 
assimilate our system to that in force in England, I assume that he does 
not. He proposes to organise for service a cavalry division, five 
divisions, two field forces and garrisons. The first named is not to be 
organised in peace, while the field forces and garrisons are shown 
separately. To organise these five divisions he forms two from the 
troops in tlje present Western Ontario command, leave Eastern 
Ontario, practically as it stands, to provide another, makes the province 
of Quebec furnish a fourth division and the Maritime Provinces a fifth. 

15. So far there is no great difficulty, though I should have preferred 
to form six divisions rather than five ; for, to accept the smaller 
number will practically involve Military District No. 7, Quebec, losing 
its identity and becoming merged in the fourth divisional command. 
For reasons of sentiment, this disappearance of one of the older and 
larger military districts seems open to objection. 

16. The most important question to discuss is the provision of the 
necessary staff. The subjoined table shows the composition of a 
typical English command headquarters and a Canadian command 
headquarters side by side : 

ENGLAND. CANADA. 

i G.O.C. in C. i G.O.C. 

i Asst. Mil. Sec. 

1 A.D.C. 

2 General Staff Officers. 

i General Officer in charge of Administra- M C.S.O. 

tion. 

i Officer Adj. -Gen. Staff. 
i Officer Q.M.G. Staff. 

408 




APPENDIX 

ENGLAND. CANADA. 

Chief Engineer. I Command Engineer. 

Staff Officer, Engineers. 

Asst. Director Supplies and Transport. i Sen. A.S.C. Officer. 
Principal Medical Officer. I Principal Medical Officer. 

Staff Officer to P.M.O. 

Principal Veterinary Officer. I Principal Veterinary Officer. 

Asst. Director Ordnance Stores. * i Senior Ordnance Officer. 

Command Paymaster. i Command Paymaster. 

Dept. Asst. Director of Remounts. 
District Barrack Officer. 

17. The following table shows the composition of the- headquarters 
of an English Territorial Division and a Canadian Military District side 
by side : 

ENGLAND. CANADA. 

i G.O.C. i D.O.C. 

General Staff Officer. \ ~ Q A 

Dept. Asst. Adjt. and Q.M.G. J 1 1J - 5 - A - 

Administrative Medical Officer. 1 ,, ^ 

Sanitary Officer. J 1 P - M '- 

O.C.R. Artillery. 
Staff Captain, Artillery. 
O.C.R. Engineers. 

18. It will be observed that, while the Canadian command head- 
quarters are by far the smaller, the two run on parallel lines, and the 
work of the office is similarly allotted. There would be no difficulty, 
therefore, in expanding the Canadian command headquarters as 
desired. 

19. It will be seen that the same remark generally applies to the 
Canadian district headquarters as compared with an English division, 
but that the English organisation has, in addition, an O.C. Artillery and 
an O.C. Engineers. 

20. So far, therefore, as system goes, there is no difference in 
principle ; and the Canadian command headquarters could remain as it 
is, with certain additions to its staff, principally an officer to perform 
the duties of the ' general officer in charge of administration.' Again, 
inasmuch as, in a division, the O.C. Artillery would probably be a 
selected senior artillery officer of the Active Militia, and as the same 
course might be followed for the O.C. Engineers where no senior officer 
of the permanent force was available, a district headquarters might 
easily be transformed into a divisional headquarters. 

21. The serious difficulty is that, while we perhaps have a sufficient 
total number of permanent staff officers, we have but a very few who 
are properly trained and fully understand a staff officer's duties. This 
is noticeable already where there are only four commands to be provided 
for, and the efficiency of the force already suffers thereby. 

22. Had the Minister an absolutely free hand, by far the best plan 

409 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYOVERSEAS 

would be to import a number of selected staff officers from England to 
fill those of the more important command and staff posts for which 
trained Canadian officers are not available for the next four years, and 
to train, so to speak, ' understudies/ who should be capable of taking 
their places when they left. But this would involve displacing and 
superseding, for a time at least, a considerable number of senior officers, 
few or none of whom have yet earned their full pensions or reached the 
age limit. To deal with them would present many difficulties. 

23. Assuming that the importation of a few English officers will be 
decided on, I suggest the following as the best method of procedure : 

(a) Decide upon six divisions in place of five as the number to be 
eventually formed. 

(b) Leave the command headquarters as at present, deciding, 
however, to add an ' officer (say, lieutenant-colonel) in charge of ad- 
ministration ' to each as soon as suitable officers can be made available. 

(c) Form Military District No. I into the ' 1st division ' and com- 
plete its staff by the addition of a general staff officer. It possesses 
only one brigade of artillery, so the lieutenant-colonel commanding the 
brigade would naturally be the ' O.C. Artillery/ There are as yet no 
engineers. Transfer the 4th Infantry Brigade from Military District 
No. 2 to complete the infantry. Take steps gradually to organise the 
administrative services as required. Attach to it the Mobile Column 
with headquarters at London. 

(d) Form a ' 2nd Division ' from the troops of M.D. No. 2 (called 
' 4th Division ' in the Inspector-General's Report), transferring to it 
the loth Bde. C.F.A., Cobourg, and Cobourg Heavy Battery, from 
M.D. No. 3. Organise the administrative services as required. 

Complete its staff by appointing an officer to command it (perhaps 
a senior Militia officer), a General Staff Officer, a D.A.A. & Q.M.G., a 
senior Field Artillery Officer (also from the Active Militia) and an O.C. 
Engineers. Headquarters would be at Toronto. 

The ist Cavalry Brigade already exists, and would remain directly 
under the Command Headquarters. 

(e) Leave the Eastern Ontario Command as it is (after detaching 
the Artillery at Cobourg), but organise the troops therein into the 
' 3rd Division ' (called ' 5th ' in the Inspector-General's Report). The 
' 2nd Cavalry Brigade ' already exists and would remain under the 
Command Headquarters. 

Complete the staff by appointing an ' Officer in charge of Admini- 
stration/ who would have the heads of Services and Departments under 
him, and an ' O.C. Artillery ' and ' O.C. Engineers ' for the Division. 
In course of time separate the Command and Divisional Staffs. Or- 
ganise the administrative services as required. 

Abolish Military District 4 and its Headquarters. 

(/) Treat the Quebec Command similarly to the Western Ontario 
410 



APPENDIX 

Command, forming two Divisions, Nos. 4 and 5, with Headquarters at 
Montreal and Quebec, respectively, and completing the Montreal 
Division for war by the 3rd Infantry Brigade from M.D. No. 2. 

(g) Leave the Maritime Provinces Command as it is, for the present, 
but organise the troops as far as may be as 
6th Division. 
Army Troops. 

The troops of the 6th Division could seldom train together as a 
Division, but attempts should be made to bring them together from 
time to time, and give them the feeling that the formation really 
existed. The D.O.C. M.D. No. 8 might command the N.B. Mobile 
Column and the District, training the I2th Brigade with the former in 
Sussex Camp. 

MOBILISATION 

24. The Imperial Inspector-General next discusses the question of 
mobilisation, and urges early completion of the reserves of horses, 
stores and equipment required on mobilisation, as well as the completion 
of the necessary mobilisation regulations and plans for concentration. 

25. He urges a closer supervision over the ' Service Rolls ' kept by 
Squadron, Battery, Company and Corps Commanders, and recommends 
partial test mobilisations from time to time. 

26. He points out the extreme importance of prompt mobilisation 
and concentration of troops when an emergency arises, and recommends 
the establishment of a ' Railway War Council ' to be charged with 
drawing up the necessary * Time Tables.' 

27. He declares that the number of Staff Officers available for 
working out the necessary mobilisation arrangements is quite in- 
adequate, and urges the early employment of a number of trained and 
selected officers for this purpose. 

28. Nothing but want of funds and the scarcity of trained Staff 
Officers has prevented the Council from carrying out this work already. 
So far as the one Staff Officer available has been able to spare time from 
his other duties, the preliminary arrangements have, already, been 
tentatively framed. But there can be no doubt that this is a matter of 
urgent importance. So soon as ever the general plans take definite 
shape but not, I think, before the Railway War Council should be 
constituted.. 

29. The scarcity of trained Staff Officers constitutes the real 
difficulty of dealing with mobilisation. The attempt to work out 
mobilisation questions without really competent officers is mere waste 
of time. I should recommend the following procedure First, obtain 
from England the two trained General Staff Officers whom the Inspector- 
General states to be required at Headquarters. Name a selected 
Canadian officer to work with them as Administrative Staff Officer, and 

411 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

form the three into a Standing Mobilisation Committee. Then let 
them proceed to frame the mobilisation plans, under the supervision of 
the C.G.S., keeping in constant touch through him with Commands 
and Districts outside Headquarters. Then, as opportunity offers, 
attach to them selected Staff Officers of Commands or Districts, whom 
they should train to carry out and keep up to date the local mobilisation 
work. 

TRAINING 

30. Turning to the subject of training, the Imperial Inspector- 
General considers the standard of training efficiency reached by the 
Permanent Force to be satisfactory, but points out that the peace 
establishment of the various units is not large enough to enable them 
to attain really perfect field efficiency, and, at the same time, properly 
supervise the training and instruction of the Active Militia. 

31. He, therefore, recommends additions to the strength of the 
Royal Canadian Dragoons and Royal Canadian Horse Artillery. As 
you are aware, I have, in my reports, frequently represented this aspect 
of the case and I am persuaded that the other branches of the Per- 
manent Force, the infantry especially, are equally hi need of aug- 
mentation. 

32. Turning to the training of the Active Militia, Sir John French 
appears to have been favourably impressed with the system of training 
of and degree of efficiency reached by the Artillery, so far as he was able 
to see it, but he was struck by the absence of uniformity in the standard 
reached by the other arms. 

33. He thinks that the proper role of cavalry in a country like 
Eastern Canada has not been correctly appreciated by the force itself, 
and hence its training has been on wrong lines inasmuch as ' shock ' 
action is practically impossible in such close country, and cavalry 
would have to act as Mounted Rifles. Their training should, therefore, 
tend towards securing efficiency in this direction. 

34. With this I am entirely in accord. The Militia Council has, 
for the last five years, aimed at training the cavalry upon these lines 
the fact that the cavalry are not given a sword but are armed with rifle 
only should afford sufficient proof of this. 

35. He also finds that squadron officers generally are not sufficiently 
acquainted with their work, and that nothing like enough troop and 
squadron instruction is given. Great care should, he says, be taken in 
the selection of young officers and N.C.O.'s, and they should receive a 
much more extensive preliminary training than now, with constant 
supervision. 

36. He, therefore, strongly recommends that the annual training 
should be increased from twelve to sixteen days for the cavalry, and 
that a definite syllabus of training should be laid down and enforced. 
412 



APPENDIX 

This extension of the period of training was advocated by me for all 
arms of the service in my last annual report, while a syllabus of training, 
such as is recommended, is already laid down and is carried out. 

37. While he was not favourably impressed with what he saw 
of the training methods of the Infantry, yet he remarks that the 
manoeuvring power displayed at the field exercises was better than 
he had expected. 

38. He animadverts strongly upon the excessive attention given 
by the Infantry, especially in City Corps, to ceremonial exercises and 
evolutions. His criticism is, no doubt, just, and I have, at all my 
inspections, consistently discouraged merely ceremonial drill. But 
old habits die hard, and it is natural, as Sir John French himself 
perceives, that the weaker commanding officers should prefer the easy 
road to ceremonial smartness to the hard and less showy work involved 
in attaining service efficiency. 

39. He recommends a revision of the syllabus of training and the 
devotion of more time to company drill and manoeuvre. According to 
the 1910 syllabus of training in camps, only half a day of the whole 
available time is now allotted to battalion ceremonial drill, and the 
same amount to the whole of brigade drill, including ceremonial drill. 
This might, perhaps, be still further reduced, but does not appear 
excessive. It should, perhaps, be added that at only one camp did the 
Inspector-General actually see infantry ceremonial drill in progress, 
and that merely because it happened to be the afternoon allotted for 
that drill. 

40. He lays special stress upon the importance of strict attention 
to company training as the basis of all real efficiency, and points out 
that commanding officers have failed to realise this. I have made 
almost precisely the same criticisms in every one of my annual reports 
upon training. He considers that the instructors at the Infantry 
Schools should devote more attention to tactics and less to ceremonial 
drill than is at present the case. This is perfectly sound, but it requires 
constant supervision to make sure that the instructions on this subject 
are strictly adhered to. 

41. He considers that more telegraph companies of Engineers should 
be raised. I understand that steps in this direction are already in 
progress. 

42. In short, we are already working on the lines which Sir John 
French recommends, and can cordially concur in his proposals. 

CAMP GROUNDS AND DRILL HALLS 

43. The Imperial Inspector-General considers the acquisition and 
establishment of the camp at Petawawa to be the most important step 
yet taken towards efficiency for war. It should be fully utilised, 

413 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

especially as all the other camp grounds seen in use are far too restricted 
in area. 

44. At no camp which he visited in the East did he find sufficient 
ground available for training the troops, but, at the same time, more 
practicable allotment by the camp staff of the training ground which 
did exist was desirable. He lays stress upon the necessity for ample 
rifle range accommodation. 

45. He remarks upon the drawback from which nearly all city corps 
suffer, viz. : that they have no open space available on which to drill 
within easy reach of their drill halls. This has been remarked upon 
in my annual reports. 

46. He most strongly urges that the attendance of city corps in 
camp from time to time is essential, and considers that the fact that 
these corps do not attend camp leaves them behind the rural corps in 
service efficiency. 

47. The acquisition of larger areas for training has always been part 
of the policy of the Militia Council, and should certainly be continued 
in the future, as funds are available. The acquisition of areas in 
Western Canada is now receiving special attention. 

COMMAND AND STAFF 

48. The remarks of the Imperial Inspector-General upon the subject 
of Command and Staff are of a highly important nature. 

49. Discussing, first, the position of the Inspector-General, Canadian 
forces, he is clearly of the opinion that the Inspector-General ought not 
to be, as the present holder of the office is, a member of the Militia 
Council. He considers that the training of the troops has suffered 
thereby. 

50. As you are aware, there were special reasons for giving the 
present holder of the office, myself, a seat upon the Council. There 
will be no difficulty in following Sir John French's advice in future 
appointments. 

51. He recommends that the officers commanding the permanent 
cavalry, artillery, engineers, and infantry, respectively, should act as 
inspectors of those arms in the militia, and ' should be entirely under the 
orders of the Inspector-General.' 

52. While I agree that technical inspection of the infantry would be 
an advantage, I should regard it as impossible for one officer to inspect 
all infantry corps two, at least, would be required. I also consider 
that, as now, inspectors are required for each branch of the artillery, 
horse and field, heavy and fortress artillery respectively. And I 
confess that I do not see how the officers commanding the several 
permanent corps can be ' entirely under the orders of the Inspector- 
General.' They must, as Commandants of Schools of Instruction and 
414 



APPENDIX 

organised units, be principally under the orders of the Officers Com- 
manding Commands and Districts. 

53. He found but little opportunity of testing the abilities of the 
higher officers in the duties of command, and, while saying that efficient 
commanders are essential, expresses a very guarded opinion as to their 
fitness for the higher commands which he recommends. 

54. He comments upon the absence, in two cases, of the brigadier 
concerned and his staff from his inspection of city corps, and considers 
that brigadiers should be held responsible for the efficiency of the units 
under their command. Under present conditions, the brigadier, as a 
rule, attends such inspections voluntarily. To make it obligatory upon 
him to do so, and to hold him responsible for the efficiency of his 
brigade, is mainly a matter of finding money for drill pay and travelling 
allowance. It is no doubt desirable. 

55. As regards staff officers, the Imperial Inspector-General considers 
the officers employed ' to be well selected and to perform their various 
duties in a satisfactory manner/ to be well informed in administrative 
matters, but incomplete in their education as regards general staff 
duties. He recommends their being given special instruction in these 
duties this last is already being partially done, and the system should 
be further extended. 

56. He comments severely upon the ignorance of those critics 
in the public press who consider the number of officers employed 
on the staff to be too great. In his opinion a large and sufficiently 
trained body of staff officers is indispensable, and he says that, 
at present, ' the Militia staff is numerically inadequate for the amount 
of work required to be done and that the efficient staff officer is 
underpaid.' 

57. I concur in the whole of these comments. In another part of 
his report he remarks that ' the staff at present maintained at head- 
quarters and in the commands appears to me absurdly inadequate.' As 
already seen, he has recommended an addition to the present staff of 
probably ten officers for mobilisation purposes alone. The divisional 
organisation which he has recommended will involve certain further 
additions to the staff. 

58. The Militia Council always has been well aware how largely the 
modern developments of war and military science have increased the 
demands for additional staff officers and for highly trained ones. But 
it has been obliged to cut its coat according to the cloth the supply 
of qualified staff officers was limited, funds were limited, and it was not 
thought desirable to draw upon the British Army for all the staff 
officers which were required, but rather to try and develop existing 
material in the permanent staff and force. 

59. With the strongly expressed views of Sir John French before 
the public, it is to be hoped that the additions to the staff which he 

415 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

recommends may be concurred in and provided for by Parliament in the 
Annual Estimates at an early date. 

60. But it must be clearly understood that General Staff duties and 
mobilisation preparations demand highly trained and experienced Staff 
Officers. Every qualified Staff Officer belonging to the Dominion forces 
is already employed at staff work. And, until more are trained, the' 
additional Staff Officers can only come from the Imperial Army. I 
estimate that, to fulfil the Imperial Inspector-General's recommenda- 
tions 15 additional General Staff Officers (2 at Headquarters for mobilisa- 
tion, i for each Command, 3 for Western Canada and I for each Division) , 
and 7 additional Administrative Staff Officers (i D. A.G. at Headquarters 
for mobilisation and i D.A.A. and Q.M.G. for each Division), will 
eventually be required. The developments of the staff will of necessity 
take time, and, meanwhile, additional Canadian officers are being 
trained at the Staff College. How most effectually to expand the staff 
and obtain the officers needed will be best left to be dealt with by the 
new Chief of the General Staff. Personally, I should recommend the 
importation of two or three officers and a wide extension of the system 
of Militia Staff Courses, with advanced instructions to those officers who 
show special ability. 

ROYAL MILITARY COLLEGE 

61. Sir John French was very favourably impressed with the Royal 
Military College at Kingston. 

His main criticisms are Lack of dormitory accommodation suffi- 
cient to give each cadet a room to himself, a much needed improve- 
ment Lack of a good Reading-Room Lack of a covered Riding- 
School and covered Skating-Rink. 

62. His recommendations are 

(1) That either the Inspector-General or the Chief of the General 
Staff should always be a member of the Board of Visitors. 

(2) That, in the Military History Course, some special campaign 
should be studied each year. 

(3) That the graduates of the College should be called upon to repay 
the country some portion of the money spent upon their education, by 
serving for a term of years in some Active Militia unit after graduation. 

(4) That the defects above mentioned should be rectified ; and 
lastly 

(5) That the number of Cadets received at the College should be 
largely increased. 

63. Of these recommendations, the third is already being carried 
out ; the first and second can easily be adopted ; while the remainder 
are concurred in, but must depend upon the money provided in Esti- 
mates for building purposes. 

416 



APPENDIX 



REGIMENTAL OFFICERS 

64. The remarks which the Imperial Inspector-General makes on the 
subject of regimental officers may be summarised as follows : 

(a) As regards Commanding Officers, he considers that, provided 
the tests prescribed by regulation are strictly enforced, their qualifica- 
tions ought to be sufficient. But he gathers that these are not always 
enforced. And he notices that Commanding Officers do not enough 
realise the supreme importance of thorough squadron and company 
training, and do not appear competent themselves to supervise such 
training by Squadron and Company Commanders. 

(b) As regards Squadron, Battery, and Company Commanders, he 
considers that there is generally much room for improvement. They 
often do not know how to teach their men, and they do not inculcate 
or maintain discipline. He thinks that here too the tests must have 
been relaxed. 

65. Practically the points here raised are the same, viz., the failure 
to enforce the tests laid down by regulation. This charge is largely 
true. I have several times pointed out the danger of allowing the 
examination standards to be relaxed, especially in Provisional Schools. 
The reply given to me has been that, if they were enforced, nine out 
of every ten officers would fail at the examination, because the length 
of course they were prepared to undergo was too short for them to 
learn all that the regulation standard required. To which the answer, 
of course, is ' Then let them fail ; only in that way can they find out 
how much there is to learn/ 

66. Undoubtedly our critic is right, and qualification tests ought 
to be strictly enforced. The remedy appears to be simple. 



NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND MEN 

67. Scarcely less importance is attached by the Imperial Inspector- 
General to the selection and qualification of N.C.O.'s, in whom he has 
observed many deficiencies. He recommends great care in selection 
and every assistance as regards instruction. The Council have long 
been fully alive to the importance of the non-commissioned ranks and 
the necessity for better qualified N.C.O.'s. But it is a question fraught 
with many difficulties, and the solution has not yet been found. 

68. He was, on the whole, favourably impressed with the men in the 
ranks. His only recommendation is that the fulfilment of the three 
years' term of engagement should be insisted upon. This question is 
also one of some difficulty. I am inclined to think that, after fair 
warning being given, judicious enforcement of the law would have a 
good effect. 

OVERSEAS I. 2 D 417 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

HORSE SUPPLY 

69. The Inspector-General discusses the question of the supply of 
horses required for war, and finds that satisfactory arrangements for it 
do not exist. He points out that, within three months of the outbreak 
of a war, 33,000 remounts would be needed. 

70. He recommends, to deal with the matter, the appointment of an 
Assistant Director of Remounts, with a suitable inspection and Veteri- 
nary Staff, whose duties he enumerates. He also suggests a small 
permanent remount depot to supply the needs of the Permanent Force. 

71. He does not specify the number of officers whom he would 
recommend to assist the Assistant Director of Remounts, but I should 
think that four officers, one each for Ontario, Quebec, the Maritime 
Provinces and the North- West, would be sufficient in the first instance. 
But I agree in the advisability of the step. The officers appointed 
might be Veterinary Officers, but should be very carefully selected, as 
they would need to be men of general experience as well. 

ARMAMENT 

72. As regards armament, Sir John French appears to consider the 
armament now in use, and under order, to be suitable. He doubts, 
however, whether the nature of the country offers sufficient scope for 
the number of heavy batteries we possess, and is in favour rather of the 
provision of a full proportion of howitzers. He notes the need for field 
telephones with field artillery. He considers the reserves of both gun 
and small ammunition to be insufficient, and recommends additions to 
both. The Council are aware of this requirement, and will, no doubt, 
add to the reserves so soon as finances permit. 

73. He considers that the final settlement of the armament of the 
cavalry requires an early decision. I have always failed to understand 
why it has been so long delayed. 

ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES 

74. He was favourably impressed with the Administrative Services, 
and has no proposals to make in regard to them. 

FORTRESSES 

75. He was satisfied with the defence works at Halifax, but con- 
sidered that the arrangements for land defence had not been sufficiently 
worked out, and that not enough infantry is allotted to the defence. 
He also doubts whether mobilisation arrangements are as complete as 
they should be, especially as regards engineers. 

76. Upon both points he is probably right, though it may be re- 
marked that the infantry garrison is now more numerous than during 
the Imperial regime. The point will, no doubt, engage the attention of 
the Chief of the General Staff. It is, perhaps, worth while remarking 
418 



! 



APPENDIX 

that the Halifax Defence Scheme is submitted yearly to the Colonial 
Defence Committee in London, and that their comments thereon do not 
seem to show that they regard the land defence as insufficiently pro- 
vided for. 

SCHOOLS OF INSTRUCTION AND MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS 

77. Under the heading of Schools of Instruction he considers that 
the instruction is given too much by old-fashioned methods, that too 
much ceremonial is taught, and that more might be done in the way of 
tactical instruction. This is quite realised at Headquarters, and that 
more has not been done is due solely to the paucity of supervising 
officers. 

78. As regard Manufacturing Establishments, his opinion appears 
generally favourable. The point which he mentions in regard to the 
manufacture of bayonets has already been taken up. 

WESTERN CANADA 

79. Part II. of the report is devoted to Western Canada. Recognis- 
ing that its development is recent, has been very rapid, and is still going 
on, the Inspector-General feels himself unable to report on it in detail, 
but remarks generally that, while the existing forces are very small in 
proportion, the direction which the organisation of the military forces 
generally is taking appears sound. 

80. He remarks upon the two camps of instruction which he visited 
in the west. While criticising many shortcomings in their work, he 
was struck by the aptitude of both officers and men. 

81. He repeats his recommendations that cavalry training should be 
extended to sixteen days, and that the horse supply question should be 
studied, and strongly advises the acquisition of a training ground in the 
west like that at Petawawa. This has, I understand, already been 
arranged. 

SUMMARY 

82. Part III. of the report is a summary in which he again urges the 
importance of a sound peace organisation and staff system, competent 
commanders, and enforcement of regulations, especially as regards 
insisting on the fulfilment of the full term of engagement, and he repeats 
that in these respects that our system fails. 

83. From the foregoing remarks it will be seen that there are no 
proposals contained in Sir John French's report the adoption of which 
would involve any departure in principle from the policy which, under 
your direction, the Militia Council has pursued since its inception in 
1904. 

84. As has been shown, the most important of those proposals, the 

419 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

recommendations on the subject of organisation, contemplate not a 
change of system, but a development such as naturally follows from the 
lines upon which our present organisation is framed indeed, one which 
was contemplated when that organisation was decided upon. 

85. Similarly, the recommendations regarding mobilisation merely 
urge the early completion of measures and plans already in progress, 
viz. : the acquisition of the necessary reserves of material and the 
elaboration of the plans and arrangements for placing the Militia force 
upon a field service footing when the emergency arises. The constitu- 
tion of a Railway War Council is a step entirely in harmony with this 
policy.. 

86. As in the case of organisation, so, in the matter of command 
and staff, the Imperial Inspector-General's proposals involve no change 
of principle. The Canadian system of command and staff is based upon 
the Imperial one, and merely differs from it in that we have not yet 
reached the same stage of development, and that our number of staff 
officers is decidedly smaller. But the staff duties are conducted upon 
just the same lines. Indeed, at the Imperial Conferences of 1907 and 
1909 the Dominion Government pledged itself to adopt the Imperial 
system of both organisation and staff duties, and has been steadily 
working to this end ; only conditions of finance and lack of trained 
personnel have delayed more rapid progress. 

87. It is these considerations of expense and of the supply of trained 
staff officers which still, as pointed out in the body of my memorandum, 
govern the question of how far Sir John French's main recommenda- 
tions, i.e. those connected with organisation, mobilisation, command 
and staff, can at once be carried into effect. 

88. Of his other recommendations, those regarding the question of 
horse supply, the acquisition of satisfactory training areas and the 
expansion of the Royal Military College also involve material expendi- 
ture, and of these the first named is almost inseparably connected with 
the subject of mobilisation. 

89. In all these cases the extent to which progress in carrying out 
his recommendations can be made, and the period which must elapse 
before they can become effective, depend entirely upon how far Parlia- 
ment is prepared to provide for the expenditure necessary. 

90. His recommendations under the headings of Training, Supply 
and Qualifications of Regimental Officers, N.C. Officers and Men, and 
Schools of Instruction are all matters mainly of administration, upon 
which his valuable suggestions can at once be adopted and put into 
effect. 

91. That the adoption of his recommendations will lead to greatly 
increased efficiency cannot be doubted. 

PERCY LAKE, Major-General, 

September 14, 1910. Inspector-General. 

420 



APPENDIX 






PAPERS LAID BEFORE THE IMPERIAL CONFER- 
ENCE, 1911: NAVAL AND MILITARY DEFENCE 1 * [Parlia- 
mentary 
Papers, 
No. I 1911 

MEMORANDUM OF CONFERENCES BETWEEN THE BRITISH d - 5745- 
ADMIRALTY AND REPRESENTATIVES OF THE DOM- 
INION OF CANADA AND THE COMMONWEALTH OF 
AUSTRALIA 

The naval services and forces of the Dominions of Canada and 
Australia will be exclusively under the control of their respective 
Governments. 

2. The training and discipline of the naval forces of the Dominions 
will be'generally uniform with the training and discipline of the fleet 
of the United Kingdom, and, by arrangement, officers and men of the 
said forces will be interchangeable with those under the control of the 
British Admiralty. 

3. The ships of each Dominion naval force will hoist at the stern the 
white ensign as the symbol of the authority of the Crown, and at the 
jack-staff the distinctive flag of the Dominion. 

4. The Canadian and Australian Governments will have their own 
naval stations as agreed upon and from time to time. The limits of the 
stations are as described in Schedule (A), Canada, and Schedule (B), 
Australia. 

5. In the event of the Canadian or Australian Government desiring 
to send ships to a part of the British Empire outside of their own 
respective stations, they will notify the British Admiralty. 

6. In the event of the Canadian or Australian Government desiring 
to send ships to a foreign port, they will obtain the concurrence of the 
Imperial Government, in order that the necessary arrangements with 
the Foreign Office may be made, as in the case of ships of the British 
fleet, in such time and manner as is usual between the British Admiralty 
and the Foreign Office. 

7. While the ships of the Dominions are at a foreign port a report of 
their proceedings will be forwarded by the officer in command to the 
Commander-in-Chief on the station or to the British Admiralty. The 

421 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

officer in command of a Dominion ship so long as he remains in the 
foreign port will obey any instructions he may receive from the 
Government of the United Kingdom as to the conduct of any 
international matters that may arise, the Dominion Government 
being informed. 

8. The Commanding Officer of a Dominion ship having to put into a 
foreign port without previous arrangement on account of stress of 
weather, damage, or any unforeseen emergency will report his arrival 
and reason for calling to the Commander-in-Chief of the station or to 
the Admiralty, and will obey, so long as he remains in the foreign port, 
any instructions he may receive from the Government of the United 
Kingdom as to his relations with the authorities, the Dominion Govern- 
ment being informed. 

9. When a ship of the British Admiralty meets a ship of the Dom- 
inions, the senior officer will have the right of command in matters of 
ceremony or international intercourse, or where united action is agreed 
upon, but will have no power to direct the movements of ships of the 
other service unless the ships are ordered to co-operate by mutual 
arrangement. 

10. In foreign ports the senior officer will take command, but not so 
as to interfere with the orders that the junior may have received from 
his own Government. 

11. When a court-martial has to be ordered by a Dominion and a 
sufficient number of officers are not available in the Dominion service 
at the time, the British Admiralty, if requested, will make the necessary 
arrangements to enable a Court to be formed. Provision will be made 
by order of His Majesty in Council and by the Dominion Governments 
respectively to. define the conditions under which officers of the different 
services are to sit on joint courts-martial. 

12. The British Admiralty undertakes to lend to the Dominions 
during the period of development of their services, under conditions to 
be agreed upon, such flag officer and other officers and men as may be 
needed. In their selection preference will be given to officers and men 
coming from, or connected with, the Dominions, but they should all be 
volunteers for the service. 

13. The service of officers of the British fleet in the Dominion naval 
forces, or of officers of these forces in the British fleet, will count in all 
respects for promotion, pay, retirement, etc., as service in their re- 
spective forces. 

14. In order to determine all questions of seniority that may arise, 
the names of all officers will be shown in the Navy List and their 
seniority determined by the date of their commissions, whichever is the 
earlier, in the British, Canadian, or Australian Services. 

15. It is desirable, in the interests of efficiency and co-operation, 
that arrangements should be made from time to time between the 
422 



APPENDIX 

British Admiralty and the Dominions for the ships of the Dominions to 
take part in fleet exercises or for any other joint training considered 
necessary under the Senior Naval Officer. While so employed, the 
ships will be under the command of that officer, who would not, how- 
ever, interfere in the internal economy of ships of another service 
further than absolutely necessary. 

16. In time of war, when the naval service of a Dominion, or any 
part thereof, has been put at the disposal of the Imperial Government 
by the Dominion authorities, the ships will form an integral part of the 
British fleet, and will remain under the control of the British Admiralty 
during the continuance of the war. 

17. The Dominions having applied to their naval forces the King's 
Regulations and Admiralty Instructions and the Naval Discipline Act, 
the British Admiralty and Dominion Governments will communicate 
to each other any changes which they propose to make in those Regula- 
tions or that Act. 



June 1911. 



SCHEDULE (A) 

CANADA 



The Canadian Atlantic Station will include the waters north of 3O C 
north latitude and west of the meridian of 40 west longitude. 

The Canadian Pacific Station will include the waters north of 30 
north latitude and east of the meridian of 180 longitude. 



SCHEDULE (B) 

AUSTRALIA 

The Australian Naval Station will include 

' On the North. From 95 east longitude by the parallel of 13 south 
latitude to 120 east longitude, thence north to 11 south latitude, 
thence to the boundary with Dutch New Guinea on the south coast in 
about longitude 141 east, thence along the coast of British New Guinea 
to the boundary with German New Guinea in latitude 8 south, thence 
east to 155 east longitude. 

On the East. By the meridian of 155 east longitude to 15 south 
latitude, thence to 28 south latitude on the meridian of 170 east 
longitude, thence south to 32 south latitude, thence west to the 
meridian of 160 east longitude, thence south. 

On the South. By the Antarctic Circle. 

On the West. By the meridian of 95 east longitude. 



4*3 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [jd 

No, II 

REPORT OF A COMMITTEE OF THE IMPERIAL CONFER- 
ENCE CONVENED TO DISCUSS DEFENCE (MILITARY) 
AT THE WAR OFFICE 

JUNE 14 AND JUNE 17, 1911 

Chairman : 
General Sir William Nicholson, Chief of the Imperial General Staff. 

Members : 

Brigadier-General H. H. Wilson, C.B., D.S.O., Director of Military 
Operations. 

Brigadier-General L. E. Kiggell, C.B., Director of Staff Duties. 

Major-General A. J. Murray, C.B., C.V.O., D.S.O., Director of 
Military Training. Colonel J. Adye, C.B., General Staff. Colonel 
W. H. Bowes, General Staff. 

Dominion of Canada. 

The Honourable Sir F. W. Borden, K.C.M.G., Minister of Militia 

and Defence. 
Major-General C. J. Mackenzie, C.B., Chief of the General Staff, 

Dominion of Canada. 
Colonel S. Hughes, M.P., Railway Intelligence Officer. 

Commonwealth of Australia. 

The Honourable G. F. Pearce, Minister of Defence. 
Commander S. A. Pethebridge, Secretary to the Department of 
Defence. 

Dominion of New Zealand. 

The Honourable J. G. Findlay, K.C., LL.D., Attorney-General and 
Minister of Justice. 

Union of South Africa. 

The Honourable F. S. Malan, Minister of Education. 

A Committee constituted as above appointed to consider various 
subjects in connection with the Military Defence of the Empire met at 
the War Office on Wednesday, I4th June, and Saturday, I7th June, 
when the following matters were considered and conclusions arrived 
at: 

(A.) THE CO-OPERATION OF THE MILITARY FORCES OF THE 

EMPIRE 

The Committee agreed that, in view of the fact that the representa- 
tives of the self-governing Dominions at the Imperial Defence Con- 
424 



APPENDIX 

ference of 1909 signified their general concurrence in the proposition 
' That each part of the Empire is willing to make its preparations on 
such lines as will enable it, should it so desire, to take its share in the 
general defence of the Empire/ the arrangements required to facilitate 
the co-operation of the military forces of the Empire fall within the 
scope of the duties of the local sections of the Imperial General Staff 
working under the orders of their respective Governments and in com- 
munication with the central section at the War Office, on which the 
Dominions will be represented. 



(B.) THE PROGRESS OF IMPERIAL GENERAL STAFF AND THE 
DEVELOPMENT OF ITS FUNCTIONS 

The following statement, showing the progress that has been made, 
was laid before the Committee by the Chief of the Imperial General 
Staff : 

The need for a General Staff ' selected from the forces of the Empire 
as a whole ' was affirmed by the Imperial Conference which met in 
London in 1907, and it was then decided that the Chief of the General 
Staff should put forward definite proposals to give effect to the re- 
solutions of the Conference on this subject. 

Accordingly, proposals were put forward through the Colonial 
Office to the Governments of the self-governing Dominions in December 
I908. 1 i [See pp. 

These proposals were generally accepted by the Governments 348-63.] 
concerned early in the following year, and the actual formation of an 
Imperial General Staff was then taken in hand. The Imperial General 
Staff has therefore been scarcely two years in existence. In such a 
short period it would not be reasonable to look for very great progress. 
The General Staff of the German Army in its present form had been in 
existence for over half a century before its value was proved to the 
world in 1866 and 1870. The General Staff of the Japanese Army was 
over twenty-five years old before the recent campaign in Manchuria 
began. 

Although the General Staff of the Regular Army had only been in 
existence, under that name, a little over three years when its develop- 
ment into an Imperial General Staff was decided on, a Staff, which 
included in its duties a good deal of what is now known as General 
Staff work, had been in existence for centuries ; the Staff College had 
been established for over half a century ; and a large number of ex- 
perienced Staff officers were available to take up the duties of the new 
formation. 

Notwithstanding its extreme youth in its present form/it may fairly 
be claimed that considerable progress has been made by the Imperial 

425 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

General Staff in its two years of existence, as will be seen from the 
following short account of what has been done. 

As soon as the formation of the Imperial General Staff was seriously 
taken in hand, it was found that more definite agreement on various 
points was required, and accordingly a paper on the detailed arrange- 
ment of loans, attachments, and interchanges of and between officers 
of the Regular Army and officers of the forces of the Oversea Dominions, 
was drawn up under the orders of the Chief of the Imperial General 
Staff in 1910, and was forwarded through the Colonial Office for the 
consideration of the various Governments concerned. The proposals 
contained in that paper have been accepted in principle by Canada and 
New Zealand. Australia has not yet replied, and the Government of 
the Union of South Africa have stated that they are not in a position to 
enter into any engagement at present. 

Formation and Organisation of Local Sections of the Imperial 
General Staff in each Dominion 

CANADA 

A Canadian Section of the Imperial General Staff is in process of 
formation, and is being evolved from the existing Canadian General 
Staff in accordance with a proposal put forward by the Department of 
Militia and Defence in 1909. The following officers may perhaps be 
regarded as constituting the Canadian Section of the Imperial General 
Staff, so far as its formation has gone : 

Chief of the General Staff and ist Military Member of the Militia 
Council (Major-General, General Staff) 
Major-General C. J. Mackenzie, C.B. 

Director of Operations and Staff Duties (General Staff Officer, 2nd 
Grade) 

Major G. Paley. 

Commandant, Royal Military College, Kingston (General Staff 
Officer, ist Grade) 

Lieutenant-Colonel J. H. V. Crowe. 

Professors, Royal Military College, Kingston (General Staff Officers, 
2nd Grade) 

Major T. B. Wood. 
Captain W. Robertson. 

A request has lately been received for 6 more General Staff Officers 
to be sent to Canada to be employed as follows : 

I General Staff Officer, ist Grade, for Mobilisation duties at Militia 
Headquarters. 

426 



APPENDIX 

4 General Staff Officers, 2nd Grade, for duty with Divisions in 

Eastern Canada, 
i General Staff Officer, 2nd Grade, for dutytin the Districts of 

Western Canada. 

AUSTRALIA 

The Commonwealth Section of the Imperial General Staff was 
organised in August 1909, and is now constituted as follows : 

HEADQUARTERS 

Chief of the General Staff and Chief of the Commonwealth Section, 
Imperial General Staff 

Major-General J. C. Hoad, C.M.G. 

Director of Defence Organisation 

(This position has not yet been filled.) 

Director .of Military Training 

Major F. A. Wilson, D.S.O. (an Imperial Exchange Officer 
replacing Captain C. B. B. White, Commonwealth 
Forces, who is attached to the War Office as General 
Staff Officer, 3rd Grade). 

Director of Intelligence 

Colonel the Hon. J. W. McCay, V.D. 

The duties allotted to each branch as follows : 

COMMONWEALTH SECTION OF THE IMPERIAL GENERAL STAFF. AT 

HEADQUARTERS 

CHIEF OF THE COMMONWEALTH SECTION, IMPERIAL GENERAL 

STAFF 

Organisation for war. Plans of concentration for war. Intelligence 
concerning the Commonwealth. Preparation and maintenance of 
Defence Scheme. 

Training and instruction. Supervision and inspection of training 
at camps, manoeuvres, etc. Education and examination for promotion 
of officers. Recommendation for appointment to and promotion of 
officers of Commonwealth Section of the Imperial General Staff. 

Field operations and promulgation of operation orders. Schemes 
for manoeuvres and Staff rides. Drill books and training manuals. 
General Staff libraries. Preparation of maps. 

Advice upon raising and disbanding of units. Censorship in time of 
war. 

DIRECTOR OF DEFENCE ORGANISATION 

Organisation and plans of concentration for war. Defence Schemes 
for the Commonwealth. Strategical and Tactical Reconnaissances. 

427 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

DIRECTOR OF MILITARY TRAINING 

Training and instruction of all arms. Education and examination 
for promotion of ^officers. Arrangement of classes of instruction. 
Conduct of examination of officers for Staff College, and for appoint- 
ment to permanent forces. 

Schemes for manoeuvres and staff rides. Drill books and training 
manuals. 

Advice upon the acquisition of training grounds and ranges. 

Advice upon the allotment of funds for training and manoeuvres. 

DIRECTOR OF INTELLIGENCE 

Intelligence. Preparation and issue of maps. Headquarters 
Library. 

IN DISTRICTS 

Officers of the Commonwealth Section of the Imperial General Staff 
will, under the respective commandants, carry out the duties in districts 
corresponding to those laid down for the Commonwealth Section of the 
Imperial General Staff at Headquarters. 

NEW ZEALAND 

The Dominion Section of the Imperial General Staff was organised 
in December 1910 as follows : 

DOMINION SECTION OF THE IMPERIAL GENERAL STAFF 

Director of Military Training and Staff Duties 

Lieutenant-Colonel E. S. Heard, p.s.c., Imperial General Staff. 

Attached to the General Staff 

Captain H. H. Browne (Mounted Services). 
Captain G. S. Richardson (Garrison and Field Artillery Services). 
Captain J. E. Duigan (Engineer Services). 
(An additional officer to be appointed.) 

Director of Military Operations and Intelligence 

Lieutenant-Colonel J. T. Burnett-Stuart, D.S.O., p.s.c., Im- 
perial General Staff. 

Attached to the General Staff 

(An officer to be appointed.) 

Major-General A. J. Godley, C.B., combines the functions of 
Chief of the local section of the Imperial General Staff with 
his forces as Commandant of the Defence Forces. 

The New Zealand Government have applied for the services of four 
more General Officers, who will shortly proceed to take up their appoint- 
ments as 3rd Grade General Staff Officers in districts. 
428 






APPENDIX 



. SOUTH AFRICA 

When the various self-governing South African Colonies received 
the Imperial General Staff Memorandum early in 1909 they were unable 
to enter into any engagement in view of the great impending political 
change. 

The Governor-General of South Africa has now transmitted a 
Minute from the Union Government of South Africa acknowledging 
receipt of the Memorandum on Loans, Attachments, and Interchanges, 
and stating that they are not yet in a position to gauge what will be the 
actual requirements of the Union Defence Forces. 

NECESSITY FOR HAVING ONE SUPREME HEAD TO THE IMPERIAL 
GENERAL STAFF 

This necessity was recognised and the Chief of the General Staff 
became the Chief of the Imperial General Staff. His change of title was 
effected in November 1909. 

SUBJECTS WITH WHICH LOCAL SECTIONS OF THE IMPERIAL 
GENERAL STAFF SHOULD DEAL 

It was recommended in the Imperial General Staff Memorandum, 
dated the jth December 1908, that these sections should deal with : 

1. Local defence. 

2. The training of troops on lines similar to those now followed for 

the United Kingdom by the Training Directorate at the War 

Office. 

These subjects are now being dealt with by the Commonwealth 
section of the Imperial General Staff in Australia, and by the Canadian 
General Staff, Canada. The New Zealand section of the Imperial 
General Staff has had little time to do more than organise the new 
formation and arrange the allotment of duties ; but these are already 
well in hand, and some progress has been made in the direction of 
training officers and non-commissioned officers. 

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CHIEF OF THE IMPERIAL GENERAL STAFF 
AND THE CHIEFS OF LOCAL SECTIONS, AND THE BEST METHOD OF 
KEEPING TOUCH BETWEEN THEM 

So far as is practicable at this stage of the development of the 
Imperial General Staff, efforts have been made to apply the principles 
recommended in the Memorandum of the 7th December 1908. There 
are difficulties, however, in establishing that close connection which, 
without interfering with complete local control, will still enable the 
central section to indicate what are the correct general principles in 

429 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

purely military matters and assist local sections in obtaining such advice 
as they may need. In fact, the necessity for some personal intercourse 
between central and local sections has been felt. 

With a view to meeting this requirement the Chief of the Imperial 
General Staff is now in touch with the chiefs of local sections by means 
of a direct system of semi-official correspondence on subjects, such as 
routine and training, on which direct correspondence has been approved 
by the Governments concerned. But it would appear that the further 
development which is so essential must be largely dependent upon the 
formation at Headquarters of a Dominion section on the lines suggested 
in the Memorandum of the 3ist August 1910, on the subject of Loans, 
Attachments, and Interchanges. 

Appendix (A) 1 shows the extent to which the principle of loans, 
attachments, and interchanges of officers has been carried out in recent 
years. 

Appendix (B) shows the officers belonging to the self-governing 
Dominions who have undergone a course at the Staff College. 

From these Appendices it will be seen that progress is being made 
towards providing for future requirements of the central and local 
sections of the Imperial General Staff. 

CONCLUSION 

The Committee accept this statement, and desire to express their 
satisfaction at the progress that has been made. 

(C.) EXAMINATIONS FOR THE PROMOTION OF OFFICERS OF THE 
PERMANENT FORCES OF THE DOMINIONS 

The following Memorandum by the General Staff was laid before the 
Committee : 

A short history of how the Overseas Dominions have gradually 
adopted, for officers of their permanent military forces, the same ex- 
aminations for promotion as those laid down for Officers of the British 
Regular Army, is set forth hereunder. 

In order to show the progress that has been made in those examina- 
tions since their adoption, a table of results is attached, Appendix (C) . 
For the purposes of comparison, this table also includes the results of 
the examination of officers of the British Regular Army. 

CANADA 

2. On the loth September 1903, a despatch was received from the 
Governor-General of the Dominion of Canada on the subject of the 

1 Interchanges between the forces of the self-governing Dominions, of which the 
War Office has no cognisance, are not included in this Appendix. 

430 



APPENDIX 

examination of officers of the Permanent Forces for promotion. In it , 
Lord Dundonald expressed a desire that Officers of the Permanent 
Forces of Canada should undergo the same examinations for promotion, 
and at the same time, as those laid down for Officers of the British 
Regular Army. 

This request was agreed to, and papers were forwarded on the I4th 
October 1903. 

At this time the examinations of lieutenants and captains were 
almost entirely theoretical. 

1904. The syllabuses for the examination of officers of the British 
Regular Army, which had undergone revision and assumed their 
present lines, came into operation. 

Canada adopted this revise. 

1905. At the request of the Government of the Dominion of Canada, 
arrangements were made for the candidates' answers to the papers of 
questions sent out for use at the May examination, to be sent home for 
correction by examiners employed by the War Office, Canada bearing 
the extra expense involved thereby. 

On the 8th May 1905, Canada informed the War Office that the 
Board of Examiners (Canada) had been authorised to substitute for any 
question in the examination papers that did not come within the scope 
of the knowledge of an officer of the Canadian Permanent Force a 
question similar in meaning and extent, but which might fairly be said 
to come within that scope. A copy of substituted questions, together 
with the necessary books and a reference to where the correct answers 
were to be found, to be forwarded to the War Office with the candidates' 
work. 

1907. At the request of the Chief of the General Staff, Canadian 
Militia, alternative questions were set by War Office Examiners in the 
paper on Military Law, (d) (ii.). Substituted questions on papers 
dealing with Organisation, Administration, etc., were still being set by 
the Board of Examiners, Canada. 

This latter arrangement did not work very well. 

1909. This was pointed out in a letter to Canada, forwarded through 
the Colonial Office, dated I2th August 1909. It was suggested that 
any substituted questions in a paper (other than Organisation and 
Administration) set by the Board of Examiners in Canada should be 
marked by them and the results forwarded to the War Office for com- 
pilation with the results in other subjects. It was also suggested that 
the paper on Organisation and Administration, (d) (iii.), and Army 
Medical Organisation in Peace and War should be set entirely by the 
Canadian military authorities, in which case those two papers would no 
longer be sent out from War Office for the use of officers of the Canadian 
Permanent Forces. 

In the reply, Canada requested that the system of setting and mark- 

43i 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

ing examination papers should be given a further trial in December 
1909. 

On the I4th October 1909, the Canadian authorities were informed 
through the Colonial Office that the Army Council were willing to give 
the system a further trial. 

It was pointed out, however, that 

(i.) It was impossible to conduct satisfactorily the examination in 
Organisation and Interior Economy laid down for officers of 
the (British) regular army when applied to officers of the 
Canadian Permanent Forces. 

The subjects and subheads referred to were subhead (iii.) 
of subject (d) Organisation and Administration, subject (h) 
Lieutenants, RA.M.C., Organisation, Administration, and 
Interior Economy of the Royal Army Medical Corps, subject 
(i.), Lieutenants A.V.C., Organisation, Administration, and 
Interior Economy of the Army Veterinary Corps. 

Army Medical Organisation in Peace and War Majors of 
the Royal Army Medical Corps. 

(2.) The War Office Examiners had repeatedly represented their 
inability to deal satisfactorily with answers to such questions 
written by Canadian officers. 

It was suggested that the Army Council would undertake the ex- 
amination of officers of the Canadian Permanent Forces in all written 
subjects and subheads, except those mentioned above. The papers 
were to be identically the same as used for officers of the British Regular 
Army, with alternative questions in Military Law, (d) (ii.). 

The papers enumerated above to be set entirely by the Canadian 
Militia Council. Specimen papers in these subjects set by the War 
Office were to be sent out to Canada (as soon as printed) for the purpose 
only of indicating the standard which it is considered desirable to 
maintain. 

The result of the examination in those subjects, with the remarks of 
the Examiners, to be sent home for compilation in the report on the 
examination published by the War Office. 

It was considered that, if the above method was adopted, the 
necessity of Canadian military authorities setting alternative questions 
would be avoided. 

Canada agreed to those proposals coming into operation after the 
December 1909 examination. 

Another point arose in December 1909 with reference to the Army 
Service Corps papers in subject (g), owing to the War Office examiner 
not being familiar with local conditions in Canada ; but this was sub- 
sequently arranged by sending out the papers confidentially some time 
beforehand, and allowing the military authorities of Canada to sub- 
stitute questions for any not considered suitable for officers of the 
432 



APPENDIX 

permanent force, employing their own examiner to set and correct the 
questions so substituted, and forwarding the marks allotted to the War 
Office. 

This arrangement is working satisfactorily. 

1910. For the December 1910 examination the Canadian" military 
authorities adopted the examination paper in subhead (d) (iii.) and 
subjects (h) and (i). No candidates took up the two latter papers. 

AUSTRALIA 

3. On the 8th July 1909, a despatch was received from the Governor- 
General of the Commonwealth of Australia, asking if the Army Council 
would be prepared to make the same arrangements for examining the 
officers of the permanent forces of the Commonwealth as were made in 
the case of the Canadian Permanent Forces. The Army Council replied, 
on the 26th July 1909, that they would be very pleased to make similar 
arrangements, but stated that the then existing arrangement by which 
the President of the Canadian Examining Board was empowered to 
substitute questions for any not considered suitable in the papers of 
questions sent out from the War Office was not altogether satisfactory, 
and a new arrangement was under consideration. 

On the 6th October 1909, a letter was forwarded through the 
Colonial Office, stating that the Army Council fully recognised the 
principles underlying the proposals of the Governor-General of the 
Commonwealth of Australia, that the military education of officers of 
the permanent military forces throughout the Empire should be as far 
as possible assimilated. They were prepared to examine officers of the 
permanent forces of Australia in all the written examinations with 
certain exceptions (the conditions mentioned in letter re Canada, 
dated the I4th October 1909, were set forth). 

These conditions were accepted, and the system is working satis- 
factorily. 

NEW ZEALAND 

4. On the 20th October 1910, a despatch was received from the 
High Commissioner for New Zealand asking the Army Council to 
forward papers for the examination of officers of the permanent forces 
of New Zealand. 

The Army Council replied on the 28th October 1910, that they 
would be pleased to forward papers under the same conditions as 
appertained to Australia. 

No officers have yet been examined, but it is anticipated that some 
will attend the examination in May 1911. 

On the I4th December 1910, Colonel Heard, who had taken up his 
appointment as D.M.T. in New Zealand, wrote that, as the Organisation 

OVERSEAS I. 2 E 433 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

of the military forces of that Dominion will be modelled on that in 
England, there was no reason why the officers of the New Zealand 
permanent forces should not take the same paper in (d) (iii.) as officers 
at Home, and asked for reconsideration of decision of the Army Council 
not to set the paper in (d) (iii.). As regards (h) and (i), there were no 
officers of the R.A.M.C. or A.V.C. 

The Army Council replied that they would be pleased to reconsider 
their decision. 

EXAMINATION FOR TACTICAL FITNESS FOR COMMAND IN CANADA, 
AUSTRALIA, AND NEW ZEALAND 

5. In 1910 the examinations for Tactical Fitness for Command 
were revised, for officers serving in the United Kingdom, whereby the 
paper for Examination in Part I., Appendix XII., King's Regulations, 
is now set under arrangements made by the War Office. The offer to 
extend this system to officers serving abroad and to officers of the 
permanent forces of the Oversea Dominions was made, and was well 
responded to in the first examination held in December 1910. 

It may be added here that the Government of India have also quite 
recently decided to adopt our examinations entirely. 

6. The Remarks of the Director of Military Training in the Report 
on Examinations have of late been considerably amplified. A supply 
of those Reports is made to the Oversea Dominions with a view to 
assisting instructions. 

LOCAL SECTIONS, GENERAL STAFF 

7. Frequent correspondence with a view to attaining uniformity of 
standard takes place between the General Staff at the War Office and 
the local sections of the Imperial General Staff, and the greatest 
harmony prevails. 

The papers themselves are now forwarded direct to the local sections 
of the General Staff in the Oversea Dominions, thereby saving time. 
During the past year officers of the Australian, Canadian, and New 
Zealand forces have been attached to the branch of the General Staff 
under the D.M.T. at the War Office, in order to make themselves 
familiar with the working of the machinery of that Department. 
Colonel Heard, before taking up his appointment as D.M.T. in New 
Zealand, also attended for this purpose. 

Certain changes have been made in the regulations relating to the 
examination of officers for promotion. Those changes have been 
explained to each of the Oversea Dominions by circular letter. 

SUMMARY 

8. From the above, it will be seen that very real effect has been 
given already to the proposals made at the Colonial Conferences of 1907 
434 



APPENDIX 

and 1909, in which it was agreed that the education of officers was the 
bedrock of the formation of the Imperial Organisation. It is hoped that 
the officers of the permanent forces of the Commonwealth of Australia 
will shortly take the paper set in (d) (Hi.) (Organisation, etc.), for officers 
of the British Regular Army, as has already been done in the case of 
officers of the permanent forces of Canada and New Zealand. It may 
then be said that all the Oversea Dominions will have adopted our 
examinations almost in every detail. 

Considering the short time in which this has been brought about, it 
may be considered that very satisfactory progress has been made 
towards uniformity of education of officers throughout the Empire. 



CONCLUSION 

The Committee consider that satisfactory progress has been and is 
being made to give effect to the proposals regarding the education of 
officers throughout the Empire which were agreed to at the Conferences 
of 1907 and 1909 ; and they desire to record their opinion that the 
action taken on these proposals has already resulted in a marked 
improvement in military education. 

(D.) COURSES OF INSTRUCTION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM AND 
INDIA OF OFFICERS OF THE OVERSEA DOMINIONS 

The following Memorandum by the General Staff was laid before 
the Committee : 

As regards the attendance of officers of the Forces of the self-govern- 
ing Dominions at schools of instruction in the United Kingdom, much 
consideration has been given to the question by the War Office. Here- 
tofore the majority of such attachments have been arranged by High 
Commissioners direct with the Commandants of the schools of in- 
struction and General Officers Commanding concerned. This method 
was found to be unsatisfactory. A committee has recently considered 
the whole question of the attachment of officers of the self-governing 
Dominions and Colonies to schools and units of the Regular Army. 

As a result of this Committee's recommendations, it is proposed 
that all applications for the attachment of officers for instruction, etc., 
should be addressed by High Commissioners to the Secretary, War 
Office, in the first instance. The Branch of the War Office concerned 
will then advise upon such attachments and draw up the necessary 
programmes. Arrangements with schools of instruction and commands 
will be made by the War Office, and High Commissioners will be notified 
accordingly. 

On the completion of a course of instruction a report on each officer 

435 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

will be rendered by the War Office to the Government concerned 
through the prescribed channel of correspondence. 

2. As the Government of India have concurred generally in the 
proposals made in the Memorandum on loans, attachments, inter- 
changes, etc., it is presumed that similar arrangements will be made in 
the case of officers of the Dominion Forces sent to India to undergo 
courses of instruction in that country. 

3. With reference to paragraph 9 of the Memorandum on the subject 
of loans, attachments, and interchanges, in order that a suitable pro- 
gramme of work may be drawn up for the instruction of attached or 
interchanged officers of the self-governing Dominions, it is desirable 
that the War Office should be informed as to what duties such officers 
will be required to perform on return to their own countries. To enable 
suitable programmes to be drawn up for each individual, such informa- 
tion should be furnished when the application is submitted for the 
attachment or interchange, in addition to the information specified in 
the above-mentioned paragraph. 

4. It should be borne in mind that in the United Kingdom the year 
is divided into two periods for training purposes. The first period, 
' individual training/ consists of the four winter months, November, 
December, January, and February, and is primarily employed in the 
individual training of all ranks to enable them to take their places in 
their units. Trie second period, ' collective training,' lasts from the ist 
March to the 3ist October. The latter period is devoted to perfecting 
the training of units to enable them to take their places in the higher 
formations of the Army, and to training these formations themselves. 
It commences with squadron, battery, or company training, which is 
followed by training in the next highest formation, and so on until it 
culminates in combined training of all arms in manoeuvres or tactical 
exercises. 

It is therefore recommended that all attachments and interchanges 
should be so arranged as to enable officers to obtain the advantage to be 
derived from a progressive course of training. 

5. In the case of officers of the self-governing Dominions sent home 
on the interchange system, it should be observed that these officers 
temporarily fill definite positions in the Home Army, for which they 
receive certain rates of pay. The duties and responsibilities appertain- 
ing to these positions, whatever they may be, are definitely fixed. It 
is therefore difficult to arrange a suitable programme of instruction for 
them without disorganising to some extent the training of the unit to 
which they are posted on interchange. In the case of attached officers 
this is not the case, as they are supernumerary to the establishment, and 
they can therefore be spared to attend such courses, etc., as may be 
deemed fit, without interfering with the unit to which they may be 
attached. 

436 






APPENDIX 



CONCLUSION 

The Committee consider that the arrangements . made are 
satisfactory. 

(E.) THE TERMS UPON WHICH THE SERVICES OF THE INSPECTOR- 
GENERAL OF THE OVERSEA FORCES COULD BE INVITED IF THE 
DOMINION GOVERNMENTS so DESIRE 

The following Memorandum by the General Staff was laid before the 
Committee : 

In considering arrangements for the inspection of the forces of the 
self-governing Dominions it is understood that such inspections can 
only take place on the invitation of the Governments concerned. 

In the event of the Government of a self-governing Dominion 
desiring that its forces should be inspected, the Army Council will be 
prepared to make the necessary arrangements for the inspection to be 
carried out by the Inspector-General of the Oversea Forces. 

In such cases the duties of the Inspector-General of the Oversea 
Forces will be similar, mutatis mutandis, to those denned in paragraphs 
7 to 10 and 13 of War Office Memorandum, dated 2Oth June 1910, for 
the inspection of those portions of the Empire outside the United 
Kingdom and the limits of the Mediterranean Command, where troops 
under the control of the Home Government are stationed. 

These duties would be as follows : 

He must form a judgment on the efficiency of officers and men, on 
the handling of troops, on the standard and system of training, on the 
suitability of equipment, and generally on all that affects the readiness 
of the forces for war. 

For the proper discharge of his functions it is necessary that he 
should-- 

(a) By means of inspection ascertain whether the training, in- 

struction and preparation for war of the forces of the 
Dominion concerned, as laid down by Regulations, are 
fully carried out in the various commands, and whether a 
uniform standard of efficiency is attained. 

(b) Advise as to changes of regulations bearing on (a). 

(c) Acquaint the Minister of Defence with the state of the forces 

of the Dominion concerned as regards both personnel and 
equipment. 

2. The functions of the Inspector-General of the Oversea Forces 
should be exercised with due regard to the general system of inspection 
applicable to an army, this system as carried out consecutively by 
Regimental Commanders, Commanders of Brigades, General Officers 
Commanding and local Inspectors-General being of a progressive 

437 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

nature. In every case the object of an inspection is to ascertain the 
results achieved by the officer responsible for the efficiency of the unit 
or body of troops concerned. It is the duty of an Inspecting Officer to 
bring omissions and defects to notice, but this should be done without 
fettering the initiative or trenching on the responsibility of the Com- 
manding Officer in regard to the training of his men. 

In addition to the duties enumerated above, the inspection of the 
coast defences of a Dominion will be included in the functions of the 
Inspector-General of the Oversea Forces. 

The Inspector-General of the Oversea Forces would report to the 
Minister of Defence of the Dominion concerned, forwarding a copy of 
his report for the information of the. Army Council. 

Unless specially asked to do so by the Government of a Dominion, 
it would not be the duty of the Inspector-General to deal with questions 
of military policy, war organisations, schemes of local defence, the 
system of education of officers or similar matters, on which the Local 
Headquarters Section of the Imperial General Staff are responsible for 
advising their respective Governments. His opinion on these subjects 
would not, until confirmed by competent authority, commit the War 
Office or His Majesty's Government. 

3. The Chief of the Imperial General Staff being charged by the 
Secretary of State for War with the military defence of the Empire, and 
with the system of military training and with war organisation, so far 
as the forces under the control of the Home Government are concerned, 
it would seem expedient, should the Governments of the Dominions 
require advice on such matters other than that to be obtained from 
their local sections of the Imperial General Staff, that application for 
such advice should be made to the War Office through the approved 
channel. Otherwise divergent views may be expressed and confusion 
may result. 

4. The question of sharing between the Home and Dominion 
Governments the expenses incurred in connection with visits of in- 
spection of the Inspector-General of the Oversea Forces must be con- 
sidered ; and it is suggested that the following proposal would meet the 
case as regards inspections in Dominions in which no forces under the 
control of the Home Government are employed : 

The Home Government to be liable for 

Pay of the Inspector-General of the Oversea Forces and his 

Staff. 

Passages one way. 
Travelling expenses and allowances in the United Kingdom. 

The Dominion to be liable for 
Passages one way. 
Travelling expenses and allowances in the Dominion. 

438 



APPENDIX 

In the case of a Dominion, such as South Africa, where troops under 
the control of the Home Government are stationed, it would save time 
and money if any desired inspection of the Dominion forces could be 
carried out when the Inspector-General was visiting the" Dominion 
for the purpose of inspecting the regular troops ; the liability of the 
Dominion Government being then limited to any extra expenses due to 
the inspection of their own forces. 

5. By the ist November in each year the Inspector-General of the 
Oversea Forces submits, for the approval -of the Army Council, a pro- 
gramme of his inspections during the following year, beginning on the 
ist April. In the event of the Government of a self-governing Dom- 
inion desiring its forces to be inspected, it will be convenient that 
application should be made to the Army Council not later than the 
ist August in the year preceding that in which it is desired the inspection 
should take place. 

CONCLUSION 

The Committee recommend the acceptance of the terms proposed. 

(F.) THE EDUCATION OF OFFICERS AT THE STAFF COLLEGES 

The following Memorandum by the General Staff was laid before the 
Committee : 

There is one important matter connected with the education of 
officers which, in the opinion of the Army Council, should be discussed 
in detail with the representatives, and that is the question of the 
entrance of officers belonging to the forces of the Oversea Dominions 
to the Staff Colleges at Camberley and Quetta. 

In the first place it is essential that officers selected for a course at 
one of the Staff Colleges should possess sufficient military knowledge 
and general education to enable them to profit fully by the instruction 
given there. This is ensured, as regards officers of the Regular Army, 
by requiring them to prepare, by a course of previous study,- for the 
work they would have to do at the Staff College, and to give proof that 
they have done so by qualifying at the entrance examination. Canada 
and Australia now require their officers to prepare themselves for and 
qualify at the entrance examination for admission-, and it is desired to 
submit for the consideration of the representatives of the other Oversea 
Dominions that, in their own interests, equal demands should be made 
on their officers. 

In regard to this question it is necessary to remember that it is 
intended that the p.s.c. certificate shall be regarded as a qualification 
for employment on the Imperial General Staff, so far as professional 
requirements are concerned, and it is essential that no officer should be 
appointed to the Imperial General Staff whose attainments have not 
been proved to come up to the required standard. For this reason, if 

439 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

officers of the forces of the Oversea Dominions are to be admitted to a 
Staff College without having proved their fitness to profit by the course 
of instruction there, it would be necessary to consider the introduction 
of an examination for them before they left the college, upon the result 
of which their inclusion in the list of Staff College graduates would 
depend, provided that the report of the Military Board was satisfactory. 

The full course at the Staff College is of two years' duration, and, in 
the interests of the forces of the Oversea Dominions and of the proper 
training of candidates for the Imperial General Staff, it is not advisable, 
as a general rule, that any period of instruction less than two years 
should be recognised as qualifying an officer for the p.s.c. certificate. 

Although a very limited number of officers of the Regular Army 
below the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, who are considered specially 
qualified by approved service on the Staff in the field, are permitted to 
undergo a one-year course at a Staff College, it must be remembered that 
such officers have had the advantage of at least from fifteen to twenty 
years' experience with troops, in addition to having given proof of 
having reached a high standard of military knowledge and aptitude. 
The officers of the forces of the various Oversea Dominions, who have 
not had equal opportunities of gaining experience in the profession of 
arms, cannot be expected to have reached the same standard of military 
knowledge ; and, in the interests of the Imperial General Staff and of 
the forces of Dominions themselves, it is not considered that any curtail- 
ment of the full course of instruction should be permitted in their case. 

As accommodation at the College is limited, it is necessary that 
applications for admission should, in future, be despatched in time to 
reach the War Office by the 3ist May annually for admission in the 
following January. This would give time to consider the possibility of 
making the necessary arrangements. 

CONCLUSION 

The Committee agree to the general conditions, stated in this paper, 
as to the qualifications necessary for admission of officers belonging to 
the Forces of the Oversea Dominions to the Staff Colleges at Camberley 
and Quetta ; and as to the general rule that no period of instruction less 
than two years should be recognised as qualifying an officer for the p.s.c. 
certificate. 

The Committee recommend that the accommodation and staff at 
Camberley should be increased sufficiently to enable not less than 
twelve or thirteen officers of the Forces of the Dominions to be admitted 
annually ; and that the Dominions should contribute towards the cost 
of this increased accommodation and any necessary increase in in- 
structional and administrative staff ; such contribution to take the 
form of an annual payment per capita for each student at a rate to be 
agreed on, which it is understood would be, approximately, 200. 
440 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX (A) 

ABLE SHOWING OFFICERS OF THE REGULAR FORCES WHO WERE EMPLOYED 

IN THE OVERSEA DOMINIONS IN JANUARY 1909, OR WHO HAVE BEEN 
EMPLOYED THERE SINCE THAT DATE ; AND OFFICERS OF THE FORCES 
OF THE OVERSEA DOMINIONS EMPLOYED WITH OR ATTACHED TO THE 
REGULAR FORCES DURING THE SAME PERIOD 



Rank and Name. 


Corps. 


Appointment. 


From 


To 


Remarks. 






CANADA. 












LOANS. 








Capt. E. N. Mozley . . 


R.E. . . . 


Prof. R.M.C., Canada . . 


25.8.04 


25.8.09 




Maj.-Gen. Sir P. H. N. 




C.G.S. Canada, Insp.-Gen. 


1.11.04 


II. II. 10 


Maj.-Gen. Gen. 


Lake, K.C.M.G., C.B., 




and Ch. Mil. Adviser 






Staff. 


p.s.c. 












Capt. H. R. V. de Bury . 


R.A. . 


Prof. R.M.C., Canada . . 


23.8.05 


22.8.10 




Capt. C. Russell-Brown . 


R.E. . . . 





28.9.05 


3I.7.IO 




Lt.-Col. W. G. Gwatkin, 




Dir. Opr. and Staff Duties, 


15.10.05 


20.10.09 


Gen. Staff, 2nd 


p.s.c. 




Canada 






Grade. 


Lt.-Col. E. T. Taylor, 




Comdt. R.M.C., Canada 


12.10.05 


II.I0.09 


Gen. Staff, 2nd 


p.s.c. 










Grade. 


Major J. B. Pym . 
Major G. R. Poole . . 


R.M. . 
R.M.A. . . 


Insp. Small Arms, Canada 
Employed with Forces, 


22.2.06 
29.3.06 


22.5.10 

Date 








Canada 








Lt.-Col. C. E. English . 


R.A. . . . 


Ditto, and C.S.O. Quebec, 


1.4.06 











Cmd. 








Capt. E. H. Robinson 


A.O.D. . . 


Insp. Ord. Machinery . 


1.4.06 


(?) 09 




Lieut. E. F. S. Dawson . 


R.E. . . . 


Instr. R.M.C., Canada 


12.4.06 


Date 




Capt. M. St. L. Simon . 


R.E. . . . 


Instr. in Electric Lighting, 


17.5-06 


16.5.10 








Canada 








Lieut. W. K. P. Blair . 


R.A. . . . 


Instr. R.M.C., Canada . . 


20.9.06 


Date 




Capt. W. L. de M. Carey 


R.E. . . . 


Employed with Forces, 


10.5.07 


10.11.09 








Canada 








Lieut. A. D. MacDonald . 


R.A. . 




20.2.07 


20.3.11 




Lt.-Col. R. K Scott . 


A.O.D. . . 




20.5.07 


19.5.10 




Lieut. L. G. Matterson . 


R.A. . . . 




27.9-07 


26.9.09 




Capt. T. P. C. Smith . . 


R.W.K. Regt. 




18.10.07 


Date 




Capt. H. B. H. Johnston 


R.A. . . . 




8.4.08 


8.5.09 




Lieut. G. L. Peterson 


A.S.C. . . . 




18.7.08 


Date 




Capt. A. B. Carey 
Capt. J. P. Shine . . 
Capt. H. A. Kaulbach . 


R.E. . . . 
R.M. . . . 
R. Lane. Regt. 


Prof. R.M.C., Canada, . . 
Staff Adj. R.M.C., Canada 


22.8.08 
17.9-08 
17.9.08 







Lieut. W. G. Tyrrell . . 


R.E. . 


Employed with Forces, 


17.9-08 











Canada 








Capt. H. L. Bingay . . 
Capt. H. Kemmis-Betty . 


R.E. . . . 
R. Can. Regt. 


Gen. "staff, 3rd " Grade, 


9.10.08 
10.1.09 


30.11.10 


(War Office.) 






England 








Major C. Phillipps . . 


R.A. . . . 


Instr. R. School Arty., 


28.5.09 


Date 








Canada 








Capt. W. J. P. Rodd . . 
i Lt.-Col. J. H. V. Crowe, 


A.O.D. . . 
R.A. . . . 


Insp. Ord. Machinery . 
Comdt. R.M.C., Canada . 


20.8.09 
23-9-09 


H 
n 


General Staff, 


p.s.c. 










ist Grade. 


Capt. R. C. Hammond . 


R.E. . . . 


Prof. R.M.C., Canada . . 


1.10.09 


,, 




Major G. Paley, p.s.c. 


Rifle Brigade 


Dir. Opns. and Staff Duties, 


21.10.09 




General Staff, 






Canada 






2nd Grade. 


Capt. W. Robertson, p.s.c. 


R.E. . . . 


Prof. R.M.C., Canada . . 


1.4.10 


M 


General Staff, 












2nd Grade. 


Major T. W. Wood, p.s.c. 


R.A. . . . 





2.4.10 





General Staff, 












2nd Grade. 


Capt. W. E. Kemble . . 


R.A. . . . 


Employed with Forces, 


15-4-10 


H 








Canada 






x- 



441 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



[J 



Rank and Name. 


Corps. 


Appointment. 


From 


To 


Remarks. 






CANADA (continued) . 












LOANS (continued) . 








Capt. A. P. Birchall 


R. Fus. . . 


Employed with Forces, 


15.4-10 


Date 








Canada 








Capt. F. S. Montague- 


E.S. Regt. . 


M )> 


15-4-10 


,, 




Bates 












Capt. J. B. Walker . . 


R.A. . . . 


M 


15.4-10 


M 




Capt. R. S. Bunbury . 


R.A. . . . 


91 99 


15.4-10 


H 




Capt. A. J. Wolff . . . 


R.E. . . . 


Prof. R.M.C., Canada . . 


28.7.10 


H 




Capt. F. R. Sedgwick 


R.A. . . . 





ii. 8. 10 


n 




Maj.-Gen. C. J. Mac- 




C.G.S. and ist Mil. Memb. 


20.10.10 


M 


Maj.-Gen. Gen. 


kenzie, C.B., p.s.c. 




of Militia Council 






Staff. 


Maj. H. M. Elliot . . . 


R.A. . . . 


Ch. Instr. R. School, Arty., 


17.3.11 


M 








Canada 












INTERCHANGES. 








Lt.-Col. O. B. S. F. Shore, 


Indian Army 


To Canada 


1.1.08 


3-3-09 


Replaced by 


D.S.O., p.s.c. 










Capt. Hay. 


Lieut. W. H. P. Elkins 


R. Can. Arty 


To India 


J A 08 


TOOQ 




Capt. C. J. B. Hay, p.s.c. 


Indian Army 


To Canada 


^..^..uu 
4 3 OQ 


xyuy 
IQII 




Capt. A. F. C. Williams, 






yjj <v 5 

6.8.10 


o.y x A. 

Date 




D.S.O., p.s.c. 












Capt. E. K. Eaton 


R. Can. Regt. 


To India 


T Q TO 


Date 








AUSTRALIA. 


x.y. AW 










LOANS. 








Maj.-Gen. G. M. Kirk- 


. . 


Inspr.-Gen. Mil. Forces, 


8.5.10 


Date 




patrick, p.s.c. 




Australia 








Lt.-Col. C. W. Gwynn, 


R.E. . . . 


Dir. Mil. Art. (Mil. Coll.), 


20. i. ii 


Date 


General Staff, 


C.M.G., D.S.O., p.s.c. 




Australia 






2nd Grade. 


Lt.-Col. E. G. Sinclair- 


Yorks. Regt. . 


Dir. of Drills, Musk., etc. 


20. i. ii 


Date 




Maclagan 




(Mil. Coll.), Australia 








Capt. R. L. Waller . . 


R.E. . . . 


Instr. Mil. Col., Australia . 


20. i. ii 


Date 








ATTACHMENTS. 








Major L. E. Tilney . 


Aus. Infy. 


For instruction in India 


5.9-08 


1909 




M. T. Kirby . . 


Aus. F. Arty. 





1.9.08 


1909 




F. H. Russel . . 


} 




5-9-08 


1909 




Capt. E. A. D. Brockman 


Aus. Infy. 


For instruction in India 


7.9-08 


1909 




Major W. A. Coxen . 


R. Aus. Arty 


For instruction in England 


1.1.08 


1910 




Capt. H. A. F. Wilkinson 


Aus. Infy. 


For instruction in India 


18.10.09 


1910 




M. H. Cruikshank . 







12.10.09 


1910 




C. W. H. Coulter . 


> >i 




27.9-10 






J. H. Bisdee, V.C. . 


Aus. L. H. 




27.9-10 






Lieut. R. A. N. Plant . 


t> 




27.9-10 






E. F. D. Fethers . 


Vic. Sco. Regt 




27.9-10 






Major R. St. J. Pearce . 


Aus. F. Arty. 




9.10.09 


1910 




Col. J. F. Flewell-Smith, 


Queensland In. 




17.10.09 


1910 




V.D. 


Brigade 










Capt. E. C. Oldham . . 
Col. W. T. Bridges, C.M.G. 


Aus. Infy. 
R. Aus. Arty. . 


Commonwealth Rep of Im 


14.10.09 
20.8.09 


1910 
25.5-10 








G. S. in England 












INTERCHANGES. 








Capt. H. G. Reid . . . 


A.S.C. . . . 


Employed with Forces, 


22.6.08 


15.6.09 








Australia 








Lieut. H. D. K. Macartney 


R. Aus. A. . 


Attached for instruction, 


21.7.08 




To Staff College 






England 






22. 1. 10. 


Capt. F. A. Wilson, D.S.O. 


R.A. . . . 


Dr. Mil. Training, Australia 


25.9.08 


Date 




Capt. C. B. B. White, p.s.c. 


R. Aus. A. 


G. S. srd Grade, War Office 


24.10.08 


|| 




Capt. H. C. McWatters . 


Indian Army 


To Australia .... 


3.9.09 






Capt. J. C. O'Brien 


Aus. Forces 


To India ... 


27.10.08 






Major J. K. Forsyth . . 






14.9.09 







442 



APPENDIX 



Rank and Name. 


Corps. 


Appointment. 


From 


To 


Remarks. 






CANADA (continued.) 












LOANS (continued). 








M ijor F. A. Maxwell, V.C., 


Indian Army 


To Australia .... 


4.3.10 


. . 




D.S.O., p.s.c. 












M ijor C. L. Gregory . 


Indian Army 


To Australia . 


I2.IO.IO 


Date 




Ci pt. C. H. Brand 


Aus. Forces 


To India 


7 q 10 






Cz pt. W. E. Manser . . 


R.E. . . . 


To Australia .... 


/.y..n_ 
I7.I.IO 


25.10.10 




M ijor J. H. Bruche . 


Aus. Forces . 


Attached for instruction in 


25.I.IO 


15.3.11 








England 












NEW ZEALAND. 












LOANS. 








Capt. E. ff. W. Lascelles . 


3rdD.G. . . 


Instrnl. Staff, N. Zealand . 


30.5.07 


14.11.10 


General Staff, 












3rd Grade. 


Lieut. C. Nelson . . . 
Major H. D. Tuson, p.s.c. 


1 5th Hussars 
Manch. Regt. 


Adj. & Q.M.G., N. Zealand* 


5.8.07 
27.7.07 


31.1-09 
26.7.10 




Major H. F. Head . . 


R.A. . . . 


Dir. Ord. and Commandt. 


3.4.08 


.4.11 








Permanent Force 








Maj.-Gen. A. J. Godley, 




Commandt. Defence Forces, 


7.IO.IO 


Date 




C.B., p.s.c. 




New Zealand 








Capt. D. C. Spencer-Smith 


R.A. . . . 


Staff Officer to Commandt. 


IQ.IO.IO 


M 








Forces, New Zealand 








Major G. N. Johnston . 


R.A. . . . 


Dir. Ord. and Commandt. 


4.5.II 


tt 








of Permanent Artillery 








Capt. H. O. Knox . . 


A.S.C. . . . 


To organise N.Z. A.S.C. . 


I3-4-II 







i Capt. A. W. MacArthur- 
Onslow 


1 6th Lancers . 


For employment with 
Forces, New Zealand 








! Capt. G. C. Hamilton 


Gren. Gds. 


,, M 


. . 






1 Capt. W. H. G. Burnett- 


Roy. Fus. 










Hitchcock 












Capt. A. Moore, D.S.C. . 
. Capt. W. G. Braithwaite, 


R. Dub. Fus. . 
R. Welsh Fus. 


For G.S. 3rd Grade in 







Under orders. 


D.S.O., p.s.c. 




Districts New Zealand . 








Capt. W. R. Pinwill, p.s.c. 


Liverpl. Regt. 


99 99 








Capt. J. K. Cochran,.s.c. 


Leinster Regt. 


II 








(One officer to be nomi- 












nated). 
















ATTACHMENTS. 








i Br.-Gen R. H. Davies, 


N.Z. Forces . 


Commanding 6th Infantry 


16.10.10 


Date 




C.B. 




Brigade, England 








, Lt.-Col. F. W. Abbott, 
D.S.O. 


N.Z. Forces . 


For instruction in England 








V Under orders. 


Capt. J. S. Sedddn . . 


M * 











J 






INTERCHANGES. 








Lt.-Col. E. S. Heard, p.s.c 

Lt.-Col. J. T. Burnett- 
Stuart, D.S.O., p.s.c. 
Lieut. S. A. Grand . . 


North. Fus. . 
Rifle Brigade 
N.Z. Forces . 


Dr. Mil. Trng. and Staff 
Duties, New Zealand 
Dr. Mil. Oper. and Intell., 
New Zealand 
Attached for instruction 


14.10.10 
14.10.10 
16.7.09 


Date 
Date 
19.1.11 


' Interchange 
specially ar- 
ranged for, 
i.e. 4 officers 
of subaltern 




| in England 






rank to be 


J. H. Whyte . . 
J. E. Barton . . 
W. L. Robinson . 
I. T. Standish . . 


99 n 
R.N.Z. Arty. ! 


>i ii 
To be 'attached for'instruc- 


>i 

H 

Under 


99 

orders 


land annually 
' for an aggre- 
gate period of 
4 years, vice 






tion in England 






a Staff officers 


W. M. McG. Turn- 


N.Z. Forces . 







19.1.11 


sent to New 


bull 










Zealand for 


,, Burn .... 


N.Z. St. Corps 


> 99 







the same 
period. 


Garland 


a 






" 





443 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Rank and Name. 


Corps. 


Appointment. 


From 


To 


Remarks. 






SOUTH AFRICA. 












LOANS. 








Hon. Capt. M. C. Rowland 


R. Dub. Fus. . 


Staff Officer Trans. Vol. . 


15.2.03 


Date 




Capt. J. C. Hanna . . 
R. W. White . . 


R.A. . . . 
R.A. . . . 


Adj. Cape Garr. Arty. . . 
Adj. Trans. Horse Arty. . 


14-1-05 
6.8.06 


Date 
Date 




C. G. Wickham, 


Norfolk Regt. 


Adj. Imp. Light Horse, 


27.7-06 


Date 




D.S.O. 




Trans. 








Capt. F. S. Irvine . . 
Lt.-Col. L. J. Shadwell, 


R.A.M.C. . . 


Adj. M.S.C. Trans. Vol. . 
Staff Officer, Volunteers, 


13.10.06 
23.2.07 


12.10.09 
Date 




P.S.C. 




Cape of Good Hope 









APPENDIX (B) 

STATEMENT SHOWING OFFICERS BELONGING TO THE FORCES OF THE 
OVERSEA DOMINIONS WHO ARE OR HAVE BEEN AT THE STAFF 
COLLEGES 

Course 1903-1904 (Camberley) 
Major D. I. V. Eaton (Canada). 

Course 1905-1906 (Camberley) 

Lieutenant-Colonel H. E. Burstall\ /r , v 

Major A. H. Macdonnell, D.S.O. J < u 
Course 1906-1907 (Camberley) 

Captain C. B. B. White (Australia). 
Course 1907-1908 (Camberley) 

Lieutenant-Colonel E. W. C. Chaytor (New Zealand). 

Major P. E. Thacker \/ rara ,i a \ 

Captain H. Kemmis-Betty/ (( 
Course 1909-1910 (Camberley) 

Major W. B. Anderson (Canada). 

Major W. E. C. Tannerl /XT , n 

Captain G. R. Richards/ (JN; 

Course 1910-1911 

At Camberley Lieutenant H. D. K. Macartney (Australia). 

At Quetta Lieutenant E. F. Harrison (Australia). 
Course 1911-1912 (Camberley) 

Lieutenant-Colonel A. Bauchop, C.M.G. (New Zealand). 

Major J. H. Elmsley (Canada). 

Captain E. H. Reynolds (Australia). 

For the next course (1912-1913), several applications for admission 
have already been received, and it is to be apprehended that the 
number of admissions may be limited by want of accommodation at 
the Colleges rather than by any dearth of qualified candidates. 
444 






APPENDIX 






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445 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



REPORT ON THE MILITARY INSTITUTIONS OF 
CANADA BY GENERAL SIR IAN HAMILTON, G.C.B., 
D.S.O., INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF THE OVERSEA FORCES. 

Canadian Ax SEA, R.M.S. ' EMPRESS OF IRELAND,' July 30, IQI3 

Parliamentary 

Papers, 46684, From the Inspector-General of the Oversea Forces, 
To the Honourable The Minister of Militia 
and Defence, Canada. 

SIR, I have the honour to enclose my report upon the Inspections I 
have carried out at the request of the Dominion Government. 

In doing so, I am quite at a loss as to how to find expression for my 
sense of obligations and kindnesses innumerable received. You, Sir, 
have devoted weeks of your time, as well as trouble simply endless, to 
the task of making my visit a success. Exclusive of ground covered in 
motor cars and on horseback, we have travelled together some 13,957 
miles, and have inspected 112 units of Cavalry, Infantry, and Artillery. 
If I fail now to help you, the fault can only be my own, especially as 
you have left me an entirely free pen, and have never, by word, act, or 
hint of any kind, endeavoured to influence this purely personal docu- 
ment. As to the Canadian forces with whom it has been my happy 
privilege to come in contact, I can only thank them with all my heart 
for the welcome they have everywhere extended to me and to my Staff, 
and for the spirit in which any suggestions of mine have invariably 
been received. 

A separate report will in due course be submitted dealing with the 
defences and fortresses of Canada. 

No proposals have been put forward regarding the organisation and 
distribution of duties at Militia Headquarters at Ottawa. The omission 
is intentional. I am anxious to complete my tour of the self-governing 
Dominions of the Empire before I attempt to discuss a subject so 
important and contentious as Headquarters organisation. Within 
twelve months I hope to be able to submit a memorandum dealing with 
this matter to all the Nations of the Empire which have done me the 
honour to ask me to inspect their military forces. I have the honour to 
be, Sir, your obedient Servant, IAN HAMILTON, General, 

Inspector-General of the Oversea Forces. 

446 



APPENDIX 



I. EXPLANATORY PREFACE 

PREVIOUS INSPECTIONS 

i. I feel as if the past three years of my life had been spent in train- 
ing myself for my visit to Canada. Continuously, during that time, I 
have been inspecting and taking stock of imperial fortresses and 
territories, reporting upon the local troops raised by the various 
Crown Colonies and Dependencies, or reviewing the efficiency of the 
military forces and seaward defences of the Union of South Africa. 

Thus it comes that my purview of Empire now embraces such 
widely varying categories as voluntary Service Cadets ; Compulsory 
Service Cadets ; Boy Scouts black, white, and yellow ; members of 
Volunteer Rifle Clubs drawn from the outlying homesteads of Rhodesia ; 
Military Reservists of Natal, organised but untrained ; paid and unpaid 
Militiamen, and Volunteers of all arms and of varying degrees of 
efficiency ; Mounted Police, in everything but name professional 
soldiers ; and, finally, the Regulars themselves. 



PURPOSE OF INSPECTION 

2. To all these military types I have made it my practice to apply 
the following tests : 

First, I endeavour (not always with success) to ascertain what 
purpose each one in its own degree is intended to serve ; 

Secondly, I consider whether, in sufficiency and efficiency, it serves 
that purpose ; 

Thirdly, I do my best to determine whether it is organised, com- 
manded, trained, and administered in such a way that full value is 
received for the money spent on it ; 

Fourthly, I decide whether the type is in harmony with a principle 
applicable to the Empire as a whole. 

I propose now to apply similar tests to the military forces of this 
Dominion, and to apply them with unflinching candour. For I make 
bold to consider the invitation of the Honourable the Minister for 
Militia and Defence as in itself constituting an assurance that he expects 
nothing less of me than the whole naked truth. He, I feel certain, will 
understand the spirit in which I propose to overhaul his defence 
machine. 

PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 

3. But others may not equally appreciate .my point of view. In 
old days, the gold-digger of the Cariboo district would not spare one 
moment from his labours to heed those who told him that desperadoes 

447 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

from across the border were waiting on the trail away back through the 
Rockies to relieve him of his pile. So too, to-day, military preoccupa- 
tions concerning problematical dangers sit lightly on men immersed in 
an absorbing daily struggle for fortune, conducted under the immunity 
from fear afforded by the imperial forces. 

To such men I would like to say at the outset that I shall try all the 
time to remember that they are extraordinarily busy people who have 
better reasons than most for believing they have no time to devote to 
practical soldiering. I shall not permit myself to forget that their 
country still lies outside the sphere of the heavily armed European 
nations, or that estimates for naval and military purposes must always, 
before getting home, run the gauntlet of a remorseless Finance Depart- 
ment, whose business it is to skin them as bare as it can. I realise, in 
short, that to aim too high is quite the surest method of wasting powder 
and shot, and so my wish throughout this report will be to be practical 
and in no case to exaggerate either actual weakness or potential dangers. 



II. THE MILITARY INSTITUTIONS OF CANADA 
WAR ORGANISATION 

4. The Canadian Army is organised for war as follows : 

Field Army 

7 Mounted Brigades. 

6 Divisions. 

3 Mixed Brigades. 

Lines of Communication Units. 

Garrison Troops 

Required for Halifax, Quebec, and Esquimalt. 

UNITS DEFICIENT 

5. The units which have yet to be formed in order to complete the 
war organisation are shown in detail in Appendix B. 

The most serious deficiencies are the following : 

48 Batteries of artillery. 
34 Ammunition columns. 

8 Field troops and companies, engineers. 

2 Infantry battalions (one in 5th, one in 6th Division), 
ii Telegraph and wireless detachments. 
15 Companies Army Service Corps. 

7 Field ambulances. 
448 



APPENDIX 



NUMBERS REQUIRED 

6. In round numbers (see Appendix C) the requirements 'of the war 
organisation are : 



Field Army . 
Garrison Troops 




Total . . 5,900 



Other Ranks. 

143,000 

IO,OOO 

153,000 



NUMBERS AVAILABLE 

7. To meet these requirements the number of officers and men (less 
5 per cent.) who were present with the colours in 1912, and received some 
sort of military training, was approximately : 

Officers. Other Ranks. 

Permanent Force .... 250 2,500 

Active Militia .... 3,550 40,500 



Total 



. 3,800 43,ooo 

If, therefore, mobilisation of the Canadian Army had been ordered 
last year, it would have been necessary to find, at short notice, some 
2100 officers and 110,000 other ranks from sources outside the Militia 
forces of the country in order to complete the field army and garrison 
troops to the war establishment duly sanctioned by Parliament. 



DEPOT CADRES 

8. The army possessing no system for its maintenance in the field is 
like an elephant that has lost its trunk. It starves amidst plenty. All 
the millions of people in the United Kingdom could not keep the cadres 
of the small Crimean Army up to strength because there was no feeding 
organisation in existence. Depot cadres are an indispensable addi- 
tional adjunct to every field army which is conducted on business 
principles. A depot establishment calculated at the rate of 50 per cent, 
of the field army is usually taken as the minimum. Two thousand 
eight hundred officers and over 70,000 other ranks should, therefore, be 
added to the deficit shown in the previous paragraph, bringing the total 
to be met on mobilisation from outside sources to 4900 officers and 
more than 180,000 other ranks. 



THE RESERVE MILITIA 

9. Under Section 10 of the Militia Act, the whole manhood of the 
nation between the ages of eighteen and sixty is ' available for service 

OVERSEAS I. 2 F 449 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

in the Militia.' The rapidly expanding population of Canada stands 
already at over seven and a half millions, of whom it may be assumed 
that about one million males are in all respects fit for active service. 
This number, less the Active Militia, forms the Reserve Militia of the 
country, for which no sort of military organisation at present exists. 
The custom of keeping up muster rolls of those liable for service which 
obtained until comparatively recently is now in abeyance. 



HORSES AND MECHANICAL TRANSPORT 

10. Approximately 29,000 riding horses and 26,000 draught and 
pack animals would be needed for the field army alone. In Canada 
there are in all some 2,400,000 horses of sorts, of which about 20 per 
cent., or rather less than half a million, are believed to be suitable for 
military purposes. Under the Militia Act the number required can be 
taken under requisition. Owing to the expense entailed, little has yet 
been done towards inspecting and registering the horses of the country. 
Nor have any steps been taken towards classifying motor cars and 
motor lorries. 



ARMS, AMMUNITION, CLOTHING, STORES, ETC. 

11. The relation between stocks on hand and stocks required on 
mobilisation is shown in Appendix D. The most serious deficiencies 
are as follows : 

284 guns and howitzers for the field army ; 60 are under order. 

Ammunition for the same. 

287 machine-guns ; 50 under order. 

97,000 rifles ; 13,500 on order. 

140 million rounds of small arm ammunition. 

150,000 suits of service dress. 

100,000 sets of web equipment. 

150,000 entrenching implements. 

A large amount of harness (of regulation pattern), as well as 

saddlery, would also be wanted for use with guns and technical 

vehicles. 

TRAINING 

12. The training of the Permanent Force is carried out continuously 
throughout the year. In the Active Militia, officers and men in city 
corps can draw pay for sixteen days annually, of which at least four days 
must be spent in camp ; twelve days' training at headquarters qualifies 
for efficiency. In rural corps the whole training of the year, including 
450 



APPENDIX 

musketry, is carried out during twelve days in camp. All artillery 
units train for sixteen days. 



EDUCATION AND INSTRUCTION 

13. Educational tests for the Permanent Force are the same as for 
the Regular Army. 

The Active Militia is instructed by the following professional 
staff : 

Officers. Other Ranks. 

Cavalry ....... 4 33 

Artillery ....... 4 16 

Engineers I 5 

Infantry 8 82 

Total 17 136 

Students are taught at schools established with detachments of the 
Permanent Force, or else at provisional schools set up from time to 
time in convenient centres. The Royal Military College at Kingston 
produces annually some forty graduates, who are commissioned to the 
Regular Army, the Permanent Force of the Active Militia. 

A staff course is held annually at Kingston for the benefit of Militia 
officers. 

Musketry is taught at the Rockcliffe School and at provincial 
schools, and signalling instruction is provided by means of provisional 
schools held throughout Canada. 

Officers Training Corps have recently been established at Canadian 
Universities, their object being the instruction of students in military 
theory and practice. 

Military Institutes at Montreal, Toronto, and Winnipeg are recognised 
by the Militia Department. Lectures are given and war games are held 
at these institutes during the winter months. 



LIABILITY FOR SERVICE 

14. ' The Governor in Council may place the Militia, or any part 
thereof, on active service anywhere in Canada, for the defence thereof, 
at any time when it appears advisable so to do by reason of emergency.' 
(Militia Act, Section 69.) 

The liability of the Canadian military forces is strictly territorial. 
Not an officer or man, either permanent or non-permanent, can, in his 
capacity as a Canadian Militiaman, volunteer for service overseas 
either in peace or in war. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



MISCELLANEOUS MILITARY INSTITUTIONS 

15. Cadets. The present cadet organisation is of recent date. 
Organisers and Inspectors of Cadet Corps were appointed to Divisions 
and Districts in May 1912, and a Director of Cadet Services to the 
Headquarter Staff, Ottawa, in December 1912. 

Summer camps were instituted in 1912. 

There are at the present time 844 cadet squadrons and companies, 
with a membership of approximately 33,700 cadets. Some 300 com- 
panies have been formed since June i, 1912. Courses for training cadet 
instructors are held periodically at the Military Schools of Instruction 
and are well attended. 

Instruction in Physical Training. The Militia Department under- 
takes the training of Physical Training Directors, both male and female, 
who in their turn instruct school teachers with a view to their obtaining 
physical training certificates. Nearly 3000 school teachers,. male and 
female, obtained certificates between July i, 1911, and June 30, 1912. 
Some portion of the cost of this physical instruction comes from trust 
funds set aside by Lord Strathcona for the purpose. 

Rifle Clubs. To entitle them to receive aid from public funds, 
civilian rifle clubs and associations must be subject to the control of the 
Militia Department. Members of these clubs do no military training. 
There are 432 civilian rifle clubs with a membership of about 25,000. 
Authorised clubs are entitled to a certain number of Government rifles 
on loan, as well as 100 rounds of ammunition annually for each 
member. 

Voluntary Aid Detachments. The organisation of Voluntary 
Medical Aid in Canada was approved by the Militia Council in 
November 1911, and instructions on the subject were issued. The 
work has been undertaken by the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, 
which has already formed fifteen ambulance divisions and three nursing 
divisions. The units produced by this Voluntary Aid system are 
hardly yet in a position 'to render effective assistance on active service. 

The Canadian Red Cross Society is willing to place its organisation 
at the disposal of the military authorities in time of war. 

Various Associations.-^The Dominion Rifle Association, the Pro- 
vincial Rifle Associations, the Canadian Rifle League, and the Canadian 
Artillery Association do much to encourage rifle shooting and gun 
practice. 

They are recognised by the Militia Department and receive from it 
small grants in aid. 
452 



APPENDIX 



NUMBER TRAINED 



16. The following figures are of interest as showing what the 
tendency has been during the past ten years. 



Year. 


Strength of Permanent 
Force (including 
Instructional Staff). 


Number of Active 
Militiamen trained. 


1903 
1904 


868 
1,079 


25,990 
35,674 


1905 
1906 


2,IOI 

2,593 


39,492 
40,800 


1907 
1908 
1909 
I9IO 


2,942 
3,120 

2,833 
2,820 


40,753 
43,042 
36,224 
43,394 


I9II 
1912 


3,021 
3,i2i 


42,452 
45,860 



The increase to the Permanent Force in 1905 and 1906 was due 
to the relief of the Imperial garrisons at Halifax and Esquimalt by 
Canadian troops. 

Of the increase of 2253 officers and men in the Permanent Force 
since 1903, 1000 are for Engineers, Army Service Corps, Army Medical 
Corps, and other administrative corps, marking the process of con- 
solidating a number of heterogeneous corps into a real Army. 

III. PURPOSES FOR WHICH THE MILITARY FORCES OF 
CANADA EXIST 

OBJECTS OF MAINTAINING AN ARMY 

17. In every State, national policy is reflected faithfully enough in 
the constitution of its military forces. Armies may be divided into 
three categories ; the army organised primarily to carry war into 
foreign territory ; the army organised purely for passive home defence ; 
and the army organised, primarily to defend its own territories, 
secondarily to stretch out a helping hand to its friends. The first 
signifies the will to expand aggression. The second signifies either 
undeveloped power immaturity, or arrested development decadence. 
The third signifies the will to maintain Empire. 

HOME DEFENCE THE FIRST DUTY OF THE CANADIAN FORCES 

18. The primary duty of every self-governing portion of Greater 
Britain is to make all reasonable provision, up to the limit of its resources, 
for defence against invasion of its own territories. If it fails and relies 
rather upon its brethren Overseas than upon its own right arm, it is 

453 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

unworthy of its independence. A self-governing State cannot afford, 
whilst retaining its self-respect, to count upon the services of expedi- 
tionary troops drawn from other portions of the Empire, until it has 
taken such measures for home defence as would be considered reasonable 
did it stand alone in the world. In short, naval considerations apart, a 
sound system of imperial defence must rest, in its widest aspects, on the 
ability of each self-governing Dominion to offer a vigorous resistance to 
any attempts made against the integrity of its own home territories. 

IMPERIAL DEFENCE CANNOT BE NEGLECTED 

19. But, as the whole is greater than its part, so the Empire is 
morally and materially greater than any component thereof. The 
very existence of that vast organism, Greater Britain, depends on its 
sea power coupled with the ubiquity of its land forces. Unless, there- 
fore, the true relation of local defence to imperial defence can be made 
clear to the citizens of the whole Empire, errors in military policy are 
bound to arise and disaster will follow ; the knot binding the bundle of 
fagots will be unloosened, and those who, united, could have stood 
against a world in arms will succumb, when divided, to forces despicable 
if only they are fairly reckoned up and faced. 

I take it as an axiom then that every State in the Empire is bound in 
honour, after looking to its own immediate safety, to consider how it 
may best take its share in the general burden of responsibility. Just as 
the presence of a stamp makes all the difference in a promise to meet a 
monetary obligation, so a mere handful of men pledged to defend 
Greater Britain wherever it may be attacked, transforms Empire from 
a pompous and perhaps misleading term into a serious and formidable 
fact. 

FAR-SIGHTED POLICY NECESSARY WHERE MILITARY PREPARATIONS 

ARE CONCERNED 

20. Turning now to Canada and to what has just been described as 
a primary duty do her existing military forces and defences in them- 
selves constitute a reasonably sufficient safeguard against dangers 
which may confront her in the pursuit of her State policy ? The power 
of potential adversaries can only be weighed and discussed in secret. In 
my present capacity all I feel myself called upon to do is to indicate the 
military value of the existing Dominion forces. Also to say frankly 
where I think improvements might be introduced in case the conscience 
of the Canadian people should now, or at any future time, warn them 
that they are taking a less broad, far-sighted and generous view of their 
military obligations than their descendants might some day wish them 
to have entertained. For neither the organisation nor the qualities 
requisite for a sound system of national defence can be improvised in 
454 






APPENDIX 



the throes of an emergency. Therefore, it can never be safe for a State 
to regard its military forces from the standpoint of present day require- 
ments alone. Those forces must grow with the nation's growth and 
become a very part of its being. 

THE CALL OF THE FUTURE 

21 . However secure Canada may feel herself for the fleeting moment, 
even she, happily situated as she may seem to be, will hardly care to 
stake her existence on the assumption that dangers, now vague and 
remote in their seeming, will never unexpectedly leap on to the forefront 
of the platform of her national life. Immense forces, some of them 
mortal enemies to all our most cherished conceptions of life, are now 
stirring in Europe, Asia, and in the New World itself. Unless, in our 
vast Empire, insurance keeps some sort of business relation to income, 
our descendants may have to make bitter application of the lines : 

' A thousand years scarce serve to form a State, 
An hour may lay it in the dust.' 

Memories of surpassing glory lie behind the great Dominion. From 
such memories will assuredly spring more noble ambitions than can be 
satisfied by wringing the uttermost out of the present. To the ears of 
any Canadian who pauses for a moment to listen, comes the call of the 
future telling him to build his foundations very broad and deep, so that 
hereafter the palaces of his children's children may rise thereon in 
security and splendour. 

OFFENSIVE ACTION THE EMPIRE'S TRUE POLICY 

22. Except in rare moments of weakness, misrule and depression, 
the Mother Country has always placed offensive oversea action far 
above local defence. Always, with rare exceptions, she has played a 
bold game and organised to attack any one who meddled with her 
children. Now that the children have come of age, it is their turn to 
understand that local defence is but a part of the imperial problem 
which faces our five confederated Nations, and that such preparations 
are merely an act of insurance against failure on the part of the naval 
and military forces of the Empire to co-operate for offensive action 
whenever and wherever in the world they may be required. An un- 
biased observer 1 has indeed ventured the opinion that ' In an Empire 
so constituted as that of the British, an army of home defence becomes 
an army of imperial destruction.' ' British military preparation,' he 
goes on to say, ' and the organisation of every unit constituting its 
military force, whether in the United Kingdom, Australia, 2 Canada, 
South Africa, or its colonies, must be subject to and governed by those 

1 The Day of the Saxon, by Homer Lea, published in 1912. 

2 Should have read * Australasia,' or else New Zealand should have been included. 

455 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

principles that determine the character of an expeditionary force/ 
Without going so far as our American critic, it may at least be claimed 
that, whereas, for most portions of the Empire, our supreme navy may 
still make invasion seem a very far away contingency, yet the call for 
co-operation Overseas is, humanly speaking, certain to arise before 
many more years pass over our heads. 

THE LESSON OF SOUTH AFRICA 

23. Experience in Egypt in 1885, and again in South Africa, 1899- 
1902, has demonstrated to the world that, given the necessity, every 
portion of the Empire is anxious, in war, to take its share in supporting 
the imperial burden. So far, however, that experience has failed to 
bear the practical fruit of organisation by Dominion Governments in 
peace to carry out effectively what they have every reason to be certain 
will be the will of their people in war. South Africa proved up to the 
hilt the extravagance and weakness of improvised methods. It proved 
the necessity of an imperial instrument for war, of which the parts, 
gathered from all quarters of the globe, would readily fit together arid 
work without friction from the start. It proved that the conception of 
a homogeneous united army of Greater Britain is unattainable except 
at the cost of infinite thought and perseverance in preparation. 

CANADA'S PROBLEMS 

24. I have deemed it necessary to state thus briefly certain ele- 
mentary principles of imperial defence as, till these are thoroughly 
grasped not only by the statesmen but by the people of the Five 
Nations, evolution of military policy on sound lines is impossible. 

The organisation of the Canadian Army and its preparation and 
training for war should be governed wholly by the purpose, or purposes, 
it is intended to serve in war. This is a truism perhaps, but it is a 
truism that ought to be shouted down the corridors of War Offices on 
the days when army estimates are being prepared for the edification of 
Parliaments. Home defence comes first, and the chief military problem 
for which Canada has to find a solution is how to organise her manhood 
so as to give herself a reasonable security against invasion. That done, 
may she be inspired to think of the thousands from Overseas who would 
fight, on land and sea, in her behalf were she attacked to-morrow, and 
prepare herself, according to her means, to do as much for them in 
return. 

IV. THE NATION ORGANISED FOR WAR 

THE RESERVE MILITIA 

25. Certain elements of Canadian defence are as yet embryonic. I 
begin with the Reserve Militia, and I am bound to point out that, so 
456 




APPENDIX 

long as Clause 10 of the Militia Act remains a dead letter, the real 
National Army of Canada is, not only practically but, what is worse, 
morally, in a state of suspended animation. Under the existing law 
all male citizens between eighteen and sixty actually some 1,000,000 
effectives are supposed to be available by enrolment and ballot for 
the defence of the country. When the war organisation now con- 
templated is complete, machinery will exist for absorbing just 160,000 
out of the million aforesaid. But there are no reserve cadres, nor is 
there machinery for replacing the ugly gaps war will very quickly make 
in the ranks. 1 Under the law, as I have said, the whole manhood of the 
Dominion is theoretically available to fill cadres which may lose 70 per 
cent, of their effectives during the first year's campaigning. But the 
very generosity of the proviso causes it, coupled as it is with complete 
vagueness as to ways and means, to become practically nugatory. 

APPLICATION OF THE EXISTING LAW 

26. Mere levee en masse clauses, such as this or the corresponding 
ballot clauses of the British Militia Act, are curses in disguise. They 
can be served out as soothing syrup for reformers, and that is positively 
the only use either Act is put to now. I doubt if one in a hundred of the 
young men in the West are even aware of their liabilities under the Act. 
But, under a democracy, a latent law which has not for the past genera- 
tion run the gauntlet of public opinion, is no law. It carries no moral 
obligation home to the conscience of the individual. It cannot be 
sprung upon him at the last moment. If Clause 10 were applicable to 
one-half of the manhood of Canada instead of to the whole of it, and 
were that half duly entered on muster rolls and warned of their lia- 
bilities, there would be bite as well as bark in the proviso. Then, at 
least, a seriously meant enactment would serve as a deterrent to